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Global health diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432172/why-tuberculosis-control-programmes-fail-role-of-microlevel-and-macrolevel-factors-an-analysis-from-india
#1
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
India accounts for one-fourth of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. The National TB Program was started in 1962. Over a period of time, some lacunae such as poor case detection rate and incomplete treatment were observed. Later, the government formulated the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), which achieved a case detection rate of 70% and a cure rate of 85%. Still, the problem of relapse and defaulter cases persists. In 2014, 6% defaulter cases were reported from India. RNTCP has also focused on microlevel aspects, that is, newer diagnostics such as GenXpert, line probe assay and medicines such as bedaquiline for drug-resistant TB...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428185/investments-in-cancer-research-awarded-to-uk-institutions-and-the-global-burden-of-cancer-2000-2013-a-systematic-analysis
#2
Mahiben Maruthappu, Michael G Head, Charlie D Zhou, Barnabas J Gilbert, Majd A El-Harasis, Rosalind Raine, Joseph R Fitchett, Rifat Atun
OBJECTIVES: To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DESIGN: Systematic analysis of all open-access data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424035/coexistence-of-tuberculosis-and-malignancy-a-mere-coincidence-or-a-causal-association
#3
Mukta Pujani, Zeeba S Jairajpuri, Sabina Khan, Mohd Jaseem Hassan, Sujata Jetley, Safia Rana
Tuberculosis (TB) and malignancy are among the most important current global health problems. Many authors suggest that their coexistence is a chance association owing to their high prevalence. There is, however, enough evidence that one condition may predispose the other. In our retrospective report of two cases, TB in draining lymph nodes was discovered incidentally on histopathology, following surgical resection for malignancy. The possibility of coexistent lesions, especially in regions endemic for TB, mandate a detailed histopathological examination to prevent the chances of diagnostic failure and thus therapeutic error...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419559/impact-of-the-global-burden-of-periodontal-diseases-on-health-nutrition-and-wellbeing-of-mankind-a-call-for-global-action
#4
Maurizio S Tonetti, Søren Jepsen, Lijian Jin, Joan Otomo-Corgel
BACKGROUND: The global burden of periodontal diseases remains high. Population growth trends, changes in risk factors and improved tooth retention will increase the socio-economic burden of periodontitis that is responsible for 3,5 million years lived with disability, 54 billion USD/year in lost productivity and a major portion of the 442 billion USD/year cost for oral diseases. METHODS: In the context of the Milan World Exhibition 2015 "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life", a green paper was developed and offered for global consultation by the European Federation of Periodontology...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418742/taiwan-s-public-health-national-laboratory-system-success-in-influenza-diagnosis-and-surveillance
#5
Ji-Rong Yang, Hwa-Jen Teng, Ming-Tsan Liu, Shu-Ying Li
Taiwan's National Laboratory System is one of the action packages of the Global Health Security Agenda, which was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) to promote health security as an international priority and to encourage progress toward full implementation of the WHO International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005. The mission of each national laboratory system is to conduct real-time biosurveillance and effective laboratory-based diagnostics, as measured by a nationwide laboratory system able to reliably conduct diagnoses on specimens transported properly to designated laboratories from at least 80% of the regions in the country...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418265/global-health-resource-utilization-associated-with-pacemaker-complications
#6
Catherine Waweru, Anna Steenrod, Claudia Wolff, Simon Eggington, David Jay Wright, Kathleen W Wyrwich
AIM: To estimate health resource utilization (HRU) associated with the management of pacemaker complications in various healthcare systems. METHODS: Electrophysiologists (EPs) from four geographical regions (Western Europe, Australia, Japan, and North America) were invited to participate. Survey questions focused on HRU in the management of three chronic pacemaker complications (i.e., pacemaker infections requiring extraction, lead fractures/insulation breaches requiring replacement, and upper extremity deep venous thrombosis [DVT])...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415884/alcohol-quantification-recent-insights-into-amperometric-enzyme-biosensors
#7
Vinita Hooda, Vikas Kumar, Anjum Gahlaut, Vikas Hooda
Biosensors are the switching channels that make sense. The biosensors have found an empirical role in health applications (e.g. clinical diagnostics) as they represent the technological counterpart of living senses. On a global scale, alcohol analysis is indispensable for criminal justice systems, monitoring medical conditions of HIV patients & pregnant women as well as public safety issues regarding pilots, metro drivers, doctors etc. For addressing the clinical and toxicological problems, much advancement in the improvement of biosensors have been witnessed in recent decades...
April 17, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411223/modified-bacteriophage-s16-long-tail-fiber-proteins-for-rapid-and-specific-immobilization-and-detection-of-salmonella-cells
#8
Jenna M Denyes, Matthew Dunne, Stanislava Steiner, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Agnes Weiss, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Klumpp, Martin J Loessner
Bacteriophage-based assays and biosensors rival traditional antibody-based immunoassays for detection of low-level Salmonella contaminations. In this study, we harnessed the binding specificity of the long tail fiber (LTF) from bacteriophage S16 as an affinity molecule for immobilization, enrichment, and detection of Salmonella We demonstrate that paramagnetic beads (MBs) coated with recombinant gp37-gp38 LTF complexes (LTF-MBs) are highly effective tools for rapid affinity magnetic separation and enrichment of Salmonella Within 45 minutes, the LTF-MBs consistently captured over 95% of Salmonella Typhimurium cells from suspensions containing 10-10(5) CFU...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#9
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#10
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393756/norovirus-epidemiology-in-south-african-children-5-years-hospitalised-for-diarrhoeal-illness-between-2009-and-2013
#11
N A Page, M J Groome, S Nadan, R Netshikweta, K H Keddy, B Poonsamy, J Moyes, S Walaza, K Kahn, S A Madhi, M B Taylor, J Mans, C Cohen
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays...
