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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338458/hepatitis-b-in-solid-organ-transplant-procedures-other-than-liver
#1
Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Cataldo Doria
Transplant is often the best treatment available for patients with end-stage organ failure. Hepatitis B virus infection in transplant procedures other than liver is a major concern because it can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after transplant. Due to the increased risk of hepatic complications, such as fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis or histologic deterioration after transplant, systematic use of nucleoside or nucleotide analogues shortly before or at the time of transplant is recommended (tenofovir or entecavir are preferable to lamivudine) in all patients, whatever the baseline histologic evaluation...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333859/multicenter-prospective-study-for-laboratory-diagnosis-of-hhv8-infection-in-solid-organ-donors-and-transplant-recipients-and-evaluation-of-the-clinical-impact-after-transplantation
#2
Angela Chiereghin, Patrizia Barozzi, Evangelia Petrisli, Giulia Piccirilli, Liliana Gabrielli, Giovanni Riva, Leonardo Potenza, Gianni Cappelli, Nicola De Ruvo, Irene Libri, Umberto Maggiore, Maria Cristina Morelli, Luciano Potena, Paola Todeschini, Dino Gibertoni, Manuel Labanti, Gabriela Sangiorgi, Gaetano La Manna, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Mario Luppi, Tiziana Lazzarotto
BACKGROUND: We performed serological and molecular pretransplant screening in solid organ transplant (SOT) donors and recipients in north-central Italy and a surveillance program for human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection after transplant, aiming to establish an optimal management of HHV8 infection in SOT recipients. METHODS: For pretransplant HHV8 screening in both donors and recipients, 6 serological (4 indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) and 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) - both HHV8 lytic and latent antigen-based) and 2 molecular assays were used...
March 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329348/outcome-and-treatment-of-nocardiosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-new-insights-from-a-european-study
#3
David Lebeaux, Romain Freund, Christian van Delden, Hélène Guillot, Sierk D Marbus, Marie Matignon, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Benoit Douvry, Julien De Greef, Fanny Vuotto, Leïla Tricot, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jacques Dantal, Cédric Hirzel, Jean-Philippe Jais, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Frédérique Jacobs, Olivier Lortholary, Julien Coussement
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with one-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days). Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#4
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327818/paracoccidioidomycosis-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#5
Thais Carneiro Lima, Regis Otaviano Franca Bezerra, Luiz Tenório de Brito Siqueira, Marcos Roberto de Menezes, Claudia da Costa Leite, Gilda Porta, Giovanni Guido Cerri
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a granulomatous systemic mycosis that is endemic in Latin America; it is an extremely rare infection following solid organ transplantation. In this study, we describe the first report of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in a 3-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation 2 years previously. The radiologic diagnosis and patient follow-up are described. In addition, we review the clinical evolution and treatment regimens for this infection.
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318823/cutaneous-fungal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Muneeb Ilyas, Amit Sharma
Although there is an abundance of information on cutaneous malignancies in transplant recipients, information on cutaneous infections in solid organ transplant recipients is underrepresented in dermatologic and transplant literature. Our paper provides a comprehensive review of fungal cutaneous infections within the solid organ transplant population. We compiled literature specific to the solid organ transplant population, reviewing cutaneous manifestations owing to fungal infections. Furthermore, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of such infections...
