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solid organ transplant infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513974/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-outcomes-in-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-patients-a-single-center-experience
#1
Sally Alrabaa, Ripal Jariwala, Kristen Zeitler, Jose Montero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major infectious disease focus for which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used with success in various patient populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of FMT in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients to review outcomes at our center, with a focus on identifying risk factors for FMT failure in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. FMT was conducted using universal banked frozen stool via naso-duodenal tube in patients with recurrent CDI of 3 or more episodes per our institutional protocol...
May 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513810/epstein-barr-virus-encephalitis-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
Jillian S Y S Y, Zhi Mei Low, Iain Abbott, Lani Shochet, John Kanellis, Richard A Kitching, Tony M Korman
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically associated with post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after solid organ and stem cell transplantation. However, it is rarely associated with neurological complications. We report a case of severe encephalitis complicating primary EBV infection six months post renal transplantation, and review the literature on EBV encephalitis in solid organ transplantation in adults. A 55-year-old male presented 6 months post cadaveric renal transplant with headache, fever and confusion...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511545/fosfomycin-tromethamine-for-the-treatment-of-cystitis-in-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-renal-dysfunction
#3
Luiza Kerstenetzky, Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen Leverson, Warren E Rose, Robert R Redfield, Jeannina A Smith
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) after abdominal solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Fosfomycin tromethamine (FOS), a uroselective antibiotic, is FDA approved for uncomplicated UTIs in women and is used off-label for complicated UTIs and prostatitis in men. Literature supporting the use of FOS in the SOT population is limited, and efficacy is questioned in the setting of renal dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success of FOS for the treatment of cystitis in SOT patients with renal dysfunction...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505159/infectious-disease-ward-admission-positively-influences-p-jiroveci-pneumonia-pjp-outcome-a-retrospective-analysis-of-116-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-immunocompromised-patients
#4
Alessandra Ricciardi, Elisa Gentilotti, Luigi Coppola, Gaetano Maffongelli, Carlotta Cerva, Vincenzo Malagnino, Alessia Mari, Ambra Di Veroli, Federica Berrilli, Fabiana Apice, Nicola Toschi, David Di Cave, Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Massimo Andreoni, Loredana Sarmati
P. jiroveci (Pj) causes a potentially fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients and the factors associated with a bad outcome are poorly understood. A retrospective analysis on Pj pneumonia (PjP) cases occurring in Tor Vergata University Hospital, Italy, during the period 2011-2015. The patients' demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics and the Pj genotypes were considered. The study population included 116 patients, 37.9% of whom had haematological malignancy or underwent haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500792/changing-trends-in-the-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-occurring-in-the-first-year-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Isabel Oriol, Núria Sabé, Antonella F Simonetti, Laura Lladó, Anna Manonelles, Jose González, Fe Tubau, Jordi Carratalà
To analyse trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of BSI within the first year post-transplant over the last 10-year period, we prospectively recorded all episodes of BSI occurring in SOT recipients during the first year post-transplant from 2007 to 2016. Trends of factors were analysed by 2-year periods. Of 475 consecutive episodes of BSI, 218 occurred within a year of SOT in 178 SOT recipients. Gram-positive BSI decreased over time (40.5% to 2.2%). In contrast, there was a steady increase in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) BSI (54...
May 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500778/phaeohyphomycosis-due-to-exophiala-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Kate E Oberlin, Anna J Nichols, Rossana Rosa, Adriana Dejman, Adela Mattiazzi, Giselle Guerra, George W Elgart, Lilian M Abbo
This case report and literature review underscores the cutaneous presentations of phaeohyphomycosis in the solid organ transplant population. Increased cognizance with prompt identification is critical. The therapy and clinical outcomes of phaeohyphomycosis, caused by the Exophiala genus, in the solid organ transplant population is analyzed to examine optimal care. This review highlights the inherent difficulties in providing the appropriate duration of antifungal therapy to avoid relapsing infections in immunosuppressed patients...