April 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392738/the-role-of-laboratory-testing-in-detection-and-classification-of-chronic-kidney-disease-national-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
Vanja Radišić Biljak, Lorena Honović, Jasminka Matica, Branka Krešić, Sanela Šimić Vojak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical condition with significant adverse consequences for the patient and it is recognized as a significant public health problem. The role of laboratory medicine in diagnosis and management of CKD is of great importance: the diagnosis and staging are based on estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and assessment of albuminuria (or proteinuria). Therefore, the joint working group of the Croatian society of medical biochemistry and laboratory medicine and Croatian chamber of medical biochemists for laboratory diagnostics in CKD issued this national recommendation regarding laboratory diagnostics of CKD...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392732/external-quality-assessment-in-resource-limited-countries
#13
Jane Y Carter
INTRODUCTION: Health laboratory services are a critical component of national health systems but face major operational challenges in resource-limited (RL) settings. New funding for health systems strengthening in RL countries has increased the demand for diagnostics and provided opportunities to address these constraints. An approach to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in sub-Saharan African countries is the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386613/magnetically-enabled-biomarker-extraction-and-delivery-system-towards-integrated-assured-diagnostic-tools
#14
Westley S Bauer, Danielle W Kimmel, Nicholas M Adams, Lauren E Gibson, Thomas F Scherr, Kelly A Richardson, Joseph A Conrad, Hellen K Matakala, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria poses a great challenge to global disease elimination efforts. Healthcare infrastructure in rural settings cannot support existing state-of-the-art tools necessary to diagnose asymptomatic malaria infections. Instead, lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) are widely used as a diagnostic tool in malaria endemic areas. While LFAs are simple and easy to use, they are unable to detect low levels of parasite infection. We have developed a field deployable Magnetically-enabled Biomarker Extraction And Delivery System (mBEADS) that significantly improves limits of detection for several commercially available LFAs...
April 7, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385165/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#15
K C Koenen, A Ratanatharathorn, L Ng, K A McLaughlin, E J Bromet, D J Stein, E G Karam, A Meron Ruscio, C Benjet, K Scott, L Atwoli, M Petukhova, C C W Lim, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, B Bunting, M Ciutan, G de Girolamo, L Degenhardt, O Gureje, J M Haro, Y Huang, N Kawakami, S Lee, F Navarro-Mateu, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, N Sampson, M Ten Have, Y Torres, M C Viana, D Williams, M Xavier, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD...
April 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379882/silexan-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-investigation-of-the-therapeutic-dosage-range-in-a-pooled-data-set
#16
Siegfried Kasper, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Hans-Peter Volz, Sandra Schläfke, Angelika Dienel
Silexan, a special active substance produced from Lavandula angustifolia, is efficacious in subsyndromal anxiety at a dose of 80 mg/day, but its effective dosage in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has yet to be defined. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, daily doses of 10, 40, 80, and 160 mg silexan were administered for 10 weeks. A total of 925 adults with GAD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria and a Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score of at least 18 points were analyzed for efficacy...
April 4, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377311/new-approaches-for-antifungal-susceptibility-testing
#17
REVIEW
M Sanguinetti, B Posteraro
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases, including those caused by (multi)drug-resistant Candida and Aspergillus species, still represent global public health concerns. Information about the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of fungal isolates must be quickly produced to help clinicians in administrating appropriate antifungal therapies. Unfortunately, reference AFST methods, albeit accurate, are labour-intensive and take several hours before patients' results can be available to the treating clinicians...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373153/public-acceptability-of-e-mental-health-treatment-services-for-psychological-problems-a-scoping-review
#18
Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen, Jessica Kemper, Carolina Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the deficient provision of evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems has become a global challenge across health care systems. In view of the ongoing diffusion of new media and mobile technologies into everyday life, Web-delivered electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services have been suggested to expand the access to professional help. However, the large-scale dissemination and adoption of innovative e-mental health services is progressing slowly...
April 3, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372963/2016-rad-aid-conference-on-international%C3%A2-radiology-for-developing-countries-gaps-growth-and-united-nations-sustainable-development-goals
#19
Daniel J Mollura, Garshasb Soroosh, Melissa P Culp
The 2016 RAD-AID Conference analyzed the accelerated global activity in the radiology community that is transforming medical imaging into an effective spearhead of health care capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Global health efforts historically emphasized disaster response, crisis zones, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, the projected doubling of cancer and cardiovascular deaths in developing countries in the next 15 years and the need for higher technology screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource regions, as articulated by the United Nations' new Sustainable Development Goals of 2016, is heightening the role of radiology in global health...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372723/review-microbial-analysis-in-dielectrophoretic-microfluidic-systems
#20
REVIEW
Renny E Fernandez, Ali Rohani, Vahid Farmehini, Nathan S Swami
Infections caused by various known and emerging pathogenic microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant strains, are a major threat to global health and well-being. This highlights the urgent need for detection systems for microbial identification, quantification and characterization towards assessing infections, prescribing therapies and understanding the dynamic cellular modifications. Current state-of-the-art microbial detection systems exhibit a trade-off between sensitivity and assay time, which could be alleviated by selective and label-free microbial capture onto the sensor surface from dilute samples...
May 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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