March 11, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316109/airway-inflammation-and-symptoms-in-children-following-liver-and-heart-transplantation
#7
Andrew J Redmann, John C Bucuvalas, Robert E Wood, Clifford Chin, Catherine K Hart
OBJECTIVES: Describe the upper airway endoscopic findings of children with upper airway symptoms after liver transplantation (LT) or heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: Review of children undergoing airway endoscopy after LT or HT from 2011 to 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Airway findings, biopsy results, immunosuppression and Ebstein Barr virus (EBV) levels were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 158 LT (111) and HT (47) recipients underwent endoscopy...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295601/idiopathic-hyperammonemia-after-solid-organ-transplantation-primarily-a-lung-problem-a-single-center-experience-and-systematic-review
#8
Dustin Krutsinger, Alejandro Pezzulo, Amy E Blevins, Robert M Reed, Michael Voigt, Michael Eberlein
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic hyperammonemia syndrome (IHS) is an uncommon, often deadly complication of solid organ transplantation. IHS cases in solid organ transplantation seem to occur predominantly in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. However to the best of our knowledge the occurrence of IHS has not been systematically evaluated. We set out to identify all reported cases of IHS following non-liver solid organ transplantations. METHODS: Retrospective review of our institutional experience and systematic review of the literature...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295266/cutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis
#9
Mariana P Caviedes, Ana C Torre, Maite Lisa Eliceche, Denise C Valdivia Monteros, Victoria I Volonteri, Ricardo L Galimberti
BACKGROUND: Phaeohyphomycosis is an infrequent infection in human beings. However, in recent years, its prevalence has augmented in immunosuppressed patients (mostly in solid organ transplanted patients). Infection can be mucocutaneous or disseminated. In the former, the fungus inoculation occurs mainly through traumatism. Lesions may be polymorphic and asymptomatic, isolated or multiple, and are usually localized in exposed areas of the limbs and head. Treatment is not standardized. When possible, surgical resection of the lesion is combined with systemic antifungals...
April 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288014/the-times-they-are-a-changing-hope-for-hiv-to-hiv-organ-transplantation
#10
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
HIV-infected persons who achieve undetectable viral loads on antiretroviral therapy currently have near-normal lifespans. Liver disease is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths, and as a result of longer survival, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV is increasing. HIV-infected persons undergoing organ transplantation generally achieve comparable patient and graft survival rates compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, despite a nearly threefold increased risk of acute rejection. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable organs can limit transplantation as an option, and patients with HIV have higher waitlist mortality than others...
March 1, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284916/infusion-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-deceased-liver-transplantation-a-phase-i-ii-open-label-clinical-study
#11
Olivier Detry, Morgan Vandermeulen, Marie-Hélène Delbouille, Joan Somja, Noella Bletard, Alexandra Briquet, Chantal Lechanteur, Olivier Giet, Etienne Baudoux, Muriel Hannon, Frederic Baron, Yves Beguin
BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a single infusion of MSCs in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Ten liver transplant recipients under standard immunosuppression received 1.5-3x10(6)/kg third-party unrelated MSCs on post-operative day 3±2, and were prospectively compared to a control group of 10 liver transplant recipients...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280938/viral-load-of-ebv-dnaemia-is-a-predictor-of-ebv-related-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-pediatric-renal-transplant-recipients
#12
Elisa Colombini, Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Germana Longo, Cristina Russo, Alessandra Lombardi, Pietro Merli, Luisa Barzon, Luisa Murer, Simone Piga, Marta Luisa Ciofi Degli Atti, Franco Locatelli, Luca Dello Strologo
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a severe complication of solid organ transplantation that can be classified into two major subtypes, namely, early lesions and non-early lesions, based on histopathological findings. In the vast majority of cases, proliferating cells are B lymphocytes and, most frequently, proliferation is induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. METHODS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the natural history of EBV infection and its possible evolution toward PTLD in a pediatric cohort of patients who received a renal transplant between January 2000 and December 2013...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280692/influence-of-tacrolimus-metabolism-rate-on-renal-function-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Gerold Thölking, Hans Ulrich Gerth, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Stefan Reuter
The calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (TAC) is an integral part of the immunosuppressive regimen after solid organ transplantation. Although TAC is very effective in prevention of acute rejection episodes, its highly variable pharmacokinetic and narrow therapeutic window require frequent monitoring of drug levels and dose adjustments. TAC can cause CNI nephrotoxicity even at low blood trough levels (4-6 ng/mL). Thus, other factors besides the TAC trough level might contribute to CNI-related kidney injury...
