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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#1
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731831/toward-a-predictive-framework-for-convergent-evolution-integrating-natural-history-genetic-mechanisms-and-consequences-for-the-diversity-of-life
#2
Anurag A Agrawal
A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary diversification. Convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes, has been at the heart of one approach to understand generality in the evolutionary process. Yet understanding when and why organismal traits and strategies repeatedly evolve has been a central challenge. These issues were the focus of the American Society of Naturalists Vice Presidential Symposium in 2016 and are the subject of this collection of articles...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730209/geometric-and-electronic-properties-of-si-atom-doped-al-clusters-robustness-of-binary-superatoms-against-charging
#3
Minoru Akutsu, Kiichirou Koyasu, Junko Atobe, Ken Miyajima, Masaaki Mitsui, Hironori Tsunoyama, Atsushi Nakajima
The geometric and electronic properties of silicon-atom-doped aluminum clusters, AlnSim (n = 7-30, m = 0-2), were investigated experimentally. The size dependences of the ionization energy and electron affinity of AlnSim show that the stability of AlnSim is governed by the total number of valence electrons in the clusters, where Al and Si atoms behave as trivalent and tetravalent atoms, respectively. Together with theoretical calculations, it has been revealed that neutral Al10Si and Al12Si have a cage-like geometry with central Si atom encapsulation and closed electronic structures of superatomic orbitals (SAOs), and also that they both exhibit geometric robustness against reductive and oxidative changes as cage-like binary superatoms of Si@Al10 and Si@Al12...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727626/system-level-shared-governance-structures-and-processes-in-healthcare-systems-with-magnet%C3%A2-designated-hospitals-a-descriptive-study
#4
Carlisa M Underwood, Arlene N Hayne
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to identify and describe structures and processes of best practices for system-level shared governance in healthcare systems. BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 64.6% of US community hospitals are part of a system. System chief nurse executives (SCNEs) are challenged to establish leadership structures and processes that effectively and efficiently disseminate best practices for patients and staff across complex organizations, geographically dispersed locations, and populations...
July 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724647/physiological-responses-to-fluctuating-temperatures-are-characterized-by-distinct-transcriptional-profiles-in-a-solitary-bee
#5
Alex S Torson, George D Yocum, Joseph P Rinehart, Sean A Nash, Kally M Kvidera, Julia H Bowsher
Exposure to stressful low temperatures during development can result in the accumulation of deleterious physiological effects called chill injury. Metabolic imbalances, disruptions in ion homeostasis, and oxidative stress contribute to the increased mortality of chill-injured insects. Interestingly, survival can be significantly increased when chill susceptible insects are exposed to a daily warm-temperature pulse during chilling. We hypothesize that warm pulses allow for the repair of damage associated with chill-injury...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724129/association-of-cost-sharing-with-mental-health-care-use-involuntary-commitment-and-acute-care
#6
Bastian Ravesteijn, Eli B Schachar, Aartjan T F Beekman, Richard T J M Janssen, Patrick P T Jeurissen
Importance: A higher out-of-pocket price for mental health care may lead not only to cost savings but also to negative downstream consequences. Objective: To examine the association of higher patient cost sharing with mental health care use and downstream effects, such as involuntary commitment and acute mental health care use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This difference-in-differences study compared changes in mental health care use by adults, who experienced an increase in cost sharing, with changes in youths, who did not experience the increase and thus formed a control group...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716040/the-communication-between-patient-relatives-and-physicians-in-intensive-care-units
#7
Faruk Cicekci, Numan Duran, Bunyamin Ayhan, Sule Arican, Omur Ilban, Iskender Kara, Melda Turkoglu, Fatma Yildirim, Ismail Hasirci, Adnan Karaibrahimoglu, Inci Kara
BACKGROUND: Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. METHODS: For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians...
July 17, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712137/what-indigenous-australian-clients-value-about-primary-health-care-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#8
Judith Streak Gomersall, Odette Gibson, Judith Dwyer, Kim O'Donnell, Matthew Stephenson, Drew Carter, Kootsy Canuto, Zachary Munn, Edoardo Aromataris, Alex Brown
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise client perceptions of the unique characteristics and value of care provided in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) compared to mainstream/general practitioner services, and implications for improving access to quality, appropriate primary health care for Indigenous Australians. METHOD: Standardised systematic review methods with modification informed by ethical and methodological considerations in research involving Indigenous Australians...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709417/putting-women-at-the-center-a-review-of-indian-policy-to-address-person-centered-care-in-maternal-and-newborn-health-family-planning-and-abortion
#9
Aradhana Srivastava, Devaki Singh, Dominic Montagu, Sanghita Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Person-centered care is a critical component of quality care, essential to enable treatment adherence, and maximize health outcomes. Improving the quality of health services is a key strategy to achieve the new global target of zero preventable maternal deaths by 2030. Recognizing this, the Government of India has in the last decade initiated a number of strategies to address quality of care in health and family welfare services. METHODS: We conducted a policy review of quality improvement strategies in India from 2005 to 15, covering three critical areas- maternal and newborn health, family planning, and abortion (MNHFP + A)...
July 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705356/preference-effects-on-friendship-choice-evidence-from-an-online-field-experiment
#10
Siyu Yu, Yu Xie
Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions)...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704139/influencing-safety-in-australian-agriculture-and-fisheries
#11
Kristin E McBain-Rigg, Richard C Franklin, Jemma C King, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, that is, people who can influence others, are important for helping to engender action to enact solutions into practice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702162/plant-performance-was-greater-in-the-soils-of-more-distantly-related-plants-for-an-herbaceous-understory-species
#12
Drake D Sweet, Jean H Burns
Growing evidence suggests that plant-soil interactions have important implications for plant community composition. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness in governing interactions between plants and soil biota is unclear, and more case studies are needed to help build a general picture of whether and how phylogeny might influence plant-soil interactions. We performed a glasshouse experiment to test whether degree of phylogenetic relatedness between Aquilegia canadensis and six co-occurring heterospecifics affects A...
