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Global health diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637430/malaria-control-by-commodities-without-practical-malariology
#1
J Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636575/the-temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-affective-disorder-with-and-without-suicide-attempt
#2
Anamarija Petek Erić, Ivan Erić, Mario Ćurković, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Kristina Kralik, Vlatka Kovač, Pavo Filaković
BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#3
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631983/-worse-than-hiv-the-logics-of-cancer-screening-avoidance-in-swaziland
#4
Nomthandazo Malambo, Susan Erikson
This article shows the consequences of competing global health agendas within differential clinical and social worlds. Specifically, it examines how HIV's prominence in local clinical programming in Swaziland influences cervical cancer screening rates. Drawing on 2014 ethnographic research conducted in a semi-urban town in Swaziland, the interview and participant observation data show the relative scarcity of cervical cancer care and the consequences of HIV/AIDS funding and programming dominance. 20 women and 7 health workers were interviewed in homes, clinics and small businesses...
June 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631236/use-of-ctx-i-and-pinp-as-bone-turnover-markers-national-bone-health-alliance-recommendations-to-standardize-sample-handling-and-patient-preparation-to-reduce-pre-analytical-variability
#5
P Szulc, K Naylor, N R Hoyle, R Eastell, E T Leary
N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen are the reference standards for bone turnover markers for monitoring osteoporosis treatment. We provide recommendations for standardized sample handling and encompassing aspects of preanalytical variability to improve the reproductibility of their measurements, their reliability, and clinical interpretation. The International Osteoporosis Foundation and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry bone turnover marker standards working group have identified N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) in the blood to be the international reference standards for bone turnover markers for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment...
June 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630874/mental-and-reproductive-health-correlates-of-academic-performance-among-debre-berhan-university-female-students-ethiopia-the-case-of-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder
#6
Sisay Mulugeta Alemu, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere Haile
BACKGROUND: Globally 3 to 8% of reproductive age women are suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Several mental and reproductive health-related factors cause low academic achievement during university education. However, limited data exist in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to investigate mental and reproductive health correlates of academic performance. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 667 Debre Berhan University female students from April to June 2015...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630744/maternal-predictors-of-neonatal-outcomes-after-emergency-cesarean-section-a-retrospective-study-in-three-rural-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#7
Naome Nyirahabimana, Christine Minani Ufashingabire, Yihan Lin, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Robert Riviello, Jackline Odhiambo, Joel Mubiligi, Martin Macharia, Stephen Rulisa, Illuminee Uwicyeza, Patient Ngamije, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Theoneste Nkurunziza
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality post-cesarean delivery is higher than the global average. In this region, most emergency cesarean sections are performed at district hospitals. This study assesses maternal predictors for poor neonatal outcomes post-emergency cesarean delivery in three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. METHODS: This retrospective study includes a random sample of 441 neonates from Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals, born between 01 January and 31 December 2015...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628669/the-global-fund-in-china-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-nationwide-programmatic-scale-up-and-challenges-to-transition-to-full-country-ownership
#8
Lixia Wang, Renzhong Li, Caihong Xu, Hui Zhang, Yunzhou Ruan, Mingting Chen, Dongmei Wang, Emilio Dirlikov, Xin Du, Jin Zhao, Yanlin Zhao, ShengFen Wang, Yuhong Liu, Liang Li, Dennis Falzon, Yanni Sun, Yu Wang, Bernhard Schwartländer, Fabio Scano
China has the world's second largest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), with an estimated 57,000 cases (range, 48,000-67,000) among notified pulmonary TB patients in 2015. During October 1, 2006-June 30, 2014, China expanded MDR-TB care through a partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund). We analyzed data on site expansion, patient enrolment, treatment outcomes, cost per patient, and overall programme expenditure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627178/turning-the-page-advancing-paper-based-microfluidics-for-broad-diagnostic-application
#9
Max M Gong, David Sinton
Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625793/comparison-of-sputum-collection-methods-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-systematic-review-and-pairwise-and-network-meta-analysis
#10
Sumona Datta, Lena Shah, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: The performance of laboratory tests to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on the quality of the sputum sample tested. The relative merits of sputum collection methods to improve tuberculosis diagnosis are poorly characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sputum collection methods on tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether non-invasive sputum collection methods in people aged at least 12 years improve the diagnostic performance of laboratory testing for pulmonary tuberculosis...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625214/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-sexual-assault-among-women-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#11
K M Scott, K C Koenen, A King, M V Petukhova, J Alonso, E J Bromet, R Bruffaerts, B Bunting, P de Jonge, J M Haro, E G Karam, S Lee, M E Medina-Mora, F Navarro-Mateu, N A Sampson, V Shahly, D J Stein, Y Torres, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have reduced the ability to develop accurate prediction models for early identification of high-risk sexual assault survivors. METHODS: Data come from 12 face-to-face, cross-sectional surveys of community-dwelling adults conducted in 11 countries...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624618/a-sample-to-answer-real-time-convective-polymerase-chain-reaction-system-for-point-of-care-diagnostics
#12
Bowen Shu, Chunsun Zhang, Da Xing
Timely and accurate molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) level is critical to global health. To this end, we propose a handheld convective-flow real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system capable of direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis for the first time. Such a system mainly consists of a magnetic bead-assisted photothermolysis sample preparation, a closed-loop convective PCR reactor, and a wireless video camera-based real-time fluorescence detection. The sample preparation exploits the dual functionality of vancomycin-modified magnetic beads (VMBs) for bacteria enrichment and photothermal conversion, enabling cell pre-concentration and lysis to be finished in less than 3min...