May 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480277/epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-patients-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#7
Ige A George, Carlos A Q Santos, Margaret A Olsen, William G Powderly
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. There are no nationally representative data describing the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of cryptococcosis after SOT. METHODS: We assembled a large cohort of adult SOT recipients using Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification billing data from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases of Florida (2006-2012), New York (2006-2011), and California (2004-2010)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473916/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-heart-transplantation-4-years-of-clinically-stable-infection-on-low-dose-immunosuppressive-therapy
#8
Per Sundbom, Laila Hubbert, Lena Serrander
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by reactivation of JC-virus is a relatively rare complication seen in patients with compromised immune system. There are no evidence-based treatment available and prognosis is poor. Withdrawal of immunosuppressant can result in further neurological deterioration and for patients with solid organ transplantations, fatal graft rejection. We report a 52-year-old women that presented with seizures within 1 month after heart transplantation. Initial diagnosis was vascular disease...
February 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470983/colonization-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-solid-organ-transplantation-a-meta-analysis-and-review
#9
REVIEW
Michail Alevizakos, Athanasios Kallias, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) may cause severe infections, often preceded by ESBL-E gastrointestinal (GI) colonization. METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature, investigating the prevalence of ESBL-E GI colonization in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients and the risk for subsequent ESBL-E infection. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 1, 2016) looking for studies that contained data on ESBL-E colonization among transplant patients...
May 4, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468570/evaluation-of-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-cmv-test-for-use-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#10
Poornima Ramanan, Raymund R Razonable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection that contributes to poor outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Prevention of CMV end-organ disease in allogeneic HSCT recipients is commonly achieved by preemptive antiviral therapy of asymptomatic CMV reactivation that is detected by serial nucleic acid testing (NAT). However, there was no standardized CMV NAT until the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive review on COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) CMV assay (Roche) and emphasizes the limitations in the clinical use of CMV NAT in HSCT recipients...
May 4, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465043/impact-of-age-and-cytomegalovirus-on-cd8-t-cell-compartment-remodeling-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#11
Sara Cantisán, Aurora Páez-Vega, Francisco Santos, Alberto Rodríguez-Benot, Rocío Aguado, Antonio Rivero, Miguel Montejo, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Rafael Solana
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the β-herpesvirus family, is a major complicating infection in transplant patients. CMV latency has a long-term impact on CD8(+) T-cell differentiation. It is unclear, however, whether this effects can be detected in one-year period. To investigate this we analyzed the remodeling of the CD8(+) T-cell compartment during the first year after solid organ transplantation. A total of 55 kidney or lung transplant patients were recruited. CD8(+) T-cell subsets were prospectively analyzed at pretransplant, at 3 or 6months and 12months after transplantation (mo post-Tx)...
