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Methyltransferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718668/olea-europaea-leaf-extract-improves-the-efficacy-of-temozolomide-therapy-by-inducing-mgmt-methylation-and-reducing-p53-expression-un-glioblastoma
#1
Gulcin Tezcan, Berrin Tunca, Hilal Demirci, Ahmet Bekar, Mevlut Ozgur Taskapilioglu, Hasan Kocaeli, Unal Egeli, Gulsah Cecener, Sahsine Tolunay, Ozgur Vatan
Unmethylated O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter leads to Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in most of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. We previously investigated the synergistic effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on TMZ cytotoxicity through modulating microRNA expression. To date, knowledge about the effect of OLE on MGMT methylation is insufficient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential modulating effect of OLE on the TMZ response of GBM tumors through MGMT methylation...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718376/riz1-and-histone-methylation-status-in-pituitary-adenomas
#2
Yake Xue, Ruokun Chen, Wei Du, Fengdong Yang, Xinting Wei
RIZ1 displays strong tumor-suppressive activities, which has a potential histone methyltransferase activity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level and the methylation status of RIZ1 and analyze its association with clinicopathological features and the histone in the pituitary adenomas. We found that RIZ1-positive cases were 11/50 and H-Scores 22.75 ± 11.83 in invasive pituitary adenomas and 26/53 and 66.3 ± 21.7 in non-invasive pituitary adenomas (χ(2) = 8.182, p = 0.004). RIZ1 and C-myc showed the opposite trend in these cases...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717873/orchestration-of-h3k27-methylation-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implication
#3
REVIEW
Mei-Ren Pan, Ming-Chuan Hsu, Li-Tzong Chen, Wen-Chun Hung
Histone proteins constitute the core component of the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin. Chemical modifications of histone proteins affect their interaction with genomic DNA, the accessibility of recognized proteins, and the recruitment of enzymatic complexes to activate or diminish specific transcriptional programs to modulate cellular response to extracellular stimuli or insults. Methylation of histone proteins was demonstrated 50 years ago; however, the biological significance of each methylated residue and the integration between these histone markers are still under intensive investigation...
July 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716037/phylogeny-expression-patterns-and-regulation-of-dna-methyltransferases-in-early-development-of-the-flatfish-solea-senegalensis
#4
Joana Firmino, Carlos Carballo, Paula Armesto, Marco A Campinho, Deborah M Power, Manuel Manchado
BACKGROUND: The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and temperature was evaluated...
July 17, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715642/reduced-brain-volume-and-impaired-memory-in-betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase-knockout-mice
#5
Emily A K Prieur, Eneda Pjetri, Steven H Zeisel, Nafisa M Jadavji
Using a mouse model, this study examined the impact of lack of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) on neurological function. Bhmt-/- mice maintained on a control diet had elevated concentrations of homocysteine, reduced total brain MRI volume, as well as impaired reference and short- term memories. The results of this study indicate that the absence of BHMT may play a role in neurological function.
July 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715427/global-analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-young-j1-and-senescent-j2-gossypium-hirsutum-l-cotyledons-by-medip-seq
#6
Lingling Dou, Xiaoyun Jia, Hengling Wei, Shuli Fan, Hantao Wang, Yaning Guo, Shan Duan, Chaoyou Pang, Shuxun Yu
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, transposon silencing and chromatin structure in plants and plays an important role in leaf senescence. However, the DNA methylation pattern during Gossypium hirsutum L. cotyledon senescence is poorly understood. In this study, global DNA methylation patterns were compared between two cotyledon development stages, young (J1) and senescence (J2), using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-Seq). Methylated cytosine occurred mostly in repeat elements, especially LTR/Gypsy in both J1 and J2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715095/a-self-sacrificing-n-methyltransferase-is-the-precursor-of-the-fungal-natural-product-omphalotin
#7
Sascha Ramm, Bartlomiej Krawczyk, Agnes Mühlenweg, Annette Poch, Eva Mösker, Roderich D Süssmuth
Research on ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) has led to an increasing understanding of biosynthetic mechanisms, mostly drawn from bacterial examples. In contrast, reports on RiPPs from fungal producers, apart from the amanitins and phalloidins, are still scarce. The fungal cyclopeptide omphalotin A carries multiple N-methylations on the peptide backbone, a modification previously known only from nonribosomal peptides. Mining the genome of the omphalotin-producing fungus for a precursor peptide led to the identification of two biosynthesis genes, one encoding a methyltransferase OphMA that catalyzes the automethylation of its C-terminus, which is then released and cyclized by the protease OphP...
