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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043603/epigenetic-modifications-of-gene-expression-by-lifestyle-and-environment
#1
REVIEW
Qudeer Ahmed Abdul, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Epigenetics oftenly described as the heritable changes in gene expression independent of changes in DNA sequence. Various environmental factors such as nutrition-dietary components, lifestyle, exercise, physical activity, toxins, and other contributing factors remodel the genome either in a constructive or detrimental way. Since epigenetic changes are reversible and nutrition is one of the many epigenetic regulators that modify gene expression without changing the DNA sequence, dietary nutrients and bioactive food components contribute to epigenetic phenomena either by directly suppressing DNA methylation or histone catalyzing enzymes or by changing the availability of substrates required for enzymatic reactions...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037594/epigenetic-modification-of-microrna-200b-contributes-to-diabetic-vasculopathy
#2
Kanhaiya Singh, Durba Pal, Mithun Sinha, Subhadip Ghatak, Surya C Gnyawali, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen
Hyperglycemia (HG) induces genome-wide cytosine demethylation. Our previous work recognized miR-200b as a critical angiomiR, which must be transiently downregulated to initiate wound angiogenesis. Under HG, miR-200b downregulation is not responsive to injury. Here, we demonstrate that HG may drive vasculopathy by epigenetic modification of a miR promoter. In human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), HG also lowered DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-3A) and compromised endothelial function as manifested by diminished endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), lowered LDL uptake, impaired Matrigel tube formation, lower NO production, and compromised VE-cadherin expression...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994391/a-viral-protein-promotes-host-sams1-activity-and-ethylene-production-for-the-benefit-of-virus-infection
#3
Shanshan Zhao, Wei Hong, Jianguo Wu, Yu Wang, Shaoyi Ji, Shuyi Zhu, Chunhong Wei, Jinsong Zhang, Yi Li
Ethylene plays critical roles in plant development and biotic stress response, but the mechanism of ethylene in host antiviral response remains unclear. Here, we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV) triggers ethylene production by stimulating the activity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAMS), a key component of the ethylene synthesis pathway, resulting in elevated susceptibility to RDV. RDV-encoded Pns11 protein specifically interacted with OsSAMS1 to enhance its enzymatic activity, leading to higher ethylene levels in both RDV-infected and Pns11-overexpressing rice...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988944/efficacy-of-adding-nutritional-supplements-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Cora Schefft, Laura L Kilarski, Tom Bschor, Stephan Köhler
In this article, we aimed to assess the efficacy of adjunctive administration of nutritional supplements to antidepressants by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. The supplements included were inositol, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin B12, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and zinc. A structured database search (MEDLINE, EBSCO, CENTRAL, Web of Science) was performed using terms for the respective substances in conjunction with terms for depression and the mode of treatment ("add-on" OR "adjunctive" OR "augmentation")...
October 5, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984387/gene-expression-differences-in-the-methionine-remethylation-and-transsulphuration-pathways-under-methionine-restriction-and-recovery-with-d-l-methionine-or-d-l-hmtba-in-meat-type-chickens
#5
S E Aggrey, F González-Cerón, R Rekaya, Y Mercier
This study examined the molecular mechanisms of methionine pathways in meat-type chickens where birds were provided with a diet deficient in methionine from 3 to 5 weeks of age. The birds on the deficient diet were then provided with a diet supplemented with either D,L-methionine or D,L-HMTBA from 5 to 7 weeks. The diet of the control birds was supplemented with L-methionine from hatch till 7 weeks of age. We studied the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha, methionine adenosyltransferase 1, beta, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and cystathionine beta synthase genes in the liver, duodenum, Pectoralis (P...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959863/-purification-and-characterization-of-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-uroporphyrinogen-%C3%A2-methyltransferase-from-rhodobacter-capsulatus-sb1003
#6
Jie Kang, Huan Fang, Huina Dong, Wenjun Song, Dawei Zhang
Biosynthesis of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) requires the methylation at positions C-2 and C-7 of the precursor uroporphyrinogen Ⅲ (urogen Ⅲ) to precorrin-2 by S-adenosyl-L-methionine uroporphyrinogen Ⅲ methyltransferase (SUMT), which is a potential bottleneck step. Most of SUMTs are inhibited by urogen Ⅲ and by-product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH). In order to mine an SUMT that lacks such an inhibitory property to drive greater flux through the VB₁₂ biosynthetic pathway, we cloned two SUMT genes (RCcobA1, RCcobA2) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 and expressed them in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944535/overexpression-of-sbmyb60-in-sorghum-bicolor-impacts-both-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#7
Erin D Scully, Tammy Gries, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Deanna L Funnell-Harris, Lisa Baird, Paul Twigg, Javier Seravalli, Thomas E Clemente, Scott E Sattler
Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, the overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been shown to induce monolignol biosynthesis, which leads to elevated lignin deposition and altered cell wall composition. To determine how SbMyb60 overexpression impacts other metabolic pathways, RNA-Seq and metabolite profiling were performed on stalks and leaves. 35S::SbMyb60 was associated with the transcriptional activation of genes involved in aromatic amino acid, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and folate biosynthetic pathways...
