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Global health diagnostics

Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Simon Michael Papalexiou, Amir AghaKouchak, Kevin E Trenberth, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Trends in short-lived high-temperature extremes record a different dimension of change than the extensively studied annual and seasonal mean daily temperatures. They also have important socioeconomic, environmental, and human health implications. Here, we present analysis of the highest temperature of the year for approximately 9000 stations globally, focusing on quantifying spatially explicit exceedance probabilities during the recent 50- and 30-year periods. A global increase of 0.19°C per decade during the past 50 years (through 2015) accelerated to 0...
January 2018: Earth's Future
Barbara Albiger, Joana Revez, Katrin Claire Leitmeyer, Marc J Struelens
In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Paramita Saha, Kasturi Datta
Cancer is a complex, multi-factorial, multi-stage disease and a global threat to human health. Early detection of nature and stage of cancer is highly crucial for disease management. Recent studies have proved beyond any doubt about the involvement of the ubiquitous, myriad ligand binding, multi-functional human protein, hyaluronan-binding protein 1 (HABP1), which is identical to the splicing factor associated protein (p32) and the receptor of the globular head of the complement component (gC1qR) in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Mariateresa Coppola, Susan J F van den Eeden, Naoko Robbins, Louis Wilson, Kees L M C Franken, Linda B Adams, Tom P Gillis, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annemieke Geluk
Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy still represent significant public health challenges, especially in low- and lower middle-income countries. Both poverty-related mycobacterial diseases require better tools to improve disease control. For leprosy, there has been an increased emphasis on developing tools for improved detection of infection and early diagnosis of disease. For TB, there has been a similar emphasis on such diagnostic tests, while increased research efforts have also focused on the development of new vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohamed Elgendi, Yongbo Liang, Rabab Ward
Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal's vast potential...
March 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Sangeeta Chattoo
This paper engages critically with the global assemblage framing sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders as a 'global health crisis'; and the promise of genomics, largely DNA-based carrier/pre-conceptual screening, prenatal diagnosis with a view to terminations, deployed in framing a solution to these historically racialised spectrum of diseases as essentially preventable. Sickle cell and thalassaemia are recessively inherited, potentially life-threatening haemoglobin disorders with significant variation of severity, often needing life-long treatment...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
D Remedios, B Brkljacic, S Ebdon-Jackson, M Hierath, V Sinitsyn, J Vassileva
Leading radiologists and representatives from national radiation protection regulatory authorities and health ministries from 19 countries of the European region worked together with five experts at the workshop on justification and appropriate use of imaging in Zagreb, Croatia, from 26 to 28 October 2017 jointly organised by the IAEA and the European Society of Radiology. The workshop served as a forum to exchange information on challenges and solutions for improving justification and the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging...
March 12, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Vidula Purohit, Abhay Kudale, Neisha Sundaram, Saju Joseph, Christian Schaetti, Mitchell G Weiss
BACKGROUND: Prior experience and the persisting threat of influenza pandemic indicate the need for global and local preparedness and public health response capacity. The pandemic of 2009 highlighted the importance of such planning and the value of prior efforts at all levels. Our review of the public health response to this pandemic in Pune, India, considers the challenges of integrating global and national strategies in local programmes and lessons learned for influenza pandemic preparedness...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Payal Dande, Purva Samant
Tuberculosis [TB] has afflicted numerous nations in the world. As per a report by the World Health Organization [WHO], an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with HIV, were observed. Most of the TB deaths can be prevented if it is detected at an early stage. The existing processes of diagnosis like blood tests or sputum tests are not only tedious but also take a long time for analysis and cannot differentiate between different drug resistant stages of TB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Rajeswari Swaminathan, Yungui Huang, Katherine Miller, Matthew Pastore, Sayaka Hashimoto, Theodora Jacobson, Danielle Mouhlas, Simon Lin
The adoption rate of genome sequencing for clinical diagnostics has been steadily increasing leading to the possibility of improvement in diagnostic yields. Although laboratories generate a summary clinical report, sharing raw genomic data with healthcare providers is equally important, both for secondary research studies as well as for a deeper analysis of the data itself, as seen by the efforts from organizations such as American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and Global Alliance for Genomics and Health...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Habib Bokhari
Emerging infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of global mortality. Traditional laboratory diagnostic approaches designed to detect and track infectious disease agents provide a framework for surveillance of bio threats. However, surveillance and outbreak investigations using such time-consuming approaches for early detection of pathogens remain the major pitfall. Hence, reasonable real-time surveillance systems to anticipate threats to public health and environment are critical for identifying specific aetiologies and preventing the global spread of infectious disease...
