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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628854/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hcv-among-a-cohort-of-opioid-treatment-patients-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#1
Barrot H Lambdin, Jennifer Lorvick, Jessie K Mbwambo, John Rwegasha, Saria Hassan, Paula Lum, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: The government of Tanzania launched an opioid treatment program (OTP), using methadone, in Dar es Salaam in February of 2011. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, especially among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted a cross-sectional study among PWID engaged in OTP in Dar es Salaam to describe the prevalence and predictors of HCV antibody serostatus. METHODS: Routine programmatic data on patients enrolled in Muhimbili National Hospital's OTP clinic from February 2011 to January 2013 were utilized...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615444/the-human-mitochondrial-single-strand-dna-binding-protein-displays-distinct-kinetics-and-thermodynamics-of-dna-binding-and-exchange
#3
Yufeng Qian, Kenneth A Johnson
The human mitochondrial SSB (mtSSB) is a homo-tetrameric protein, involved in mtDNA replication and maintenance. Although mtSSB is structurally similar to SSB from Escherichia coli (EcoSSB), it lacks the C-terminal disordered domain but little is known about the biophysics of mtSSB-ssDNA interactions. Here, we characterized the kinetics and thermodynamics of mtSSB binding to ssDNA by equilibrium titrations and stopped-flow kinetic measurements. We show that the mtSSB tetramer can bind to ssDNA in two distinct binding modes: (SSB)30 and (SSB)60, defined by DNA binding site sizes of 30 and 60 nt, respectively...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615210/a-conserved-leucine-zipper-motif-in-gammaherpesvirus-orf52-is-critical-for-distinct-microtubule-rearrangements
#4
Matthew S Loftus, Nancy Verville, Dean H Kedes
Productive viral infection often depends on manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607843/ecophylogeny-of-the-endospheric-root-fungal-microbiome-of-co-occurring-agrostis-stolonifera
#5
Amandine Lê Van, Achim Quaiser, Marie Duhamel, Sophie Michon-Coudouel, Alexis Dufresne, Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse
BACKGROUND: Within the root endosphere, fungi are known to be important for plant nutrition and resistance to stresses. However, description and understanding of the rules governing community assembly in the fungal fraction of the plant microbiome remains scarce. METHODS: We used an innovative DNA- and RNA-based analysis of co-extracted nucleic acids to reveal the complexity of the fungal community colonizing the roots of an Agrostis stolonifera population. The normalized RNA/DNA ratio, designated the 'mean expression ratio', was used as a functional trait proxy...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607238/sri-lanka-takes-action-towards-a-target-of-zero-rabies-death-by-2020
#6
P A Lionel Harischandra, Amila Gunesekera, Navaratnasingam Janakan, Gyanendra Gongal, Bernadette Abela-Ridder
Rabies is a 100% vaccine-preventable and 100% fatal zoonotic, viral disease. It is usually spread to humans by saliva, through bites or scratches. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human deaths from rabies. Political will and leadership have been the main drivers for success of the Sri Lankan effort to reduce the burden of disease attributable to rabies. Post-exposure prophylaxis, which is available in government health facilities, at no cost, to all bite patients, has been a main axis of the rabies-elimination strategy...
September 2016: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606138/exploring-shared-risks-through-public-private-partnerships-in-public-health-programs-a-mixed-method
#7
Wadi B Alonazi
BACKGROUND: The natural assimilation of the process through which health partners sustain long-term relationships is a key issue in maintaining social well-being, reducing health risk factors, and sustaining public health programs. One global initiative in building effective healthcare systems is public-private partnerships (PPPs). This study elucidates the proposed key performance indicators initiated by the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia based on the projections of the government, known as Vision 2030, from the perspective of health risk factors...
June 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601794/obstacles-opportunities-and-priorities-for-advancing-metastatic-breast-cancer-research
#8
Margaret Flowers, Stephanie Birkey Reffey, Shirley A Mertz, Marc Hurlbert
In January 2016, the Metastatic Breast Cancer Alliance (the Alliance) convened a think tank of stakeholders from academia, government, industry, and patient advocacy to discuss gaps and opportunities in clinical and translational research in metastatic breast cancer. Priorities that emerged from the meeting included the following: the need for innovative preclinical model systems to study metastatic disease; increased sharing of resources and data; collaboration across cancer care teams and scientists; biorepositories for studies to identify biomarkers for treatment response; creation of patient registries to increase access to clinical trials and tissue procurement; and redesign of clinical trials in metastatic breast cancer...
June 10, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599616/a-survey-of-methods-used-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#9
David A Dargatz, Matthew M Erdman, Beth Harris
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598462/an-experience-of-optimizing-a-community-based-micro-insurance-model-to-bridge-the-gap-between-treatment-cost-and-ability-to-pay-at-bpkihs
#10
N Kumar, S Koirala, M Varma
In the year 2001 the leaders of BPKIHS started a micro social insurance scheme; Social Health Insurance (SHI) for prospective research. It is a method of financing and managing health care using compulsory contributions from employers, employees and may be from the government. Household members from organized groups in catchment areas enrolled voluntarily. Photographed service cards were issued entitled for free IPD/OPD consultations, investigations and bed charges excluding CT scans and specialty treatment...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598385/the-roles-of-long-non-protein-coding-rnas-in-osteo-adipogenic-lineage-commitment
#11
REVIEW
Hirotaka Yoshioka, Yuji Yoshiko
Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal progenitor in the bone marrow. This implies that a reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Further, cells of osteoblast lineage transdifferentiate into adipocytes under some circumstances. Dysregulation of osteo-adipogenic fate-determination leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis, accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. Thus, the fine-tuning of osteo-adipogenesis is necessary for bone homeostasis...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589540/depletion-mapping-and-constrained-optimization-to-support-managing-groundwater-extraction
#12
Michael N Fienen, Kenneth R Bradbury, Maribeth Kniffin, Paul M Barlow
Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping-showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow-can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in an oversubscribed basin. Specific management approaches can include scenarios proposed by stakeholders, systematic changes in well pumping based on depletion potential, and formal constrained optimization, which can be used to quantify the tradeoff between water use and stream baseflow...