January 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701547/ageing-does-not-affect-the-intralimb-coordination-elicited-by-slip-like-perturbation-of-different-intensities
#13
Federica Aprigliano, Dario Martelli, Peppino Tropea, Guido Pasquini, Silvestro Micera, Vito Monaco
This study was aimed at verifying whether ageing modifies intralimb coordination strategy during corrective responses elicited by unexpected slip-like perturbations delivered during steady walking on a treadmill. To this end, ten young and ten elderly subjects were asked to manage unexpected slippages of different intensities. We analyzed the planar covariation law of the lower limb segments, using the principal component analysis, in order to verify whether elevation angles of older subjects covaried along a plane, before and after the perturbation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697284/community-driven-hypothesis-testing-a-solution-for-the-tragedy-of-the-anticommons
#14
José Manuel Palma-Oliveira, Benjamin D Trump, Matthew D Wood, Igor Linkov
Shared ownership of property and resources is a longstanding challenge throughout history that has been amplifying with the increasing development of industrial and postindustrial societies. Where governments, project planners, and commercial developers seek to develop new infrastructure, industrial projects, and various other land-and resource-intensive tasks, veto power shared by various local stakeholders can complicate or halt progress. Risk communication has been used as an attempt to address stakeholder concerns in these contexts, but has demonstrated shortcomings...
July 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694337/targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-adaptively-promotes-the-strengthening-or-weakening-of-overlapping-memories
#15
J P Oyarzún, J Morís, D Luque, R de Diego-Balaguer, L Fuentemilla
System memory consolidation is conceptualized as an active process whereby newly encoded memory representations are strengthened through selective memory reactivation during sleep. However, our learning experience is highly overlapping in content (i.e., shares common elements), and memories of these events are organized in an intricate network of overlapping associated events. It remains to be explored whether and how selective memory reactivation during sleep has an impact on these overlapping memories acquired during awake time...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692725/visual-speed-sensitivity-in-the-drum-corps-color-guard
#16
Nestor Matthews, Leslie Welch, F Daniel Coplin, Allison J Murphy, Megan R Puritz
Drum corps color guard experts spend years developing skills in spinning rifles, sabers, and flags. Their expertise provides a unique window into factors that govern sensitivity to the speed of rotational and radial motion. Prior neurophysiological research demonstrates that rotational and radial motion register in the Medial Superior Temporal (MST) region of the primate visual system. To the extent that shared neural events govern rotational and radial speed sensitivity, one would expect expertise on either task to transfer to the other...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689708/the-growing-role-of-biologics-and-biosimilars-in-the-united-states-perspectives-from-the-apha-biologics-and-biosimilars-stakeholder-conference
#17
Judy Crespi-Lofton, Jann B Skelton
OBJECTIVES: The American Pharmacists Association (APhA) convened the Biologics and Biosimilars Stakeholder Conference on November 30, 2016, in Washington DC. The objectives of the Conference were to determine the key issues and challenges within the marketplace for biologics, follow-on biologics (FOBs), and biosimilars, identify potential roles and responsibilities of pharmacists regarding biologic and biosimilar medications, and identify actions or activities that pharmacists may take to optimize the safe and cost-effective use of biologics and biosimilars...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682709/knowing-being-and-doing-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-collaboration-in-cancer-services
#18
Joanna Zubrzycki, Rick Shipp, Victoria Jones
This qualitative inquiry explored the processes and practices of collaboration as experienced by a group of Australian multidisciplinary Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. Each worker had participated, for a period of 2 to 5 years, in an Australian Government-funded project in which a range of health initiatives led to improved access to cancer services by Aboriginal communities in a rural region of South Eastern Australia. Initiatives which addressed high rates of mortality from cancer, poor access to cancer screening, and engagement with cancer treatment were developed through the formation of close working relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers...
July 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681054/establishment-of-a-minimally-invasive-cardiac-surgery-programme-in-singapore
#19
Theo Kofidis, Guohao Chang, Chuen Neng Lee
In Singapore, although minimally invasive cardiac surgery is available, it is not widely practised. Local surgeons have pioneered technologies in Singapore following their launch in the West and introduced them, addressing various heart pathologies. However, the unique position and function of Singapore in the region, the structure and dynamics of cardiothoracic surgery practice in government centres and private practice, and the overall small volume of patients in the country may pose limitations, in spite of all possibilities, in thriving and sharing of such new technologies...
July 6, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679953/anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies-cause-arthritis-by-cross-reactivity-to-joint-cartilage
#20
Changrong Ge, Dongmei Tong, Bibo Liang, Erik Lönnblom, Nadine Schneider, Cecilia Hagert, Johan Viljanen, Burcu Ayoglu, Roma Stawikowska, Peter Nilsson, Gregg B Fields, Thomas Skogh, Alf Kastbom, Jan Kihlberg, Harald Burkhardt, Doreen Dobritzsch, Rikard Holmdahl
Today, it is known that autoimmune diseases start a long time before clinical symptoms appear. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) appear many years before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is still unclear if and how ACPAs are arthritogenic. To better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity of ACPAs, we investigated autoantibodies reactive against the C1 epitope of collagen type II (CII) and its citrullinated variants. We found that these antibodies are commonly occurring in RA...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
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