July 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714938/taxifolin-activates-the-nrf2-anti-oxidative-stress-pathway-in-mouse-skin-epidermal-jb6-p-cells-through-epigenetic-modifications
#8
Haixue Kuang, Zhenqiu Tang, Chengyue Zhang, Zhibin Wang, Wenji Li, Chunjuan Yang, Qiuhong Wang, Bingyou Yang, Ah-Ng Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a vital transcription factor that regulates the anti-oxidative defense system. Previous reports suggested that the expression of the Nrf2 gene can be regulated by epigenetic modifications. The potential epigenetic effect of taxifolin (TAX), a potent cancer chemopreventive agent, in skin cancer chemoprotection is unknown. In this study, we investigated how Nrf2 is epigenetically regulated by TAX in JB6 P+ cells. TAX was found to inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced colony formation of JB6 P+ cells...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712493/crispr-cas9-enabled-multiplex-genome-editing-and-its-application
#9
Bastian Minkenberg, Matthew Wheatley, Yinong Yang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a prevalent and versatile genome-editing tool of choice for basic and applied biological research. An exchange of a 20-bp spacer sequence in the gRNA can easily reprogram Cas9 to target a different DNA site. By expressing or providing multiple gRNAs, the system also enables multiplex genome editing at high efficiencies. Current approaches for providing multiple gRNAs in vivo include the use of multigene cassettes to express several gRNAs, Csy4-based excision, arrays of crRNAs, ribozyme-flanked gRNAs, tRNA-dependent cleavage of gRNAs, and direct introduction of Cas9 proteins preloaded with different gRNAs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712054/alcohol-exposure-promotes-dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3a-upregulation-through-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-mechanisms
#10
Federico Miozzo, Hélène Arnould, Aurélie de Thonel, Anne-Laure Schang, Délara Sabéran-Djoneidi, Anne Baudry, Benoît Schneider, Valérie Mezger
Abundant evidence has accumulated showing that fetal alcohol exposure broadly modifies DNA methylation profiles in the brain. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation, are likely implicated in this process. However, their regulation by ethanol exposure has been poorly addressed. Here, we show that alcohol exposure modulates DNMT protein levels through multiple mechanisms. Using a neural precursor cell line and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that ethanol exposure augments the levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt3l transcripts...
July 15, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710561/genetic-architecture-of-wild-soybean-glycine-soja-response-to-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#11
Hengyou Zhang, Qijian Song, Joshua D Griffin, Bao-Hua Song
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710553/metabolism-and-distribution-of-pharmacological-homoarginine-in-plasma-and-main-organs-of-the-anesthetized-rat
#12
Duygu Naile Günes, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Erik Hanff, Joel Lundgren, Björn Redfors, Dimitrios Tsikas
L-Homoarginine (hArg) and guanidinoacetate (GAA) are produced from L-arginine (Arg) by the catalytic action of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase methylates GAA on its non-guanidine N atom to produce creatine. Arg and hArg are converted by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to nitric oxide (NO). NO is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which circulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NOS inhibitor, is widely accepted to be exclusively produced after asymmetric N (G)-methylation of Arg residues in proteins and their regular proteolysis...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710019/effects-of-human-blood-levels-of-two-pah-mixtures-on-the-ahr-signalling-activation-pathway-and-cyp1a1-and-comt-target-genes-in-granulosa-non-tumor-and-granulosa-tumor-cell-lines
#13
Karolina Zajda, Anna Ptak, Agnieszka Rak, Elżbieta Fiedor, Adam Grochowalski, Tomasz Milewicz, Ewa L Gregoraszczuk
Epidemiological studies have shown a link between problems with offspring of couples living in a contaminated environment in comparison to those who live in an uncontaminated environment. We measured the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in maternal and cord blood. To explore the mechanism of the effects of PAH mixtures on nonluteinized granulosa cells (HGrC1) and granulosa tumor cells (COV434), as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigated the effect of PAH mixtures on the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) genes, as well as the expression and activity of target genes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709638/dna-methylation-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury-by-regulating-specific-genes-including-interferon-regulatory-factor-8
#14
Chunyuan Guo, Lirong Pei, Xiao Xiao, Qingqing Wei, Jian-Kang Chen, Han-Fei Ding, Shuang Huang, Guoping Fan, Huidong Shi, Zheng Dong
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene transcription without changing primary nucleotide sequences. In mammals, DNA methylation involves the covalent addition of a methyl group to the 5-carbon position of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The change of DNA methylation and its pathological role in acute kidney injury (AKI) remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation during cisplatin-induced AKI by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. This technique identified 215 differentially methylated regions between the kidneys of control and cisplatin-treated animals...
