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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#1
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146104/an-innovative-approach-to-participatory-health-policy-development-in-bulgaria-the-conception-and-first-achievements-of-the-partnership-for-health
#2
Antoniya Dimova, Maria Rohova, Stanimir Hasardzhiev, Anne Spranger
The Bulgarian Partnership for Health was established in 2015 as a new forum for health policy formulation and discussion. The Partnership presents a new approach of structured and sustained stakeholder involvement to overcome the lack of public participation in health policy development and implementation. Constituted as a permanent consultative body to the Council of Ministers, the Partnership engages a wide variety of stakeholders and professionals to shape and improve health policies. The shared governance of the Partnership between the Minister of Health and a patient organisation supports the elaboration of legislative acts based on the stakeholders' collaboration in priority areas...
November 11, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143655/consent-ethics-and-genetic-biobanks-the-case-of-the-athlome-project
#3
REVIEW
Rachel Thompson, Michael J McNamee
This article provides a critical overview of the ethics and governance of genetic biobank research, using the Athlome Consortium as a large scale instance of collaborative sports genetic biobanking. We present a traditional model of written informed consent for the acquisition, storage, sharing and analysis of genetic data and articulate the challenges to it from new research practices such as genetic biobanking. We then articulate six possible alternative consent models: verbal consent, blanket consent, broad consent, meta consent, dynamic consent and waived consent...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#4
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140642/raising-awareness-of-farm-equipment-on-public-roadways-in-tennessee
#5
Sandy Mehlhorn, Barbara Darroch, Staci Williams Jackson
A program was developed to educate young drivers about laws and guidelines governing farm equipment on public roadways in Tennessee. The goal of the program was to make young drivers aware of their responsibilities and the responsibilities of farm equipment drivers when sharing public roadways. A presentation was developed outlining the topics and was accompanied by identical pre- and post-surveys. The material was presented to drivers' education classes and agriculture science classes at several high schools in west and middle Tennessee...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140483/integrative-whole-person-oncology-care-in-the-uk
#6
Catherine Zollman, Axel Walther, Helen E Seers, Rachel C Jolliffe, Marie J Polley
The term "whole-person cancer care"-an approach that addresses the needs of the person as well as treating the disease-is more widely understood in the United Kingdom than its synonym "integrative oncology." The National Health Service (NHS) provides free access to care for all, which makes it harder to prioritize NHS funding of whole-person medicine, where interventions may be multimodal and lacking in cost-effectiveness data. Despite this, around 30% of cancer patients are known to use some form of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137514/lower-income-countries-that-face-the-most-rapid-shift-in-noncommunicable-disease-burden-are-also-the-least-prepared
#7
Thomas J Bollyky, Tara Templin, Matthew Cohen, Joseph L Dieleman
Demographic and epidemiological changes are shifting the disease burden from communicable to noncommunicable diseases in lower-income countries. Within a generation, the share of disease burden attributed to noncommunicable diseases in some poor countries will exceed 80 percent, rivaling that of rich countries, but this burden is likely to affect much younger people in poorer countries. The health systems of lower-income countries are unprepared for this change. We examined the shift to noncommunicable diseases and estimated preparedness for the shift by ranking 172 nations using a health system capacity index for noncommunicable disease...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134867/the-best-of-leaders-at-the-worst-of-times-medical-scientist-and-war-premier
#8
Nicholas Coni
Professor Juan Negrín López was Prime Minister of the democratically elected left-wing government of Spain for the latter two-and-a-half years of the three-year Civil War which ravaged the country between 1936 and 1939. The side loyal to the government lost, partly because of the generous aid received by their opponents from Germany and Italy, partly because of the Anglo-French agreement, observed by most countries but ignored by Germany and Italy, to outlaw arms supplies to either side, partly because of internal dissent, and partly because of the greater military capability of the enemy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134106/robust-clustering-of-languages-across-wikipedia-growth
#9
Kristina Ban, Matjaž Perc, Zoran Levnajić
Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126454/an-analysis-on-intersectional-collaboration-on-non-communicable-chronic-disease-prevention-and-control-in-china-a-cross-sectional-survey-on-main-officials-of-community-health-service-institutions
#10
Xing-Ming Li, Alon Rasooly, Bo Peng, JianWang, Shu-Yu Xiong
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to design a tool of evaluating intersectional collaboration on Non-communicable Chronic Disease (NCD) prevention and control, and further to understand the current status of intersectional collaboration in community health service institutions of China. METHODS: We surveyed 444 main officials of community health service institutions in Beijing, Tianjin, Hubei and Ningxia regions of China in 2014 by using a questionnaire. A model of collaboration measurement, including four relational dimensions of governance, shared goals and vision, formalization and internalization, was used to compare the scores of evaluation scale in NCD management procedures across community healthcare institutions and other ones...