February 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276008/three-months-of-weekly-rifapentine-plus-isoniazid-for-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-in-solid-organ-transplant-candidates
#14
B M Knoll, R Nog, Y Wu, A Dhand
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid daily for 9 months is the recommended regimen for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates, but its use is controversial, due to reports of hepatotoxicity and low treatment completion rates. A 12-week course of once weekly directly observed therapy (DOT) with isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP) is a new LTBI treatment regimen. Tolerability and safety data of 3HP LTBI treatment in SOT candidates are limited. METHODS: Twelve consecutive SOT candidates who underwent DOT with 3HP for LTBI at Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA, between January 2013 and August 2016 were prospectively evaluated for tolerability and safety of 3HP...
March 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273399/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-norovirus-infection-in-intestinal-allograft-compared-to-native-intestine
#15
Diana F Florescu, Jessica L Sonderup, Wendy Grant, Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Andre C Kalil
BACKGROUND: No data are available on clinical manifestations and course of norovirus gastroenteritis (NVE) in intestinal allograft (from intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients, ITR) compared to native intestine (from other allograft recipients, nITR). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of solid organ transplant recipients with NVE at two centers from January 1, 2010 to April 1, 2014. Chi-square, t-test, linear and logistic regression analyses were done to compare NVE in ITR vs nITR patients...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262425/sex-differences-in-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Jeremiah D Momper, Michael L Misel, Dianne B McKay
Sex plays a role in the incidence and progression of a wide variety of diseases and conditions related to transplantation. Additionally, a growing body of clinical and experimental evidence suggests that sex can impact the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several commonly used immunosuppressive and anti-infective drugs in transplant recipients. A better understanding of these sex differences will facilitate advances in individualizing treatment for patients and improve outcomes of solid organ transplantation...
February 20, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261220/dual-role-of-natural-killer-cells-on-graft-rejection-and-control-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-renal-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Miguel López-Botet, Carlos Vilches, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Aura Muntasell, Aldi Pupuleku, José Yélamos, Julio Pascual, Marta Crespo
Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260482/late-diagnosis-of-e148q-mutation-positive-familial-mediterranean-fever-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-fever-of-unknown-origin-a-case-report
#18
Erhan Tatar, Adam Uslu, Cenk Simsek, Ahmet Aykas, Giray Bozkaya, Cetin Imamoglu
Fever of unknown origin is a rare condition after solid organ transplant and is generally associated with atypical infections (eg, tuberculosis, fungal infections) and/or lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we present a kidney transplant patient with a late diagnosis of E148Q mutation-positive familial Mediterranean fever as the cause of fever of unknown origin. A 22-year-old female patient with a previous history of 4 years of hemodialysis and unknown primary renal disease received a deceased-donor kidney transplant at our center 5 years previously...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260471/culture-positive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-infection-clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#19
Balam Er Dedekarginoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Gaye Ulubay, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection among solid-organ transplant recipients. Even after awareness of this infection occurs, there are still gaps in nonculture diagnostic tests, which can delay treatment initiation. Here, we aimed to define the common traits of pulmonary aspergillosis infection among solid-organ transplant recipients, thus shedding light on prevention and early diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a database search of patients at Baskent University who had a positive aspergillosis culture between January 2010 and March 2016...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258506/persistent-hepatitis-e-infection-in-a-patient-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-treated-with-everolimus-a-case-report
#20
Wobke E M van Dijk, Menno A M H Vergeer, Joop E Arends
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of hepatitis E (HEV) genotype 3 is rising in developed countries. HEV infections are usually self-limiting, but can become chronic in immunocompromised patients. This might lead to rapid fibrosis development even resulting in cirrhosis. Chronic HEV is mainly described in patients after solid-organ or hematological transplantations. We present the first case of HEV infection in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) treated with everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor...
March 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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