March 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Angela Toepp, Mandy Larson, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Carolyne Bennett, Michael Anderson, Molly Parrish, Hailie Fowler, Geneva Wilson, Radhika Gharpure, Caitlin Cotter, Christine Petersen
In Leishmania infantum -endemic countries, controlling infection within dogs, the domestic reservoir, is critical to public health. There is a need for safe vaccines that prevent canine progression with disease and transmission to others. Protective vaccination against Leishmania requires mounting a strong, inflammatory, Type 1 response. Three commercially available canine vaccines on the global veterinary market use saponin or inflammatory antigen components (Letifend) as a strong pro-inflammatory adjuvant...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nischay Mishra, Adrian Caciula, Adam Price, Riddhi Thakkar, James Ng, Lokendra V Chauhan, Komal Jain, Xiaoyu Che, Diego A Espinosa, Magelda Montoya Cruz, Angel Balmaseda, Eric H Sullivan, Jigar J Patel, Richard G Jarman, Jennifer L Rakeman, Christina T Egan, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Eva Harris, Rafal Tokarz, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Definitive diagnosis through detection of viral RNA is possible in serum or plasma within 10 days of disease onset, in whole blood within 3 weeks of onset, and in semen for up to 3 months...
March 6, 2018: MBio
R Ivanovs, A Kivite, D Ziedonis, I Mintale, J Vrublevska, E Rancans
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Globally, there is a growing interest in understanding and addressing modifiable psychosocial risk factors, particularly depression and anxiety, to prevent CVDs and to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the high premature mortality rate from CVDs in Latvia, this is the first Latvian study to examine the association of depression and anxiety with CVD morbidity in a primary care population...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
Kevin S O'Connell, Nathaniel W McGregor, Christine Lochner, Robin Emsley, Louise Warnich
Considerable evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share a common molecular aetiology, despite their unique clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and characterise the common and unique molecular architecture of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Gene lists were obtained from previously published studies for ASD, BD, SCZ and for OCD. Genes identified to be common to all disorders, or unique to one specific disorder, were included for enrichment analyses using the web-server tool Enrichr...
March 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Louisa Picco, Ying Wen Lau, Shirlene Pang, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Janhavi A Vaingankar, Edimansyah Abdin, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
INTRODUCTION: Functioning and quality of life (QOL) are negatively impacted as a result of mental illness. This study aimed to determine the: i) socio-demographic and clinical correlates of functioning and; ii) associations between functioning and QOL in a multiethnic sample of psychiatric outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of outpatients receiving treatment from a tertiary psychiatric hospital. Functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, while QOL was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) which comprises 4 domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environment...
January 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Maria Ly, Carmen Andreescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mood and anxiety disorders are very commonly experienced by older adults and are becoming a growing concern due to the rapidly aging global population. Recent advances in neuroimaging may help in improving outcomes in late-life mood and anxiety disorders. The elucidation of mechanisms contributing to late-life mental health disorders may ultimately lead to the identification of novel therapeutic interventions. Alternatively, clinically validated imaging biomarkers may allow for the prediction of treatment response and identification of better therapeutic approaches in late-life mood and anxiety disorders...
March 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
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