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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329425/perpendicular-axes-of-differentiation-generated-by-mitochondrial-introgression
#1
Hernán E Morales, Paul Sunnucks, Leo Joseph, Alexandra Pavlova
Differential introgression of mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA generates discordant patterns of geographic variation and can promote population divergence and speciation. We examined a potential case of mitochondrial introgression leading to two perpendicular axes of differentiation. The Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis, a widespread Australian bird, shows a deep mitochondrial split that is perpendicular to north-south nuclear DNA and plumage colour differentiation. We propose a scenario to explain this pattern: (1) the two nuclear and mitochondrial genomes differentiated in concert during north-south population divergence; (2) later, their histories disconnected after two mitochondrial introgression events resulting in a deep mitochondrial split perpendicular to the nuclear DNA structure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329099/effect-of-sleeping-position-on-upper-airway-patency-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-determined-by-the-pharyngeal-structure-causing-collapse
#2
Melania Marques, Pedro R Genta, Scott A Sands, Ali Azarbazin, Camila de Melo, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, David P White, Andrew Wellman
Objectives: In some patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be resolved with improvement in pharyngeal patency by sleeping lateral rather than supine, possibly as gravitational effects on the tongue are relieved. Here we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in pharyngeal patency depends on the anatomical structure causing collapse, with patients with tongue-related obstruction and epiglottic collapse exhibiting preferential improvements. Methods: Twenty-four OSA patients underwent upper airway endoscopy during natural sleep to determine the pharyngeal structure associated with obstruction, with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure...
January 31, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329060/first-series-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-exchanges-to-heartmate-3
#3
Jasmin S Hanke, Sebastian V Rojas, Günes Dogan, Christina Feldmann, Erik Beckmann, Ezin Deniz, Bettina Wiegmann, Jana-Elena Michaelis, L Christian Napp, Dominik Berliner, Malakh Shrestha, Johann Bauersachs, Axel Haverich, Jan D Schmitto
OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) exchange is becoming a standard surgical procedure. The exchange procedure is an opportunity to upgrade patients to a new generation pump that offers advanced reduction of adverse events or longer battery hours. METHODS: We performed an analysis of 6 consecutive patients who underwent LVAD exchange to HeartMate 3 either from a HeartWare or HeartMate (HM) II device. Minimally invasive operations were performed through a lateral thoracotomy...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328932/comparing-internal-migration-across-the-countries-of-latin-america-a-multidimensional-approach
#4
Aude Bernard, Francisco Rowe, Martin Bell, Philipp Ueffing, Elin Charles-Edwards
While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328241/perfusion-ct-in-acute-stroke-effectiveness-of-automatically-generated-colour-maps
#6
Maja Ukmar, Ferruccio Degrassi, Roberta Antea Pozzi Mucelli, Francesca Neri, Fabio Pozzi Mucelli, Maria Assunta Cova
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of perfusion CT (pCT) in the definition of the infarcted core and the penumbra, comparing the data obtained from the evaluation of parametric maps [cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT)] with software-generated colour maps. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients with suspected acute ischaemic strokes and who had undergone unenhanced CT and pCT carried out within 4...
April 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325018/imquant-an-image-based-fluorescence-reader-for-quantitative-lateral-flow-immunoassays
#7
Kaushik Basak Chowdhury, Jayaraj Joseph, Jayaraman Kiruthi Vasan, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
Fluorescence immunoassays (FIA) have strong potential in enabling rapid quantitative immunological testing at point of care. Existing state of the art instruments employ laser scanning of FIA test kits, which require the use of electromechanical systems, making the instrument bulky, heavy and less reliable in the long term. There is a growing need for an extremely compact and reliable, motion-free, automated reader for accurate quantification of immunoassays. Here, we present ImQuant, an image based FIA reader with integrated monochromatic excitation source, optical filtering and real time image capture, assisted with an intuitive graphical user interface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324779/frontocingulate-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-associated-with-antidepressant-response-in-late-life-depression
#8
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression (LLD) and may contribute to alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). In turn, such hemodynamic deficits may adversely affect brain function and clinical course. The goal of this study was to examine whether altered cerebral hemodynamics in depressed elders predicted antidepressant response. METHODS: 21 depressed elders completed cranial 3T MRI, including a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition on both room air and during a hypercapnia challenge...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324168/the-effect-of-eccentric-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction-on-neuromuscular-activation-microvascular-oxygenation-and-the-repeated-bout-effect
#9
Jakob D Lauver, Trent E Cayot, Timothy Rotarius, Barry W Scheuermann
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of low-intensity eccentric contractions with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on microvascular oxygenation, neuromuscular activation, and the repeated bout effect (RBE). METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LI-BFR), or a control (CON) group. Participants in LI and LI-BFR performed a preconditioning bout of low-intensity eccentric exercise prior to about of maximal eccentric exercise...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323191/the-feasibility-and-safety-of-separate-carotid-artery-stenting-using-the-restrict-protective-method-for-bilateral-carotid-stenosis
#10
Tomotaka Ohshima, Ishu Bishnori, Kojiro Ishikawa, Shunsaku Goto, Taiki Yamamoto, Yoko Kato