July 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708590/whole-exome-analysis-in-osteosarcoma-to-identify-a-personalized-therapy
#15
Caterina Chiappetta, Massimiliano Mancini, Francesca Lessi, Paolo Aretini, Veronica De Gregorio, Chiara Puggioni, Raffaella Carletti, Vincenzo Petrozza, Prospero Civita, Sara Franceschi, Antonio G Naccarato, Carlo Della Rocca, Chiara M Mazzanti, Claudio Di Cristofano
Osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric primary non-hematopoietic bone tumor. Survival of these young patients is related to the response to chemotherapy and development of metastases. Despite many advances in cancer research, chemotherapy regimens for osteosarcoma are still based on non-selective cytotoxic drugs. It is essential to investigate new specific molecular therapies for osteosarcoma to increase the survival rate of these patients. We performed exomic sequence analyses of 8 diagnostic biopsies of patients with conventional high grade osteosarcoma to advance our understanding of their genetic underpinnings and to correlate the genetic alteration with the clinical and pathological features of each patient to identify a personalized therapy...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707072/catechol-o-methyltransferase-val158met-polymorphism-on-striatum-structural-covariance-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Chiung-Chih Chang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Nai-Ching Chen, Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ting Chang, Mu-En Liu, Wen-Neng Chang, Wan-Chen Tsai, Chen-Chang Lee
The catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme metabolizes dopamine in the prefrontal axis, and its genetic polymorphism (rs4680; Val158Met) is a known determinant of dopamine signaling. In this study, we investigated the possible structural covariance networks that may be modulated by this functional polymorphism in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1 magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were divided into two groups: Met-carriers (n = 91) and Val-homozygotes (n = 101)...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706445/histone-demethylase-kdm2b-upregulates-histone-methyltransferase-ezh2-expression-and-contributes-to-the-progression-of-ovarian-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Yan Kuang, Fangfang Lu, Jianfeng Guo, Hong Xu, Qi Wang, Chaohuan Xu, Longjia Zeng, Suyi Yi
Aberrant histone methylation contributes to the progression and development of many tumors. Histone methylation is a dynamic process regulated by both histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, which ultimately alters the levels of gene transcription. However, the relationship between histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, as well as their regulatory mechanisms in ovarian cancer development, is still unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) is a key demethylase of H3K36me3 and H3K4me3 that regulates gene expression and plays a role in tumorigenesis via epigenetic mechanisms...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#18
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701475/hif-activation-causes-synthetic-lethality-between-the-vhl-tumor-suppressor-and-the-ezh1-histone-methyltransferase
#19
Abhishek A Chakraborty, Eijiro Nakamura, Jun Qi, Amanda Creech, Jacob D Jaffe, Joshiawa Paulk, Jesse S Novak, Kshithija Nagulapalli, Samuel K McBrayer, Glenn S Cowley, Javier Pineda, Jiaxi Song, Yaoyu E Wang, Steven A Carr, David E Root, Sabina Signoretti, James E Bradner, William G Kaelin
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) is the signature lesion in the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). pVHL loss causes the transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes, including many genes that encode histone lysine demethylases. Moreover, chromatin regulators are frequently mutated in this disease. We found that ccRCC displays increased H3K27 acetylation and a shift toward mono- or unmethylated H3K27 caused by an HIF-dependent increase in H3K27 demethylase activity...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699876/characterization-of-vsr-endonucleases-from-neisseria-meningitidis
#20
Milena Bażlekowa, Monika Adamczyk-Popławska, Agnieszka Kwiatek
DNA methylation is a common modification occurring in all living organisms. 5-methylcytosine, which is produced in a reaction catalysed by C5-methyltransferases, can spontaneously undergo deamination to thymine, leading to the formation of T:G mismatches and C→T transitions. In Escherichia coli K-12, such mismatches are corrected by the Very Short Patch (VSP) repair system, with Vsr endonuclease as the key enzyme. Neisseria meningitidis possesses genes that encode DNA methyltransferases, including C5-methyltransferases...
July 12, 2017: Microbiology
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