June 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619398/global-burden-of-disease-of-mercury-used-in-artisanal-small-scale-gold-mining
#13
Nadine Steckling, Myriam Tobollik, Dietrich Plass, Claudia Hornberg, Bret Ericson, Richard Fuller, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618420/heterogeneity-in-gastric-cancer-from-pure-morphology-to-molecular-classifications
#14
Irene Gullo, Fátima Carneiro, Carla Oliveira, Gabriela M Almeida
Gastric cancer (GC) represents a global health concern. Despite advances in prevention, diagnosis, and therapy, GC is still the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, with more than 720,000 estimated deaths in 2012. Overall survival for advanced disease is about 1 year, a dismal prognosis that is partly due to the high levels of biological heterogeneity found in GC. Indeed, GC is a highly heterogeneous disease from morphological and molecular standpoints. The numerous histological and molecular classifications currently available reflect such heterogeneity...
June 16, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617582/liquid-crystal-based-immunosensor-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-clinical-specimens
#15
Hyeong Jin Kim, Jinseob Rim, Chang-Hyun Jang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global health problem, although it is easily preventable and curable. The prevalence of TB is caused by a lack of simple, rapid, cheap, and effective TB diagnostic tests. In this study, we have established a novel liquid crystal (LC)-based immunosensor to diagnose TB in clinical specimens. The clinical serum samples were incubated on a TB antigen-immobilized substrate, and their optical LC responses were observed using a polarized light microscope. Specific binding of anti-TB antibodies to the TB antigen-immobilized surface only occurred in clinical specimens from TB patients, inducing the disruption of the orientation of LCs...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607237/sustainable-dengue-prevention-and-control-through-a-comprehensive-integrated-approach-the-sri-lankan-perspective
#16
Hasitha Tissera, Nimalka Pannila-Hetti, Preshila Samaraweera, Jayantha Weeraman, Paba Palihawadana, Ananda Amarasinghe
Dengue is a leading public health problem in Sri Lanka. All 26 districts and all age groups are affected, with high disease transmission; the estimated average annual incidence is 175/100 000 population. Harnessing the World Health Organization Global strategy for dengue prevention and control, 2012-2020, Sri Lanka has pledged in its National Strategic Framework to achieve a mortality from dengue below 0.1% and to reduce morbidity by 50% (from the average of the last 5 years) by 2020. Turning points in the country's dengue-control programme have been the restructuring and restrategizing of the core functions; this has involved establishment of a separate dengue-control unit to coordinate integrated vector management, and creation of a presidential task force...
September 2016: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605300/the-development-of-a-neighborhood-in-solidarity-in-switzerland
#17
Marion Zwygart, Alain Plattet, Sarah Ammor
This paper presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603714/defining-disease-diagnosis-and-translational-medicine-within-a-homeostatic-perturbation-paradigm-the-national-institutes-of-health-undiagnosed-diseases-program-experience
#18
Timothy Gall, Elise Valkanas, Christofer Bello, Thomas Markello, Christopher Adams, William P Bone, Alexander J Brandt, Jennifer M Brazill, Lynn Carmichael, Mariska Davids, Joie Davis, Zoraida Diaz-Perez, David Draper, Jeremy Elson, Elise D Flynn, Rena Godfrey, Catherine Groden, Cheng-Kang Hsieh, Roxanne Fischer, Gretchen A Golas, Jessica Guzman, Yan Huang, Megan S Kane, Elizabeth Lee, Chong Li, Amanda E Links, Valerie Maduro, May Christine V Malicdan, Fayeza S Malik, Michele Nehrebecky, Joun Park, Paul Pemberton, Katherine Schaffer, Dimitre Simeonov, Murat Sincan, Damian Smedley, Zaheer Valivullah, Colleen Wahl, Nicole Washington, Lynne A Wolfe, Karen Xu, Yi Zhu, William A Gahl, Cynthia J Tifft, Camillo Toro, David R Adams, Miao He, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel, R Grace Zhai, Cornelius F Boerkoel
Traditionally, the use of genomic information for personalized medical decisions relies on prior discovery and validation of genotype-phenotype associations. This approach constrains care for patients presenting with undescribed problems. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) hypothesized that defining disease as maladaptation to an ecological niche allows delineation of a logical framework to diagnose and evaluate such patients. Herein, we present the philosophical bases, methodologies, and processes implemented by the NIH UDP...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602851/impact-of-delayed-gratification-on-oral-health-and-caries-status-in-the-primary-dentition
#19
Carolina Caleza-Jimenez, Rosa Yañez-Vico, Asunción Mendoza-Mendoza, Juan Carlos Palma, Alejandro Iglesias-Linares
OBJECTIVE: The ability to delay gratification (ATDG) is naturally linked to key regulatory psychological traits involved in self-discipline/regulation. The aim of this study was to ascertain the normalized impact of ATDG as an early predictor of oral health, on the primary dentition. METHODS: 404 subjects [202 children (4-6 years old) and 202 mothers] were enrolled in a case-control study. Systematic data collection included: i) extraoral diagnostic parameters; ii)intraoral health status; iii)behavioral aspects; iv)baseline socio-demographic data...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597861/suicide-and-depression-in-the-world-health-organization-south-east-asia-region-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Helal Uddin Ahmed, Mohammad Didar Hossain, Afzal Aftab, Tanjir Rashid Soron, Mohammad Tariqul Alam, Md Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Aftab Uddin
Background Depression is the most common comorbid psychiatric disorder in people who die by suicide and 39% of global suicides occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, for countries of this region, first the prevalence of depression among people who (i) die by, or (ii) attempt, suicide, and second, the proportion of people with depression who attempt or die by suicide. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched, together with five available national databases, for quantitative research papers published in English between 1956 and 4 September 2016 from the 11 countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region...
April 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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