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Shared Governance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812815/stakeholders-perspectives-on-the-success-drivers-in-ghana-s-national-health-insurance-scheme-identifying-policy-translation-issues
#1
Adam Fusheini, Gordon Marnoch, Ann Marie Gray
BACKGROUND: Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812813/do-management-and-leadership-practices-in-the-context-of-decentralisation-influence-performance-of-community-health-fund-evidence-from-iramba-and-iringa-districts-in-tanzania
#2
Chakupewa Joseph, Stephen Oswald Maluka
BACKGROUND: In early 1990s, Tanzania like other African countries, adopted health sector reform (HSR). The most strongly held centralisation system that informed the nature of services provision including health was, thus, disintegrated giving rise to decentralisation system. It was within the realm of HSR process, user fees were introduced in the health sector. Along with user fees, various types of health insurances, including the Community Health Fund (CHF), were introduced. While the country's level of enrolment in the CHF is low, there are marked variations among districts...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812801/four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#3
EDITORIAL
Jeremy Shiffman
Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks-addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD), maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis-I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812792/a-case-for-open-network-health-systems-systems-as-networks-in-public-mental-health
#4
Michael Grant Rhodes, Marten W de Vries
Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH) services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community) Participation Act (2014), local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or "innovate." But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805448/stakeholders-views-on-data-sharing-in-multicenter-studies
#5
Kathleen M Mazor, Allison Richards, Mia Gallagher, David E Arterburn, Marsha A Raebel, W Benjamin Nowell, Jeffrey R Curtis, Andrea R Paolino, Sengwee Toh
AIM: To understand stakeholders' views on data sharing in multicenter comparative effectiveness research studies and the value of privacy-protecting methods. MATERIALS & METHODS: Semistructured interviews with five US stakeholder groups. RESULTS: We completed 11 interviews, involving patients (n = 15), researchers (n = 10), Institutional Review Board and regulatory staff (n = 3), multicenter research governance experts (n = 2) and healthcare system leaders (n = 4)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805020/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-control-strategies-in-dairy-herds-in-hokkaido-japan-using-stochastic-modelling
#6
S Sekiguchi, P Presi, R Omori, K Staerk, M Schuppers, N Isoda, Y Yoshikawa, T Umemura, H Nakayama, Y Fujii, Y Sakoda
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in cattle can result in growth retardation, reduced milk production, reproductive disorders and death. Persistently infected animals are the primary source of infection. In Hokkaido, Japan, all cattle entering shared pastures in summer are vaccinated before movement for disease control. Additionally, these cattle may be tested for BVDV and culled if positive. However, the effectiveness of this control strategy aiming to reduce the number of BVDV-infected animals has not been assessed...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804786/health-impact-assessment-of-the-uk-soft-drinks-industry-levy-a-comparative-risk-assessment-modelling-study
#7
Adam D M Briggs, Oliver T Mytton, Ariane Kehlbacher, Richard Tiffin, Ahmed Elhussein, Mike Rayner, Susan A Jebb, Tony Blakely, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: In March, 2016, the UK Government proposed a tiered levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; high tax for drinks with >8 g of sugar per 100 mL, moderate tax for 5-8 g, and no tax for <5 g). We estimate the effect of possible industry responses to the levy on obesity, diabetes, and dental caries. METHODS: We modelled three possible industry responses: reformulation to reduce sugar concentration, an increase of product price, and a change of the market share of high-sugar, mid-sugar, and low-sugar drinks...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800808/legal-and-ethical-challenges-part-1-general-population
#8
REVIEW
Britta Ostermeyer, Anim N Shoaib, Swapna Deshpande
Several federal and state laws and regulations, as well as ethical medical principles, govern the emergency clinician's practice of care. Although some common legal-medical and ethical principles are shared with other medical specialties, emergency medicine and emergency psychiatry have unique legal and ethical challenges. This article presents and discusses these challenges, including the physician-patient relationship, malpractice, confidentiality and privilege, duty to report, decision-making capacity and vicarious decision-making, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, right to treatment, hospital admissions, involuntary commitment, forced medication administration, and child and elder abuse...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799659/perspectives-on-cybersecurity-information-sharing-among-multiple-stakeholders-using-a-decision-theoretic-approach
#9
Meilin He, Laura Devine, Jun Zhuang
The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC)...
August 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799041/synergistic-interface-behavior-of-strontium-adsorption-using-mixed-microorganisms
#10
Wenyuan Hu, Faqin Dong, Guangmin Yang, Xin Peng, Xiaojun Huang, Mingxue Liu, Jing Zhang
The proper handling of low-level radioactive waste is crucial to promote the sustainable development of nuclear power. Research into the mechanism for interactions between bacterium and radionuclides is the starting point for achieving successful remediation of radionuclides with microorganisms. Using Sr(II) as a simulation radionuclide and the mixed microorganisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis as the biological adsorbent, this study investigates behavior at the interface between Sr(II) and the microorganisms as well as the mechanisms governing that behavior...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793895/the-path-from-a-volunteer-initiative-to-an-established-institution-evaluating-15%C3%A2-years-of-the-development-and-contribution-of-the-lighthouse-trust-to-the-malawian-hiv-response
#11
Sam Phiri, Florian Neuhann, Nicola Glaser, Thomas Gass, Thom Chaweza, Hannock Tweya
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic has triggered the development of new health institutions with a special focus on HIV care. The role of these relatively new institutions within the health systems of low-income countries like Malawi is not clearly determined. We evaluate and describe the development of one example, the Lighthouse Trust (Lighthouse), over a period of 15 years (2000-2015). METHODS: Data from multiple sources, including a document review, participatory observation and interviews were analysed, triangulated and synthesized...
