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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632974/hcv-positive-donor-organs-in-solid-organ-transplantation-mind-the-gap
#1
EDITORIAL
J A Fishman, X Forns
The shortage of organs for transplantation is a major impediment to access to life-saving therapy. The availability of antiviral therapies that control hepatitis B (HBV) and HIV, or cure hepatitis C (HCV), have changed traditional equations in transplantation, allowing infected individuals access to transplantation without unimpeded viral replication during immunosuppression. The availability of these therapies also permits use of organs from donors actively or potentially infected with these viruses. This article is protected by copyright...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#2
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627008/invasive-trichophyton-rubrum-mimicking-blastomycosis-in-a-patient-with-solid-organ-transplant
#3
Faezeh Talebi-Liasi, Michi M Shinohara
We present a case of tissue invasive Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) histologically mimicking blastomycosis in a patient with kidney transplant on chronic immunosuppression. Invasive dermatophyte infections are rare, and present a diagnostic challenge to the dermatopathologist due to atypical clinical and histopathological presentations.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625828/precision-monitoring-of-immunotherapies-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Rose Diloreto, Kiran Khush, Iwijn De Vlaminck
Pharmacological immunotherapies are a key component of post-transplant therapy in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In current clinical practice, immunotherapies largely follow a one-size fits all approach, leaving a large portion of transplant recipients either over- or under-immunosuppressed, and consequently at risk of infections or immune-mediated complications. Our goal here is to review recent and rapid advances in precision and genomic medicine approaches to monitoring of post-transplant immunotherapies...
June 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622640/clinical-course-and-core-variability-in-hbv-infected-patients-without-detectable-anti-hbc-antibodies
#5
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Jens Verheyen, Johannes Korth, Guido Gerken, Fabian A Helfritz, Ali Canbay, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek
BACKGROUND: The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN: From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative for anti-HBc. The absence of anti-HBc could be confirmed in 19 patients using an alternative assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621877/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-solid-organ-transplantation-the-role-of-immunosuppression
#6
REVIEW
Theoni Kanellopoulou
Hemolysis after solid organ transplantation can be caused by both immune and non-immune mediated mechanisms and the evaluation must take into account issues distinctive to the post-transplant period. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia usually occurs within the first year and has been attributed to immunosuppressive treatment, infections or underlying post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Review of the literature revealed 59 cases with autoimmune hemolytic anemia mostly in children after liver transplantation...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620307/peri-and-postoperative-treatment-with-the-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-anakinra-is-safe-in-patients-undergoing-renal-transplantation-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Catharina M Mulders-Manders, Marije C Baas, Femke M Molenaar, Anna Simon
In patients undergoing solid organ transplantation, the presence of an interleukin-1 (IL-1) driven disease may require the addition of IL-1 inhibiting drugs to the standard immunosuppressive regimen to protect against inflammation and negative graft outcome. Three patients undergoing renal transplantation were treated perioperatively with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Kidney function increased rapidly in all three and the only complications seen were minor infections. In vitro studies report associations between serum and urinary levels of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist and negative graft outcome, and studies in animals and two small human trials illustrate a possible protective effect of anti-IL-1 therapy after solid organ transplantation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618165/herpes-simplex-virus-2-transmission-following-solid-organ-transplantation-donor-derived-infection-and-transplantation-from-prior-organ-recipients
#8
Nenad Macesic, Ian J Abbott, Matthew Kaye, Julian Druce, Allan R Glanville, Paul J Gow, Peter D Hughes, Tony M Korman, William R Mulley, Phillip J O'Connell, Helen Opdam, Miranda Paraskeva, Matthew C Pitman, Stella Setyapranata, William D Rawlinson, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Pre-transplant serology and virological features of HSV-2 were characterized...
June 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614192/perioperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-surgical-site-infections-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#9
Judith A Anesi, Emily A Blumberg, Lilian M Abbo
Antibiotic prophylaxis in the perioperative period is the standard of care for nearly all surgical procedures and routinely prescribed during solid organ transplantation (SOT). The primary goal of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is to minimize postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are a significant issue in SOT. Depending on the organ transplanted, SSIs occur in 3 to 53% of patients, with the highest rates observed in small bowel/multivisceral, liver, and pancreas transplant recipients. SOT recipients are also at increased risk of developing SSIs with antimicrobial-resistant organisms...
June 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614157/probable-donor-derived-cytomegalovirus-disease-after-keratolimbal-allograft-transplantation
#10
Albert Y Cheung, Amit Govil, Scott R Friedstrom, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE: To report a case of probable donor-derived cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) transplantation. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: A 41-year-old man with a history of aniridic keratopathy and limbal stem cell deficiency underwent KLAL in his right eye. Preoperatively, he was negative for CMV IgG and IgM. Postoperatively, he was maintained on tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for systemic immunosuppression; he was also on prophylactic valganciclovir (for CMV) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (for pneumocystis pneumonia) for 1 month...
