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Hypothalamic Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431449/peripheral-and-central-glucocorticoid-signaling-contributes-to-positive-energy-balance-in-rats
#1
Tássia Karin Borba, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Raquel da Silva Aragão, Ana Elisa Toscano, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro
The obesity epidemic has been the target of several studies to understand its etiology. The pathophysiological processes that take to obesity generally relate to the rupture of energy balance. This imbalance can result from environmental and/or endogenous events. Among the endogenous events, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which promotes stress response via glucocorticoid activity, is considered a modulator of energy balance. However, it remains controversial whether the increase in plasma levels of glucocorticoids results in a positive or negative energy balance...
April 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421037/lipid-processing-in-the-brain-a-key-regulator-of-systemic-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Kimberley D Bruce, Andrea Zsombok, Robert H Eckel
Metabolic disorders, particularly aberrations in lipid homeostasis, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia often manifest together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders, the prevalence of the MetS continues to rise. It is becoming increasingly apparent that intermediary metabolism within the central nervous system is a major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. In particular, lipid metabolism within the brain is tightly regulated to maintain neuronal structure and function and may signal nutrient status to modulate metabolism in key peripheral tissues such as the liver...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420713/acute-versus-chronic-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-leads-to-distinct-regulation-of-pka
#3
Edra London, Maria Nesterova, Constantine A Stratakis
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity, and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413737/amino-acid-leucine-chromatography-a-study-of-branched-chain-aminoaciduria-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Bhagavan Reddy Kolanu, Venugopal Boddula, Sabitha Vadakedath, Venkataramana Kandi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a disease characterized by insulin deficiency resulting in glucose intolerance and in abnormalities of other metabolic fuels including protein. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) play an important role in the regulation of protein synthesis by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pancreatic β cells. BCAAs have positive effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis...
March 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#5
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402851/il-6-improves-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obesity-via-enhanced-central-il-6-trans-signaling
#6
Katharina Timper, Jesse Lee Denson, Sophie Marie Steculorum, Christian Heilinger, Linda Engström-Ruud, Claudia Maria Wunderlich, Stefan Rose-John, F Thomas Wunderlich, Jens Claus Brüning
Interleukin (IL)-6 engages similar signaling mechanisms to leptin. Here, we find that central application of IL-6 in mice suppresses feeding and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to leptin, whose action is attenuated in obesity, the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding is enhanced in obese mice. IL-6 suppresses feeding in the absence of neuronal IL-6-receptor (IL-6R) expression in hypothalamic or all forebrain neurons of mice. Conversely, obese mice exhibit increased soluble IL-6R levels in the cerebrospinal fluid...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388573/amsh-prevents-ros-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-foxo1-mtorc2-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#7
Weina Cao, Meihang Li, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Tongying Feng, Yang Xu, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) is an important adenohypophysis polypeptide hormone that regulates body metabolic status. To date, it is well known that the disorder of hypothalamic αMSH secretion is related to many metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we focused on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced adipocyte apoptosis and tried to unveil the role of αMSH in this process and the signal pathway which αMSH acts through...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380195/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-normalizes-pancreatic-islet-proliferation-rate-and-function-but-not-hepatic-steatosis-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#8
K R Cantelli, G M Soares, R A Ribeiro, S L Balbo, C Lubaczeuski, A C Boschero, A C F Araújo, M L Bonfleur
Modifications in life-style and/or pharmacotherapies contribute to weight loss and ameliorate the metabolic profile of diet-induced obese humans and rodents. Since these strategies fail to treat hypothalamic obesity, we have assessed the possible mechanisms by which duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and the morphophysiology of pancreatic islets, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. During the first 5 days of life, male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg body weight, HyO group), or saline (CTL)...
