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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128025/posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Sarah J Nagle, Ran Reshef, Donald E Tsai
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) represent an immunosuppression-related lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferation that occur in the setting of solid organ transplant or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PTLD is a devastating consequence of HSCT and solid organ transplantation with a high morbidity and mortality. Most commonly, PTLD is related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, but an increasing number of non-EBV-related cases are occurring. Initial therapy involves withdrawal of immunosuppression with or without antibody or cytotoxic chemotherapy...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128024/mycobacterial-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Tahuanty Pena, Julia Klesney-Tait
Mycobacterial infections are uncommon in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients but carry significant morbidity and mortality. Donor screening strategies for tuberculosis should be emphasized in high-risk populations. Both tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can have pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of infections. Recommended treatment regimens typically involve multiple drugs with significant adverse effects and drug interactions.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128021/respiratory-fungal-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Oveimar De La Cruz, Fernanda P Silveira
Respiratory fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid organ (SOT) transplant recipients, and are caused primarily by molds. Aspergillus is the most common pathogen. The net state of immunosuppression plays a major role in the risk of respiratory fungal infections after transplantation. Clinical presentation can be atypical and diagnosis can be delayed due to low sensitivity of diagnostic methods or inability to obtain adequate specimens. Fungal infections in HSCT and SOT carry a higher risk of dissemination...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128020/respiratory-viral-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Grant C Paulsen, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Respiratory viruses are common in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and a recognized cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology, risk factors, and attributable mortality in both populations are reviewed. In addition, virus-specific prevention and treatment options, including emerging investigational therapies, are discussed for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, adenovirus, parainfluenza, and other respiratory viruses.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127275/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-fully-mhc-matched-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques-recapitulates-diverse-human-clinical-outcomes
#5
Benjamin J Burwitz, Helen L Wu, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Christine Shriver-Munsch, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Katherine B Hammond, Stephanie L Junell, Jason S Reed, Benjamin N Bimber, Justin M Greene, Gabriela M Webb, Mina Northrup, Wolfram Laub, Paul Kievit, Rhonda MacAllister, Michael K Axthelm, Rebecca Ducore, Anne Lewis, Lois M A Colgin, Theodore Hobbs, Lauren D Martin, Betsy Ferguson, Charles R Thomas, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gabrielle Meyers, Jeffrey J Stanton, Richard T Maziarz, Jonah B Sacha
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a critically important therapy for hematological malignancies, inborn errors of metabolism, and immunodeficiency disorders, yet complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) limit survival. Development of anti-GvHD therapies that do not adversely affect susceptibility to infection or graft-vs.-tumor immunity are hampered by the lack of a physiologically relevant, preclinical model of allogeneic HSCT. Here we show a spectrum of diverse clinical HSCT outcomes including primary and secondary graft failure, lethal GvHD, and stable, disease-free full donor engraftment using reduced intensity conditioning and mobilized peripheral blood HSCT in unrelated, fully MHC-matched Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121254/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-human-cytomegalovirus-status-on-kidney-transplantation
#6
Maciej Zielinski, Agnieszka Tarasewicz, Hanna Zielinska, Magdalena Jankowska, Grazyna Moszkowska, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Boleslaw Rutkowski, Piotr Trzonkowski
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is considered to be a major pathogen that affects the outcome of solid organ transplantation. Both recipient and donor may be HCMV positive, therefore HCMV reinfection is possible after transplantation. However, little is known how cytomegalovirus transmitted from an infected donor to an infected recipient modulates the recipient's already suppressed immunity, and what the clinical consequences are. To investigate these issues, 52 kidney recipients were followed up for two years after transplantation...
November 7, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120502/necrotizing-microascus-tracheo-bronchitis-in-a-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipient
#7
Olivier Taton, Benjamin Bernier, Isabelle Etienne, Benjamin Bondue, Sophie Lecomte, Christiane Knoop, Frederique Jacob, Isabel Montesinos
Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of mortality among solid organ transplant recipients. Scopulariopsis species and their teleomorph Microascus are molds found in soil and decaying organic matter. We report here the case of a woman who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for severe emphysema. On day 25 after transplantation, endobronchial green-black lesions were detected during routine endoscopy. Endobronchial swabs, biopsies, and broncho-alveolar lavage samples were positive for Microascus cirrosus...