November 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120313/policy-recommendations-for-front-of-package-shelf-and-menu-labelling-in-canada-moving-towards-consensus
#11
Kim D Raine, Alexa R Ferdinands, Kayla Atkey, Erin Hobin, Bill Jeffery, Candace I J Nykiforuk, Lana Vanderlee, Ellen Vogel, Barbara Von Tigerstrom
Greater availability of low nutritional quality foods and decreased consumption of nutrient-dense foods have negatively impacted the nutrient profile of the Canadian diet. Poor diet is now the leading risk factor for chronic disease and premature death in Canada. To help consumers choose healthful foods, nutrition labelling is one policy tool for communicating relevant nutrition information. However, there are notable shortcomings with current nutrition labelling systems, which make it difficult for Canadians to navigate the complex food environment...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119872/adapting-operational-research-training-to-the-rwandan-context-the-intermediate-operational-research-training-programme
#12
Jackline Odhiambo, Cheryl L Amoroso, Peter Barebwanuwe, Christine Warugaba, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier
BACKGROUND: Promoting national health research agendas in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires adequate numbers of individuals with skills to initiate and conduct research. Recently, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have joined research capacity building efforts to increase research leadership by LMIC nationals. Partners In Health, an international NGO operating in Rwanda, implemented its first Intermediate Operational Research Training (IORT) course to cultivate Rwandan research talent and generate evidence to improve health care delivery...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118680/mapping-of-standards-to-facilitate-immunization-information-exchange-through-two-dimensional-bar-coding-of-vaccine-products
#13
Saira N Haque, Suzanne West, Alan O'Connor
Purpose: A two-dimensional barcode that includes both static information (vaccine identifier) and variable information (expiration date and lot number) can facilitate streamlined documentation and sharing of vaccine administration. We sought to identify how vaccine tracking information in the two-dimensional barcode is represented in systems that are used by pharmacies, providers, and public health agencies. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant information technology standards that govern data storage and exchange for providers, pharmacy systems, billing systems, and manufacturers to identify how each system codes the vaccine identifier, expiration date, and lot number...
2017: Perspectives in Health Information Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116927/financial-costs-associated-with-monopolies-on-biologic-medicines-in-australia
#14
Deborah Gleeson, Belinda Townsend, Ruth Lopert, Joel Lexchin, Hazel Moir
Objectives The aim of the study was to estimate the potential savings to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and the Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) in 2015-16 if biosimilar versions of selected biologic medicines (biologics) had been available and listed on the PBS.Methods The research involved retrospective analysis of Australian Medicare expenditure data and PBS price data from 2015-16 for biologics, for which biosimilar competition may be available in future, listed on the PBS.Results Australian Government expenditure on biologics on the PBS and RPBS was estimated at A$2...
November 9, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115962/bridging-the-human-resource-gap-in-surgical-and-anesthesia-care-in-low-resource-countries-a-review-of-the-task-sharing-literature
#15
REVIEW
Tigistu Ashengo, Alena Skeels, Elizabeth J H Hurwitz, Eric Thuo, Harshad Sanghvi
Task sharing, the involvement of non-specialists (non-physician clinicians or non-specialist physicians) in performing tasks originally reserved for surgeons and anesthesiologists, can be a potent strategy in bridging the vast human resource gap in surgery and anesthesia and bringing needed surgical care to the district level especially in low-resource countries. Although a common practice, the idea of assigning advanced tasks to less-specialized workers remains a subject of controversy. In order to optimize its benefits, it is helpful to understand the current task sharing landscape, its challenges, and its promise...
November 7, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112035/how-can-safer-care-be-achieved-patient-safety-officers-perceptions-of-factors-influencing-patient-safety-in-sweden
#16
Mikaela Ridelberg, Kerstin Roback, Per Nilsen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to survey health care professionals in Sweden on the factors that they believe have been most important in reaching the current level of patient safety and achieving safer care in the future as well as the characteristics of the county councils that have been the most successful in achieving safe care. METHODS: The study population consisted of 222 patient safety officers, that is, health care professionals with strategic positions in patient safety work in the county councils...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111001/the-professional-practice-and-training-of-neurology-in-the-asian-and-oceanian-region-a-cross-sectional-survey-by-the-asian-and-oceanian-association-of-neurology-aoan
#17
Artemio Roxas, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Natan Bornstein, Richard Macdonell, Kheng Seang Lim, Ping-Wing Ng, Shuren Dashzeveg, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Hamed Esmatullah, Shey Lin Wu, Christopher Chen, Mohammad Kurniawan, Joung-Ho Rha, Mohammad Wasay, Niphon Poungvarin, Saman Gunatilake, Nguyen Huy Thang
OBJECTIVE: To survey AOAN member countries regarding their organizational structure, postgraduate neurology training program, and resources for neurological care provision. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey using a 36-item questionnaire was conducted among country representatives to AOAN from August 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS: A total of 18/20 AOAN member countries participated in the survey. All the countries have organized association with regular meetings, election of officers and neurology training program...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108437/latent-profiles-of-early-developmental-vulnerabilities-in-a-new-south-wales-child-population-at-age-5%C3%A2-years
#18
Melissa J Green, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kristin R Laurens, Kimberlie Dean, Maina Kariuki, Felicity Harris, Nicole O'Reilly, Marilyn Chilvers, Sally A Brinkman, Vaughan J Carr
OBJECTIVE: Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. METHODS: Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105254/reforming-foodservice-in-elderly-care-national-actions-and-local-outcomes
#19
Malin Skinnars Josefsson, Margaretha Nydahl, Inger Persson, Ylva Mattsson Sydner
AIM: The aim was to explore the outcome, on a local level, of steering, organisation and practices of elderly care foodservice by Swedish municipalities, and changes relative to national actions. METHODS: A survey using a web-based questionnaire about elderly care foodservice targeting all Swedish municipalities (n = 290) was conducted in 2006 and 2013/2014. The questionnaire included the topics: organisation of foodservice, its practice in elderly care and steering devices such as guidelines and policies...
November 3, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104768/tracing-the-policy-implementation-of-commitments-made-by-national-governments-and-other-entities-at-the-third-global-forum-on-human-resources-for-health
#20
REVIEW
Remco van de Pas, Anika Veenstra, Daniel Gulati, Wim Van Damme, Giorgio Cometto
We conducted a follow-up analysis of the implementation of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) commitments made by country governments and other actors at the Third Global Forum on HRH in 2013. Since then member states of the WHO endorsed Universal Health Coverage as the main policy objective whereby health systems strengthening, including reinforcement of the health workforce, can contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals. Now is the right time to trace the implementation of these commitments and to assess their contribution to broader global health objectives...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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