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: The treatment strategy for bilateral carotid stenosis (BCS) is not clear. We report our experience of treating 12 patients with BCS using separate carotid artery stenting (CAS) using the restrict protective method. The order of treatment site and the protective method are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2012 and November 2016, 24 lesions in 12 patients (range, 44-83 years; mean, 71 years; 1 woman) underwent CAS at Kariya Toyota General Hospital...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320384/diagnostic-accuracy-incremental-yield-and-prognostic-value-of-determine-tb-lam-for-routine-diagnostic-testing-for-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-requiring-acute-hospital-admission-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort
#11
Stephen D Lawn, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Rosie Burton, Charlotte Schutz, Andrew Boulle, Monica Vogt, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Mark P Nicol, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319118/functional-mri-for-characterization-of-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-edema-formation-due-to-acute-kidney-injury-in-different-mouse-strains
#12
Susanne Tewes, Faikah Gueler, Rongjun Chen, Marcel Gutberlet, Mi-Sun Jang, Martin Meier, Michael Mengel, Dagmar Hartung, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Katja Hueper
PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI. METHODS: Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318825/riparian-erosion-vulnerability-model-based-on-environmental-features
#13
Alejandra Botero-Acosta, Maria L Chu, Jorge A Guzman, Patrick J Starks, Daniel N Moriasi
Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317235/astrocyte-specific-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-transfer-in-aging-female-rats-improves-stroke-outcomes
#14
Andre K Okoreeh, Shameena Bake, Farida Sohrabji
Middle aged female rats sustain larger stroke infarction and disability than younger female rats. This older group also shows age-related reduction of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 in serum and in astrocytes, a cell type necessary for poststroke recovery. To determine the impact of astrocytic IGF-1 for ischemic stroke, these studies tested the hypothesis that gene transfer of IGF-1 to astrocytes will improve stroke outcomes in middle aged female rats. Middle aged (10-12 month old), acyclic female rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) packaged with the coding sequence of the human (h)IGF-1 gene downstream of an astrocyte-specific promoter glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (AAV5-GFP-hIGF-1) into the striatum and cortex...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316046/treatment-of-municipal-wastewater-in-full-scale-on-site-sand-filter-reduces-bod-efficiently-but-does-not-reach-requirements-for-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-removal
#15
Petteri Laaksonen, Aki Sinkkonen, Gennadi Zaitsev, Esa Mäkinen, Timo Grönroos, Martin Romantschuk
A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m(3) each) into the filters...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#16
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314986/false-positive-synovial-fluid-alpha-defensin-test-in-a-patient-with-acute-gout-affecting-a-prosthetic-knee
#17
D G Partridge, A Gordon, R Townsend
The alpha-defensin test has demonstrated promising results in studies evaluating it for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. There are limited data in the literature regarding its use in patients with other inflammatory joint conditions, but a high specificity for infection has been reported. We describe a patient with a prosthetic knee joint, who had a positive alpha-defensin lateral flow assay but in whom subsequent results confirmed a diagnosis of acute gout with no evidence of infection.
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314624/cerebral-white-matter-hypoperfusion-increases-with-small-vessel-disease-burden-data-from-the-third-international-stroke-trial
#18
Francesco Arba, Grant Mair, Trevor Carpenter, Eleni Sakka, Peter A G Sandercock, Richard I Lindley, Domenico Inzitari, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is associated with impaired cerebral perfusion, but the effect of individual and combined small-vessel disease (SVD) features on white matter perfusion is unclear. METHODS: We studied patients recruited with perfusion imaging in the Third International Stroke Trial. We rated individual SVD features (leukoaraiosis, lacunes) and brain atrophy on baseline plain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Separately, we assessed white matter at the level of the lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the stroke for visible areas of hypoperfusion (present or absent) on 4 time-based perfusion imaging parameters...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306487/effects-of-various-factors-on-doppler-ultrasonographic-measurements-of-radial-and-coccygeal-arterial-blood-pressure-in-privately-owned-conscious-cats
#19
Jacqueline C Whittemore, Michael R Nystrom, Dianne I Mawby
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of age, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) on radial and coccygeal systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in cats. DESIGN Prospective randomized trial. ANIMALS 66 privately owned cats enrolled between May and December 2010. PROCEDURES BCS and MCS of cats were assessed by 2 investigators; SAP was measured via Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, with cats positioned in right lateral or sternal recumbency for measurements at the radial or coccygeal artery, respectively, with order of site randomized...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304325/early-feeding-tolerance-in-small-for-gestational-age-infants-with-normal-versus-abnormal-antenatal-doppler-characteristics
#20
M F Ahamed, Pe'er Dar, M Vega, Mimi Kim, Q Gao, T Havranek
OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in feeding tolerance amongst preterm small for gestational age (SGA) infants with normal versus abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow defined as absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants <35 weeks gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) <10th percentile. Day of initiation of feeds, days to full feeds and CRIB II scores were the primary outcomes. Clinical characteristics were compared between the groups of SGA infants with normal and AREDF...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
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