November 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110799/acute-postoperative-management-after-lung-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Christopher Potestio, Desmond Jordan, Bessie Kachulis
Despite many advances in the field of lung transplantation, lung transplant recipients have the lowest median survival of any solid organ transplant population. Complications such as reperfusion injury, graft rejection, infection, and anastomotic breakdown increase morbidity and mortality during the immediate postoperative period. Ventilator management with lung protective strategies can not only minimize ventilator time and mitigate the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, but it may also decrease the risk of primary graft dysfunction and graft failure...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096391/cutaneous-infections-from-viral-sources-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
REVIEW
M Ilyas, N Maganty, A Sharma
Although there is an abundance of information on cutaneous malignancies in transplant recipients, information on cutaneous infections in solid organ transplant recipients is underrepresented in dermatologic and transplant literature. Our paper provides a comprehensive review of viral cutaneous infections within the solid organ transplant population. We compiled literature specific to the solid organ transplant population, reviewing cutaneous manifestations secondary to viral infections. Furthermore, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of such infections...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094463/severe-dermatophytosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-french-retrospective-series-and-literature-review
#10
Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Chosidow, Anabelle Brocard, Sylvie Fraitag, Anne Scemla, Dany Anglicheau, Jean-David Bouaziz, Nicolas Dupin, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Roderick Hay, Olivier Lortholary, Fanny Lanternier
OBJECTIVE: Severe dermatophytosis is described in immunocompromised patients with defective cellular immunity. We report here a large series and a literature review of severe dermatophytosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHOD: The data main source was a national French retrospective study of severe dermatophytosis in SOT recipients between 2010 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were the presence of dermatophytes in skin culture and one severity criteria: dermal invasion by dermatophytes (invasive dermatophytosis) or involvement of at least two body sites or >10% of body surface area (extensive dermatophytosis) RESULTS: Twelve patients were included (8 men, median age of 56 years [range: 33-71])...
November 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084205/the-kinetics-of-torque-teno-virus-plasma-dna-load-shortly-after-engraftment-predicts-the-risk-of-high-level-cmv-dnaemia-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#11
E Albert, C Solano, E Giménez, D Focosi, A Pérez, L Macera, J L Piñana, J C H Boluda, F Maggi, D Navarro
Monitoring Torque teno virus (TTV) DNA load helps to estimate the risk of opportunistic infections in solid organ transplant recipients. We investigated whether the early kinetic pattern of plasma TTV DNA load after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) associates with subsequent CMV and EBV DNAemia. This study included 71 allo-HSCT patients. We found that the area under the curve (AUC) for log10 TTV DNA loads quantified by days 20 and 30 after transplantation (TTV DNA load AUC20-30), was significantly lower (P=0...