March 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377875/astrocyte-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-is-required-for-diet-induced-obesity-and-hypothalamic-inflammation
#9
J D Douglass, M D Dorfman, R Fasnacht, L D Shaffer, J P Thaler
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD) consumption in rodents is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis. While neuronal inflammation promotes HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction, the role of astrocyte activation in susceptibility to hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced obesity (DIO) remains uncertain. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were performed on HFD-fed mice with a tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IKKβ (Gfap(CreER)Ikbkb(fl/fl), IKKβ-AKO), an essential cofactor of NF-κB-mediated inflammation...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377744/non-neuronal-cells-in-the-hypothalamic-adaptation-to-metabolic-signals
#10
REVIEW
Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Jesús Argente, Luis Miguel García-Segura, Julie A Chowen
Although the brain is composed of numerous cell types, neurons have received the vast majority of attention in the attempt to understand how this organ functions. Neurons are indeed fundamental but, in order for them to function correctly, they rely on the surrounding "non-neuronal" cells. These different cell types, which include glia, epithelial cells, pericytes, and endothelia, supply essential substances to neurons, in addition to protecting them from dangerous substances and situations. Moreover, it is now clear that non-neuronal cells can also actively participate in determining neuronal signaling outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374855/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-assisted-by-elevated-glucose-activates-paraventricular-nucleus-nucb2-nesfatin-1-neurons-to-produce-satiety-under-fed-states
#11
Putra Santoso, Masanori Nakata, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Zhang Boyang, Kumari Parmila, Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul, Koshi Hashimoto, Tetsurou Satoh, Masatomo Mori, Makoto Kuro-O, Toshihiko Yada
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), liver-derived hormone, exerts diverse metabolic effects, being considered for clinical application to treat obesity and diabetes. However, its anorexigenic effect is debatable and whether it involves the central mechanism remains unclarified. Moreover, the neuron mediating FGF21's anorexigenic effect and the systemic energy state supporting it are unclear. We explored the target neuron and fed/fasted state dependence of FGF21's anorexigenic action. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of FGF21 markedly suppressed food intake in fed mice with elevated blood glucose...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373831/interactions-of-circadian-rhythmicity-stress-and-orexigenic-neuropeptide-systems-implications-for-food-intake-control
#12
REVIEW
Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach, Grzegorz Hess, Marian H Lewandowski
Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the "control" of the "master biological clock" reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366738/the-heartbreak-of-depression-psycho-cardiac-coupling-in-myocardial-infarction
#13
REVIEW
John P Headrick, Jason N Peart, Boris P Budiono, David H K Shum, David L Neumann, Nicolas J C Stapelberg
Ample evidence identifies strong links between major depressive disorder (MDD) and both risk of ischemic or coronary heart disease (CHD) and resultant morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanistic bases of these linkages are poorly defined. Systemic factors linked to MDD, including vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes, together with associated behavioral changes, all elevate CHD risk. Nonetheless, experimental evidence indicates the myocardium is also directly modified in depression, independently of these factors, impairing infarct tolerance and cardioprotection...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359097/a-perspective-on-middle-aged-and-older-men-with-functional-hypogonadism-focus-on-holistic-management
#14
Mathis Grossmann, Alvin M Matsumoto
Context: Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Evidence Synthesis: Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357127/metabolic-effects-of-a-mitochondrial-targeted-coenzyme-q-analog-in-high-fat-fed-obese-mice
#15
Brian D Fink, Deng Fu Guo, Chaitanya A Kulkarni, Kamal Rahmouni, Robert J Kerns, William I Sivitz
We recently reported that mitoquinone (mitoQ, 500 μmol/L) added to drinking water of C57BL/6J mice attenuated weight gain, decreased food intake, increased hypothalamic orexigenic gene expression, and mitigated oxidative stress when administered from the onset of high-fat (HF) feeding. Here, we examined the effects of mitoQ on pre-existing obesity in C57BL/6J mice first made obese by 107 days of HF feeding. In contrast to our preventative study, we found that already obese mice did not tolerate mitoQ at 500 μmol/L...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351720/estradiol-effects-on-hypothalamic-ampk-and-bat-thermogenesis-a-gateway-for-obesity-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere
In addition to their prominent roles in the control of reproduction, estrogens are important modulators of energy balance, as evident in conditions of deficiency of estrogens, which are characterized by increased feeding and decreased energy expenditure, leading to obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous cellular energy gauge that is activated under conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy wasting. Centrally, the AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks...
March 25, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350524/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-obesity
#17
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Shanghai Chen, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Feifan Guo
ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) is an important transcription factor that has many biological functions, while its role in hypothalamic POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin-α) neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis has not been explored. We recently discovered that mice with an Atf4 deletion specific to POMC neurons (PAKO mice) are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, these mice are resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mechanistically, we found the expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5) is upregulated in POMC neurons of PAKO mice, and ATF4 regulates ATG5 expression by binding directly to its promoter...
March 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349223/the-orexin-system-and-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Huber, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
In this review, we focus on the role of orexin signaling in blood pressure control and its potential link to hypertension by summarizing evidence from several experimental animal models of hypertension. Studies using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model of human essential hypertension show that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in SHRs but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In addition, increased activity of the orexin system contributes to elevated blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in dark-active period Schlager hypertensive (BPH/2J) mice, another genetic model of neurogenic hypertension...
March 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347724/metabolic-effects-of-intermittent-access-to-caloric-or-non-caloric-sweetened-solutions-in-mice-fed-a-high-caloric-diet
#19
Marion Soto, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrick C Even, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Daniel Tomé, Gilles Fromentin
Human consumption of obesogenic diets and soft drinks, sweetened with different molecules, is increasing worldwide, and increases the risk of metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that the chronic consumption of caloric (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), maltodextrin) and non-caloric (sucralose) solutions under 2-hour intermittent access, alongside the consumption of a high-fat high-sucrose diet, would result in differential obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice had ad libitum access to an HFHS diet and to water (water control group)...
March 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346917/endocrine-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma%C3%A2
#20
Ilaria Sani, Assunta Albanese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) face sequelae related to tumour location and treatment modalities. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and OPG who did not receive radiotherapy or surgical resection. The causative role of tumour location on endocrinopathy development is investigated. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study of 40 children with NF1 and OPG evaluated between August 1996 and May 2015 was undertaken...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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