August 9, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793365/saving-lives-with-caring-assessments-how-tanzanian-nurse-midwives-and-obstetricians-negotiate-postpartum-practices
#12
Thecla W Kohi, Megan Aston, Lilian T Mselle, Danielle Macdonald, Columba Mbekenga, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Maureen White, Shawna OHearn, Sheri Price, Keisha Jefferies
INTRODUCTION: The Tanzanian Government has prioritized maternal and child health as an urgent health care issue. Nurse-midwives and obstetricians are the two main providers of care throughout the prenatal and postpartum periods. THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the nurse-midwives and obstetricians experiences delivering postpartum care assessments and how it was constructed through personal, social and institutional discourses. DESIGN: A qualitative design guided by a feminist poststructuralist methodology...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789740/strategically-positioned-breastfeeding-advocacy-and-the-hands-on-nurse
#13
Erika L Gathron
Breastfeeding, a health behavior that provides well-known benefits for mothers, infants, and children, is an essential strategy to improve public health. Breastfeeding can reduce the incidence of infant illness and death and provides both short- and longterm physiological benefits to mothers. National and international government agencies and grassroots organizations supporting breastfeeding include the World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the La Leche League...
August 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782678/resting-state-networks-in-empirical-and-simulated-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#14
Katharina Glomb, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Matthieu Gilson, Petra Ritter, Gustavo Deco
It is well-established that patterns of functional connectivity (FC) - measures of correlated activity between pairs of voxels or regions observed in the human brain using neuroimaging - are robustly expressed in spontaneous activity during rest. These patterns are not static, but exhibit complex spatio-temporal dynamics. Over the last years, a multitude of methods have been proposed to reveal these dynamics on the level of the whole brain. One finding is that the brain transitions through different FC configurations over time, and substantial effort has been put into characterizing these configurations...
August 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777507/the-medicare-chronic-disease-dental-scheme-historical-scientific-socio-political-origins
#15
Harry Francis Akers, Arosha Tania Weerakoon, Michael Anthony Foley, Andrew James McAuliffe
While evidence and expert opinion are the foundations of effective policy, the politics, economics, and timing of a proposal can affect outcome. Australian government involvement in the planning, funding and delivery of dental services has been minimal and inconsistent. Many believe that the hybrid dispersal model of shared constitutional power has intermittently led to poor administration of national health policy. Throughout the decade-long prelude to the introduction of the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme, a landmark health policy in Australia, Parliamentarians moved responsibility for public dental services of disadvantaged Australians into an impasse between the Federal, State, and Territorial Governments...
July 2017: Journal of the History of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774319/policy-experimentation-and-innovation-as-a-response-to-complexity-in-china-s-management-of-health-reforms
#16
REVIEW
Lewis Husain
There are increasing criticisms of dominant models for scaling up health systems in developing countries and a recognition that approaches are needed that better take into account the complexity of health interventions. Since Reform and Opening in the late 1970s, Chinese government has managed complex, rapid and intersecting reforms across many policy areas. As with reforms in other policy areas, reform of the health system has been through a process of trial and error. There is increasing understanding of the importance of policy experimentation and innovation in many of China's reforms; this article argues that these processes have been important in rebuilding China's health system...
August 3, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768712/factors-influencing-the-reporting-of-adverse-medical-device-events-qualitative-interviews-with-physicians-about-higher-risk-implantable-devices
#17
Anna R Gagliardi, Ariel Ducey, Pascale Lehoux, Thomas Turgeon, Sue Ross, Patricia Trvovich, Anthony Easty, Chaim Bell, David Urbach
BACKGROUND: Postmarket surveillance of medical devices is reliant on physician reporting of adverse medical device events (AMDEs). Little is known about factors that influence whether and how physicians report AMDEs, an essential step in developing behaviour change interventions. This study explored factors that influence AMDE reporting. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians who differed by specialties that implant cardiovascular and orthopaedic devices prone to AMDEs, geography and years in practice...
August 2, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768400/strategies-for-appropriate-patient-centered-care-to-decrease-the-nationwide-cost-of-cancers-in-korea
#18
Jong-Myon Bae
In terms of years of life lost to premature mortality, cancer imposes the highest burden in Korea. In order to reduce the burden of cancer, the Korean government has implemented cancer control programs aiming to reduce cancer incidence, to increase survival rates, and to decrease cancer mortality. However, these programs may paradoxically increase the cost burden. For examples, a cancer screening program for early detection could bring about over-diagnosis and over-treatment, and supplying medical services in a paternalistic manner could lead to defensive medicine or futile care...
July 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758310/the-global-burden-of-respiratory-infections-in-indigenous-children-and-adults-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Thilini L Basnayake, Lucy C Morgan, Anne B Chang
This review article focuses on common lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in indigenous populations in both developed and developing countries, where data is available. Indigenous populations across the world share some commonalities including poorer health and socio-economic disadvantage compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Generally, acute and chronic respiratory infections are more frequent and more severe in both indigenous children and adults, often resulting in substantial consequences including higher rates of bronchiectasis and poorer outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
July 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754907/mapping-the-chromatin-landscape-and-blimp1-transcriptional-targets-that-regulate-trophoblast-differentiation
#20
Andrew C Nelson, Arne W Mould, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) give rise to specialized cell types within the placenta. However, the regulatory mechanisms that guide trophoblast cell fate decisions during placenta development remain ill defined. Here we exploited ATAC-seq and transcriptional profiling strategies to describe dynamic changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility during TSC differentiation. We detect significantly increased chromatin accessibility at key genes upregulated as TSCs exit from the stem cell state. However, downregulated gene expression is not simply due to the loss of chromatin accessibility in proximal regions...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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