June 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611638/rapid-disease-progression-of-liver-metastases-following-resection-in-a-liver-transplanted-patient-with-probable-lynch-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Noelle Suemi Wassano, Francisco Sergi, Gustavo Ferro, Tércio Genzini, Renata D'Alpino Peixoto
Solid organ transplantation provides life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage organ disease, and its outcomes have been improving dramatically over the past few decades. However, substantial morbidity results from chronic immunosuppressive therapy administered to prevent graft rejection. It predisposes patients to several life-threatening complications, such as opportunistic microbial infections and the development of different types of cancers. Here, we presented the case of a young man with probable Lynch syndrome, who developed an aggressive colon carcinoma after long-term immunosuppressive therapy due to a prior liver transplantation...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599954/cmv-specific-t-cell-immunity-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-at-low-risk-of-cmv-infection-chronology-and-applicability-in-preemptive-therapy
#12
Juan Damián Mena-Romo, Pilar Pérez Romero, Cecilia Martín-Gandul, Miguel Ángel Gentil, Gonzalo Suárez-Artacho, Ernesto Lage, Magdalena Sánchez, Elisa Cordero
OBJECTIVES: To characterize whether the CMV-specific cellular immune response can be used as a predictor of the control of CMV infection and disease and determine thresholds in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients seropositive for CMV (R+). METHODS: The CMV-specific T-cell response was characterized using intracellular cytokine staining and the evolution of clinical and virological parameters were recorded during the first year after transplantation. RESULTS: Besides having positive CMV serology, only 28...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583524/epidemiology-and-outcome-of-ganciclovir-resistant-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-transplant-center-experience-in-thailand
#13
J Bruminhent, P Rotjanapan, S P Watcharananan
BACKGROUND: Data on drug-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplantation (SOT) are not often reported from resource-limited settings. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of this infection in SOT recipients at our institution. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted from January 2012 to May 2015. We included all SOT recipients who were suspected for drug-resistant CMV infection. Genotypic assay for UL97 gene mutation was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582321/cytomegalovirus-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
David Herman, Hyosun Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following solid-organ transplant and remains a cause of life-threatening disease and allograft rejection in liver transplant recipients. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current strategies in diagnosis and management of this disease in this vulnerable population. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of high-risk individuals and aggressive treatment with antiviral agents, either via prophylaxis or by early initiation during active disease, has become the standard of care...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582320/hepatitis-e-viral-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#15
Stanley Y Fang, Hyosun Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published in the past 10 years with focus to the best literatures published since 2015 regarding chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients who received solid organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis of this disease relies primarily on identification of HEV RNA in serum and more recently in stool as way of predicting relapse and guide therapy duration. Current management focuses primarily on primary prevention and supportive care, because additional research is needed to identify efficacious pharmacologic therapy, though use of ribavirin has shown promise in case series in treatment of some genotypes...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573901/a-case-report-of-parvovirus-b19-infection-in-a-renal-allograft
#16
Diana M Oramas, Suman Setty, Vijay Yeldandi, Julio Cabrera, Tushar Patel
Parvovirus B19 infection is undiagnosed in recipients undergoing solid organ transplantation. It is usually responsible for unexplained acute and chronic red blood cell aplasia that does not respond to erythropoietin therapy. Cases of parvovirus B19 infection associated with pancytopenia, solid organ dysfunction, and allograft rejection have been described in the literature. The deterioration of the immune system as a result of severe immunotherapy favors the reactivation of a previous infection or the acquisition of a new one...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570330/neurologic-complications-of-transplantation
#17
Amy A Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the diagnosis and management of neurologic problems during hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation using time elapsed since transplantation as a guide to expected complications, including drug toxicities, infections, strokes, autoimmune phenomena, disease recurrence, and secondary neoplasms. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing clinical experience in the neurology of transplantation has led to appreciation of the diverse clinical and radiographic spectrum of calcineurin inhibitor-related posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562417/strongyloides-stercoralis-in-solid-organ-transplantation-early-diagnosis-gets-the-worm
#18
Constance M Mobley, Atiya Dhala, Rafik Mark Ghobrial
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Complications of infection are strongly associated with alcoholism, immunosuppression, and organ transplantation. Delayed diagnosis results in hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated strongyloidiasis leading to mortality rates approaching 80%. Early detection, and prevention of infection and transmission are key to diminish this illness. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we cover the basic concepts in immunity, immunosuppression, and disorder necessary for understanding the infectious syndromes associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562416/cryptococcal-disease-in-the-solid-organ-transplant-setting-review-of-clinical-aspects-with-a-discussion-of-asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia
#19
Noah Wald-Dickler, Emily Blodget
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptococcal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant patients. Here, we review the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical course, treatment, and outcomes of Cryptococcus in solid organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: We identify the unique findings in solid organ transplant patients when compared to other immunocompromised patients such as those with HIV. We also describe our experience and outcomes with regard to solid organ transplant patients who do not have positive fungal cultures, but cryptococcal antigen positivity and concern for cryptococcal disease...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561517/malakoplakia-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
John Fredy Nieto-Ríos, Isabel Ramírez, Mónica Zuluaga-Quintero, Lina María Serna-Higuita, Federico Gaviria-Gil, Alejandro Velez-Hoyos
Malakoplakia is a granulomatous disease associated with an infectious etiology, usually involving the urinary tract. It reveals itself as a recurrent urinary tract infection (r-UTI), and in some cases, it is associated with impairment of renal function. Immunosuppression is one of its main associated factors, and it has been increasingly described in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT), mainly kidney transplantation. Macroscopically, it can form masses and sometimes it may be confused with neoplasia, which is why histological findings are fundamental for the diagnosis...
May 31, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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