April 29, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457414/pre-emptive-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-in-post-transplantation-liver-patients-with-donor-positive-recipient-negative-serostatus
#12
I R C Brasil, J Custodio-Lima, R L Sampaio, A M M Pierre, T M Esmeraldo, R V C Lima, L F A Lima, R M Esmeraldo
INTODUCTION: Infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity among immunosuppressed patients, especially after solid organ transplantation. The risk of CMV after organ transplantation is strongly related to the serology of the donor and the recipient. The objective of this study was to analyze the outcomes and costs of pre-emptive therapy in patients after liver transplantation with donor-positive/recipient-negative (D+/R-) serostatus. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed all patients who underwent liver transplantation with CMV serostatus D+/R- between January 2012 and December 2015...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453842/a-cluster-of-fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-organ-transplant-setting
#13
Dariusz Lipowski, Marta Popiel, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Iwona Bukowska-Osko, Ewa Rzadkiewicz, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Anna Milecka, Wojciech Wenski, Michal Ciszek, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Ewa Ignacak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawelczyk, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Background.: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection has become a major health problem in Europe and is currently a common cause of viral brain infection in many countries. Encephalitis in transplant recipients, althrough rare, is becoming a recognized complication. Our study provides the first description of transmission of TBEV through transplantation of solid organs. Methods.: Three patients who received solid organ transplants from a single donor (2 received kidney, and 1 received liver) developed encephalitis 17-49 days after transplantation and subsequently died...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452107/neuroinvasive-st-louis-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
Carlos A Hartmann, Holenarasipur R Vikram, Maria T Seville, Robert Orenstein, Shimon Kusne, Janis E Blair, Thomas E Grys, Roberto L Patron
In the summer of 2015, 3 unrelated solid organ transplant recipients had meningoencephalitis suggestive of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Phoenix, Arizona. Testing was inconclusive but was later confirmed as St. Louis encephalitis (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of these transplant recipients. Common symptoms were fever, rigors, diarrhea, headache, and confusion. One patient died 3 days after hospitalization. Therapy for the 2 patients was initiated with interferon alfa-2b (IFN) and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) (IFN+IVIG in combination)...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449246/review-article-hepatitis-e-a-concise-review-of-virology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-therapy
#15
REVIEW
M C Donnelly, L Scobie, C L Crossan, H Dalton, P C Hayes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing world. During the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of autochthonous (locally acquired) HEV infection in developed countries. Chronic HEV infection is now recognised, and in transplant recipients this may lead to cirrhosis and organ failure. AIM: To detail current understanding of the molecular biology of HEV, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and propose future directions for basic science and clinical research...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435278/genetic-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-diabetes-mellitus-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Maciej Tarnowski, Sylwia Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Andrzej Pawlik, Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol, Elżbieta Dembowska
Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the major metabolic complications after transplantation of solid organs including the kidney. This type of diabetes mellitus affects allograft survival, cardiovascular complications and overall patient survival. The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. Currently, predisposing genetic factors have been considered important in PTDM development...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#17
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donors which according to current guidelines may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to their recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, led to successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
April 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425766/update-in-the-treatment-of-non-influenza-respiratory-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#18
Shellee A Grim, Gail E Reid, Nina M Clark
Despite the improved outcomes in solid organ transplantation with regard to prevention of rejection and increased patient and graft survival, infection remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory viruses are a frequent and potentially serious cause of infection after solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of respiratory virus infection (RVI) may be more severe and unusual in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared with the non-immunocompromised population...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423464/high-clinical-suspicion-of-donor-derived-disease-leads-to-timely-recognition-and-early-intervention-to-treat-solid-organ-transplant-transmitted-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus
#19
Gagan Mathur, Kunal Yadav, Bradley Ford, Ilana J Schafer, Shridhar V Basavaraju, Barbara Knust, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sam Hill, Garret D Locke, Patricia Quinlisk, Shelley Brown, Ardith Gibbons, Deborah Cannon, Matthew Kuehnert, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre E Rollin, Ute Ströher, Rachel Miller
Despite careful donor screening, unexpected donor-derived infections continue to occur in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one such transplant-transmitted infection that in previous reports has resulted in a high mortality among the affected OTRs. We report a LCMV case cluster that occurred 3 weeks post-transplant in three OTRs who received allografts from a common organ donor in March 2013. Following confirmation of LCMV infection at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, immunosuppression was promptly reduced and ribavirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were initiated in OTRs...
April 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423227/a-national-survey-of-screening-and-management-of-hypogammaglobulinemia-in-canadian-transplantation-centers
#20
Samuel Bourassa-Blanchette, Greg Knoll, Jason Tay, Christopher Bredeson, Donald W Cameron, Juthaporn Cowan
BACKGROUND: Infection remains one of the most common transplant-related causes of death in patients undergoing transplantation. Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) as a component of immune suppression and deficiency is associated with both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Available data and clinical experience for the supplementation of immunoglobulin (Ig) in these patients is conflicting, and clinical equipoise accounts for non-uniform practice in the use of Ig treatment...
April 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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