September 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940762/crystal-structure-of-the-legionella-pneumophila-lpg2936-in-complex-with-the-cofactor-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-rsme-family-methyltransferases
#8
Nikos Pinotsis, Gabriel Waksman
The methylationlation of U1498 located in the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli is an important modification affecting ribosomal activity. RsmE methyltransferases methylate specifically this position in a mechanism that requires an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) molecule as cofactor. Here we report the structure of Apo and AdoMet-bound Lpg2936 from Legionella pneumophila at 1.5 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The protein comprises an N-terminal PUA domain and a C-terminal SPOUT domain. The latter is responsible for protein dimerization and cofactor binding...
September 22, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927791/design-and-synthesis-of-novel-prmt1-inhibitors-and-investigation-of-their-binding-preferences-using-molecular-modelling
#9
Hao Yang, Yifan Ouyang, Hao Ma, Hui Cong, Chunlin Zhuang, Wun-Taai Lok, Zhe Wang, Xuanli Zhu, Yutong Sun, Wei Hong, Hao Wang
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) catalyses the methylation of substrate arginine by transferring the methyl group from SAM (S-adenosyl-l-methionine), which leads to the formation of S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and methylated arginine. We have shown previously that the Asp84 on PRMT1 could be a potential inhibitor binding site. In the current study, 28 compounds were designed and synthesized that were predicted to bind the Asp84 and substrate arginine sites together. Among them, 6 compounds were identified as potential PRMT1 inhibitors, and showed strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines, especially HepG2...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920931/single-molecule-fret-reveals-the-energy-landscape-of-the-full-length-sam-i-riboswitch
#10
Christoph Manz, Andrei Yu Kobitski, Ayan Samanta, Bettina G Keller, Andres Jäschke, G Ulrich Nienhaus
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) ligand binding induces major structural changes in SAM-I riboswitches, through which gene expression is regulated via transcription termination. Little is known about the conformations and motions governing the function of the full-length Bacillus subtilis yitJ SAM-I riboswitch. Therefore, we have explored its conformational energy landscape as a function of Mg(2+) and SAM ligand concentrations using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) microscopy and hidden Markov modeling analysis...
November 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902839/sam-dependent-enzyme-catalysed-pericyclic-reactions-in-natural-product-biosynthesis
#11
Masao Ohashi, Fang Liu, Yang Hai, Mengbin Chen, Man-Cheng Tang, Zhongyue Yang, Michio Sato, Kenji Watanabe, K N Houk, Yi Tang
Pericyclic reactions-which proceed in a concerted fashion through a cyclic transition state-are among the most powerful synthetic transformations used to make multiple regioselective and stereoselective carbon-carbon bonds. They have been widely applied to the synthesis of biologically active complex natural products containing contiguous stereogenic carbon centres. Despite the prominence of pericyclic reactions in total synthesis, only three naturally existing enzymatic examples (the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and the Cope and the Claisen rearrangements) have been characterized...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902392/expanding-the-clinical-and-molecular-spectrum-of-prmt7-mutations-three-additional-patients-and-review
#12
Emanuele Agolini, Maria Lisa Dentici, Emanuele Bellacchio, Viola Alesi, Francesca Clementina Radio, Annalaura Torella, Francesco Musacchia, Marco Tartaglia, Bruno Dallapiccola, Vincenzo Nigro, Maria Cristina Digilio, Antonio Novelli
Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Arginine methylation is involved in multiple biological processes, such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation. Currently, seven patients have been described harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous variants in the PRMT7 gene, causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome, known as SBIDDS syndrome (Short Stature, Brachydactyly, Intellectual Developmental Disability, and Seizures)...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901357/an-ortho-c-methylation-o-glycosylation-motif-on-a-hydroxy-coumarin-scaffold-selectively-installed-by-biocatalysis
#13
Alexander Gutmann, Margaretha Schiller, Mandana Gruber-Khadjawi, Bernd Nidetzky
Various bioactive natural products, like the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and coumermycin, exhibit an aromatic C-methyl group adjacent to a glycosylated phenolic hydroxyl group. Therefore, tailoring of basic phenolic scaffolds to contain the intricate C-methyl/O-glycosyl motif is of high interest for structural and functional diversification of natural products. We demonstrate site-selective 8-C-methylation and 7-O-β-d-glucosylation of 4,5,7-trihydroxy-3-phenyl-coumarin (1) by S-adenosyl-l-methionine dependent C-methyltransferase (from Streptomyces niveus) and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose dependent glycosyltransferase from apple (Malus × domestica)...