October 30, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053403/human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-development-immune-responses-to-look-into-vaccine-strategy
#12
Lin Xia, Ruopeng Su, Zhiqiang An, Tong-Ming Fu, Wenxin Luo
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes considerable morbidity and disability in high risk, immunocompromised populations including recipients of solid organ transplants, and fetuses whose immune systems are not yet mature. Vaccines aimed at ameliorating the severity of disease and preventing HCMV infection can be categorized into two main approaches of vaccine design, with one focusing on virus modification and the other on individual antigens. However, no candidates in either class have been successful in achieving durable and protective immunity...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048510/donor-derived-mycoplasma-hominis-and-an-apparent-cluster-of-m-hominis-cases-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#13
Olivia C Smibert, Heather L Wilson, Asma Sohail, Shanti Narayanasamy, Mark B Schultz, Susan A Ballard, Jason C Kwong, Jim de Boer, C Orla Morrissey, Anton Y Peleg, Greg I Snell, Miranda A Paraskeva, Adam W J Jenney
Background: Invasive and disseminated Mycoplasma hominis infections are well recognized but uncommon complications in solid organ transplant recipients. In a single center, a cluster of M. hominis infections were identified in lung transplant recipients from the same thoracic intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to determine the source(s) of these infections. Methods: Medical records of the donor and infected transplant recipients were reviewed for clinical characteristics...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040209/inherited-and-acquired-clinical-phenotypes-associated-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#14
Rory E Nicholaides, M Teresa de la Morena
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overview of neuroendocrine neoplasms in the context of their associations with primary and secondary immunodeficiency states. RECENT FINDINGS: Malignancies of neuroendocrine origin are well known to be associated with hereditary syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and tuberous sclerosis. This review includes the X-linked form of hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM), due to mutations in the CD40Ligand gene (CD40LG), as an additional inherited disorder with susceptibility to such malignancies, and discusses neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in other immunocompromised states...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037296/tuberculosis-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplants-during-1995-2015-in-cali-colombia
#15
J F García-Goez, G A Munera, V Rojas, R Pacheco, J A Caylá, J M Miro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) in solid-organ transplants (SOTs) is an important opportunistic infection associated with mortality and graft loss. SOT recipients carry a higher risk of contracting active TB than the general population. Clinical and radiographic presentations are non-specific, and sputum smear and culture have low yields. TB patients with SOTs require standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, rifampicin (RMP) use is associated with a 30% rate of acute graft rejection (AGR) and a 20% rate of transplant loss...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027383/immunological-prediction-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-replication-risk-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-approaches-for-regulating-the-targeted-anti-cmv-prevention-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Sang Hoon Han
The current cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention strategies in solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients have contributed towards overcoming the detrimental effects caused by CMV lytic infection, and improving the long-term success rate of graft survival. Although the quantification of CMV in peripheral blood is the standard method, and an excellent end-point for diagnosing CMV replication and modulating the anti-CMV prevention strategies in SOT recipients, a novel biomarker mimicking the CMV control mechanism is required...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025780/cryptococcus-neoformans-osteomyelitis-and-intramuscular-abscess-in-a-liver-transplant-patient
#17
Sonia Maria Poenaru, Rymon Rofaiel, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important pathogen that can cause severe illness and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We highlight here the case of a 53-year-old man presenting to hospital 4 years postliver transplant with fever, acute renal failure and a medial thigh lesion. Initially treated as bacterial sepsis, the patient failed to improve on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Further investigations revealed disseminated cryptococcemia complicated by patellar osteomyelitis and an intramuscular abscess. Unfortunately, although the patient initially showed signs of clinical improvement after starting standard antifungal agents, he deteriorated and died secondary to acute renal failure...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025381/adenovirus-infection-as-a-cause-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-and-allograft-dysfunction-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#18
Michelle Saliba, Hala Kfoury Assouf, Souodod Abbas, Pierre Abi Hanna, Gaby Kamel, Antoine Barbari
With the recent introduction of more potent modern immunosuppressive regimens in solid-organ transplant, new types of viral infections such as adenovirus are emerging as a potential cause for graft dysfunction and loss. We report a case of 41-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease from recurrent kidney stones who underwent kidney transplant from a deceased 12-year-old female donor. He developed adenoviral infection with acute cystitis, microscopic hematuria, and necrotizing interstitial nephritis associated with graft dysfunction within the first month of the postoperative period...
October 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021960/relapsing-ebv-encephalitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#19
Joshua A Stone, Bettina M Knoll, Dimitrios Farmakiotis
In solid organ transplant recipients, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can cause active central nervous system (CNS) infection or malignant transformation of latently infected cells in the CNS, known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Reduction of T-cell immunosuppression is the cornerstone of management. The role of antivirals with in-vitro activity against herpesviruses in EBV-related CNS syndromes is controversial, as they have no effect on latent virus. We report an unusual case of relapsing EBV encephalitis in a donor-positive, EBV-negative renal transplant recipient, with response to valganciclovir...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020223/let-s-make-a-deal-shortening-the-solid-organ-transplant-waiting-time-in-exchange-for-transmitting-and-treating-hepatitis-c-infection-in-the-era-of-safe-and-effective-daas
#20
Ethan M Weinberg, K Rajender Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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