June 6, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589017/financing-for-universal-health-coverage-in-small-island-states-evidence-from-the-fiji-islands
#13
Augustine D Asante, Wayne Irava, Supon Limwattananon, Andrew Hayen, Joao Martins, Lorna Guinness, John E Ataguba, Jennifer Price, Stephen Jan, Anne Mills, Virginia Wiseman
BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage (UHC) is critical to global poverty alleviation and equity of health systems. Many low-income and middle-income countries, including small island states in the Pacific, have committed to UHC and reforming their health financing systems to better align with UHC goals. This study provides the first comprehensive evidence on equity of the health financing system in Fiji, a small Pacific island state. The health systems of such states are poorly covered in the international literature...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588896/promoting-transparency-accountability-and-access-through-a-multi-stakeholder-initiative-lessons-from-the-medicines-transparency-alliance
#14
Taryn Vian, Jillian C Kohler, Gilles Forte, Deirdre Dimancesco
BACKGROUND: Barriers to expanding access to medicines include weak pharmaceutical sector governance, lack of transparency and accountability, inadequate attention to social services on the political agenda, and financing challenges. Multi-stakeholder initiatives such as the Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) may help overcome these barriers. Between 2008 and 2015, MeTA engaged stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sectors of seven countries (Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia) to promote access goals through greater transparency...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588753/common-therapeutic-target-for-both-cancer-and-obesity
#15
EDITORIAL
Yie-Hwa Chang
Obesity and cancer are two interrelated conditions of high epidemiological need, with studies showing that obesity is responsible for nearly 25% of the relative contribution to cancer incidence. Given the connection between these conditions, a drug that can operate on both obesity and cancer is highly desirable. Such a drug is accomplishable through the development of potent anti-angiogenesis agents due to the shared underlying role of angiogenesis in the development of both diseases. Prior research has demonstrated a key role of type-2 methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) for angiogenesis, which has led to the development of numerous of novel inhibitors...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584509/prostate-cancer-detected-by-screening-in-a-semi-urban-community-in-southeast-nigeria-correlations-and-associations-between-anthropometric-measurements-and-prostate-specific-antigen
#16
Fred O Ugwumba, Agharighom D Okoh, Kevin N Echetabu, Emeka I Udeh, Ikenna I Nnabugwu
CONTEXT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages in Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the screen detected PCa prevalence in a suburban community and explore any relationships between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and anthropometric measurements. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Nsukka is a town and local government area (LGA) in Southeast Nigeria in Enugu State. Towns that share a common border with Nsukka are Edem Ani, Alor-uno, Opi, Orba, and Ede-Oballa...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584027/caution-regarding-government-mandated-shared-decision-making-for-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Megan Coylewright, David R Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577219/spo0m-structure-and-function-beyond-regulation-of-sporulation
#18
REVIEW
Luz Adriana Vega-Cabrera, Christopher D Wood, Liliana Pardo-López
In this mini-review, we present a perspective on the recent findings relating Spo0M structure and function that will stimulate and guide further studies in the characterization of this interesting protein. Cell division and sporulation constitute two of the best studied processes in the model organism Bacillus subtilis; however, there are many missing pieces in the giant regulatory puzzle that governs the independent and shared networks between them. Spo0M is a little studied protein that has been related to both, cell division and sporulation, but its biochemical function and its direct interactions have not been yet defined...
June 2, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575802/themes-and-variations-in-gene-regulation-by-extracytoplasmic-function-ecf-sigma-factors
#19
REVIEW
Elena Sineva, Maria Savkina, Sarah E Ades
The ECF sigma family was identified 23 years ago as a distinct group of σ(70)-like factors. ECF sigma factors have since emerged as a major form of bacterial signal transduction that can be grouped into over 50 phylogenetically distinct subfamilies. Advances in our understanding of these sigma factors and the signaling pathways governing their activity have elucidated conserved features as well as aspects that have evolved over time. All ECF sigma factors are predicted to share a common streamlined domain structure and mode of promoter interaction...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569335/assessment-of-coverage-and-analysis-of-the-determinants-of-adherence-to-influenza-vaccination-in-the-general-practitioners-of-taranto
#20
F Desiante, G Caputi, R Cipriani, C Nanula, I Aprile, A Pesare, M Conversano
BACKGROUND: In Italy, the general practitioner (GP) is the operations manager of the campaigns regarding influenza immunization. He/she identifies people eligible for vaccination among the clients, invites them actively and administers the vaccine. The GPs are directly in contact with the target population that should be vaccinated and their opinion about the flu vaccine may ultimately influence the decision of the patient to accept or not the vaccination. This study aims to assess levels of immunization for influenza vaccination among GPs and factors influencing their adherence to the vaccinations recommended for GPs in the province of Taranto (Apulia region, Southern Italy)...
July 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
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