September 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876898/structural-basis-of-the-selectivity-of-genn-an-aminoglycoside-n-methyltransferase-involved-in-gentamicin-biosynthesis
#14
Priscila Dos Santos Bury, Fanglu Huang, Sicong Li, Yuhui Sun, Peter F Leadlay, Marcio Vinicius Bertacine Dias
Gentamicins are heavily methylated, clinically valuable pseudotrisaccharide antibiotics produced by Micromonospora echinospora. GenN has been characterised as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase with low sequence similarity to other enzymes. It is responsible for the 3''-N-methylation of 3''-dehydro-3''-amino-gentamicin A2, an essential modification of ring III in the biosynthetic pathway to the gentamicin C complex. Purified recombinant GenN also efficiently catalyzes 3''-N-methylation of related aminoglycosides kanamycin B and tobramycin, which both contain an additional hydroxymethyl group at the C5'' position in ring III...
September 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876240/crystal-structures-of-the-methyltransferase-and-helicase-from-the-zika-1947-mr766-uganda-strain
#15
Malgorzata Bukrejewska, Urszula Derewenda, Malwina Radwanska, Daniel A Engel, Zygmunt S Derewenda
Two nonstructural proteins encoded by Zika virus strain MR766 RNA, a methyltransferase and a helicase, were crystallized and their structures were solved and refined at 2.10 and 2.01 Å resolution, respectively. The NS5 methyltransferase contains a bound S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) co-substrate. The NS3 helicase is in the apo form. Comparison with published crystal structures of the helicase in the apo, nucleotide-bound and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-bound states suggests that binding of ssRNA to the helicase may occur through conformational selection rather than induced fit...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862845/structural-and-functional-analyses-of-periplasmic-5-methylthioadenosine-s-adenosylhomocysteine-nucleosidase-from-aeromonas-hydrophila
#16
Yongbin Xu, Lulu Wang, Jinli Chen, Jing Zhao, Shengdi Fan, Yuesheng Dong, Nam-Chul Ha, Chunshan Quan
The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has two multifunctional 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) enzymes, MtaN-1 and MtaN-2, that differ from those in other bacteria. These proteins are essential for several metabolic pathways, including biological methylation, polyamine biosynthesis, methionine recycling, and bacterial quorum sensing. To gain insight into how these two proteins function, we determined four high-resolution crystal structures of MtaN-1 in its apo form and in complex with the substrates S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, 5'-methylthioadenosine, and 5'-deoxyadenosine...
October 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861701/heat-stress-differentially-modifies-ethylene-biosynthesis-and-signaling-in-pea-floral-and-fruit-tissues
#17
Raghavendra P Savada, Jocelyn A Ozga, Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions...
August 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859976/structural-and-mechanistic-comparison-of-the-cyclopropane-mycolic-acid-synthases-cmas-protein-family-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Lucas A Defelipe, Federico Osman, Marcelo A Marti, Adrián G Turjanski
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb) and remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The bacteria has an external wall which protects it from being killed, and the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the cell wall components have been proposed as promising targets for future drug development efforts. Cyclopropane Mycolic Acid Synthases (CMAS) constitute a group of ten homologous enzymes which belong to the mycolic acid biosynthesis pathway. These enzymes have S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferase activity with a peculiarity, each one of them has strong substrate selectivity and reaction specificity, being able to produce among other things cyclopropanes or methyl-alcohol groups from the lipid olefin group...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829136/ionic-current-based-mapping-of-short-sequence-motifs-in-single-dna-molecules-using-solid-state-nanopores
#19
Kaikai Chen, Matyas Juhasz, Felix Gularek, Elmar Weinhold, Yu Tian, Ulrich F Keyser, Nicholas A W Bell
Nanopore sensors show great potential for rapid, single-molecule determination of DNA sequence information. Here, we develop an ionic current-based method for determining the positions of short sequence motifs in double-stranded DNA molecules with solid-state nanopores. Using the DNA-methyltransferase M.TaqI and a biotinylated S-adenosyl-l-methionine cofactor analogue we create covalently attached biotin labels at 5'-TCGA-3' sequence motifs. Monovalent streptavidin is then added to bind to the biotinylated sites giving rise to additional current blockade signals when the DNA passes through a conical quartz nanopore...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821266/endogenous-hydrogen-sulphide-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation-by-suppressing-the-p2x7-receptor-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage-in-rats
#20
Hengli Zhao, Pengyu Pan, Yang Yang, Hongfei Ge, Weixiang Chen, Jie Qu, Jiantao Shi, Gaoyu Cui, Xin Liu, Hua Feng, Yujie Chen
BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have demonstrated the important physiological and pathophysiological roles of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as a gasotransmitter for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-associated neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. However, the effects of H2S on neuroinflammation after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), especially on the NLRP3 inflammasome, remain unknown. METHODS: We employed a Sprague-Dawley rat of collagenase-induced ICH in the present study...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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