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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156833/targeting-aggressive-prostate-cancer-associated-cd44v6-using-phage-display-selected-peptides
#1
Ying Peng, Austin R Prater, Susan L Deutscher
There is a crucial need to identify new biomarkers associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) including those associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD44v6, generated by alternative splicing of CD44, has been proposed as a CSC biomarker due to its correlation with aggressive PCa disease. We hypothesized that phage display selected peptides that target CD44v6 may serve as theranostic agents for aggressive PCa. Here, a 15 amino acid peptide ("PFT") was identified by affinity selection against a peptide derived from the v6 region of CD44v6...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156767/enhancing-conventional-chemotherapy-drug-cisplatin-induced-anti-tumor-effects-on-human-gastric-cancer-cells-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-thymoquinone-targeting-pten-gene
#2
Jingjing Ma, Xue Hu, Jiao Li, Dandan Wu, Qingzhi Lan, Qian Wang, Shan Tian, Weiguo Dong
Combination chemotherapy regimen with several anti-tumor drugs is a strategy to improve outcome. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been reported to exert biological activity on various types of human cancers without obvious toxicity. However, only few studies showed the anti-tumor effects of TQ combination with cisplatin on gastric cancer (GC). Here, we showed pretreatment with 5μM TQ significantly increased the apoptotic effects induced by cisplatin on GC cell lines. Combined treatment of cisplatin with TQ represented a significantly superior tumor suppression effect than either agent alone in a xenograft tumor mouse model...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156703/preclinical-efficacy-of-the-novel-competitive-nampt-inhibitor-stf-118804-in-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Jair Machado Espindola-Netto, Claudia C S Chini, Mariana Tarragó, Enfeng Wang, Shamit Dutta, Krishnendu Pal, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Mauro Sola-Penna, Eduardo N Chini
NAD salvage is one of the pathways used to generate NAD in mammals. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, uses nicotinamide (NAM) to generate nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is one of the main precursors of NAD synthesis in cells. Our previous study showed the importance of NAMPT in maintaining NAD levels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PDAC), and that the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 decreased pancreatic cancer growth. We now tested the effect of STF-118804, a new highly specific NAMPT inhibitor, in models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156697/exploring-brusatol-as-a-new-anti-pancreatic-cancer-adjuvant-biological-evaluation-and-mechanistic-studies
#4
Zheng Lu, Zheng-Quan Lai, Albert W N Leung, Po Sing Leung, Zhao-Shen Li, Zhi-Xiu Lin
Pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and is known to have a poor prognosis. The development of new therapeutic entities is badly needed for this deadly malignancy. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that brusatol, a natural quassinoid isolated from a Chinese herbal medicine named Bruceae Fructus, possessed potent cytotoxic effect against different pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Its anti-pancreatic cancer effect was comparable to that of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, with a more favorable safety profile...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156686/crosstalk-between-mismatch-repair-and-base-excision-repair-in-human-gastric-cancer
#5
Valeria Simonelli, Giuseppe Leuzzi, Giorgia Basile, Mariarosaria D'Errico, Paola Fortini, Annapaola Franchitto, Valentina Viti, Ashley R Brown, Eleonora Parlanti, Barbara Pascucci, Domenico Palli, Alessandro Giuliani, Fabio Palombo, Robert W Sobol, Eugenia Dogliotti
DNA repair gene expression in a set of gastric cancers suggested an inverse association between the expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 and that of the base excision repair (BER) gene DNA polymerase β (Polβ). To gain insight into possible crosstalk of these two repair pathways in cancer, we analysed human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells over-expressing Polβ or Polβ active site mutants, alone or in combination with MLH1 silencing. Next, we investigated the cellular response to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the purine analogue 6-thioguanine (6-TG), agents that induce lesions that are substrates for BER and/or MMR...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156447/pd-1-blockade-in-advanced-nsclc-a-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#6
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Keith M Kerr, Rolf Stahel
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156385/interaction-with-the-gdf8-11-pathway-reveals-treatment-options-for-adenocarcinoma-of-the-breast
#7
Christoph Wallner, Marius Drysch, Mustafa Becerikli, Henriette Jaurich, Johannes Maximilian Wagner, Stephanie Dittfeld, Julia Nagler, Kamran Harati, Mehran Dadras, Stathis Philippou, Marcus Lehnhardt, Björn Behr
Breast adenocarcinoma continues to be the most frequently diagnosed tumor entity. Despite established therapy options, mortality for breast cancer remains to be as high as 40,000 patients in the US annually. Thus, a need to develop a patient-oriented, targeted therapy exists. In this study, we investigated the interaction of breast adenocarcinoma with the ubiquitously present protein Follistatin and subsequently the GDF8/11 pathway. We analyzed primary histological samples from adenocarcinoma patients for expression of Follistatin and GDF8/11...
November 17, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155748/using-in-vitro-live-cell-imaging-to-explore-chemotherapeutics-delivered-by-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#8
Ann L B Seynhaeve, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Conventional imaging techniques can provide detailed information about cellular processes. However, this information is based on static images in an otherwise dynamic system, and successive phases are easily overlooked or misinterpreted. Live-cell imaging and time-lapse microscopy, in which living cells can be followed for hours or even days in a more or less continuous fashion, are therefore very informative. The protocol described here allows for the investigation of the fate of chemotherapeutic nanoparticles after the delivery of doxorubicin (dox) in living cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154935/ghrelin-alleviates-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-enhancing-mitochondrial-anti-oxidant-functions-in-mice
#9
Nobuyuki Ishii, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Ayako Miura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hiroaki Ueno, Kazutaka Shiomi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but has some treatment-limiting adverse effects that markedly decrease patients' quality of life. Peripheral neuropathy is one of these, and no treatment for it has been established yet. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is secreted from the stomach and has widespread effects on multiple systems. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in preventing paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy using wild-type mice, ghrelin-null mice, and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-null mice...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154834/development-and-characterization-of-docetaxel-loaded-lecithin-stabilized-micellar-drug-delivery-system-lsbmdds-for-improving-the-therapeutic-efficacy-and-reducing-systemic-toxicity
#10
Chia-Yu Su, Jun-Jen Liu, Yuan-Soon Ho, Yi-You Huang, Vincent Hung-Shu Chang, Der-Zen Liu, Ling-Chun Chen, Hsiu-O Ho, Ming-Thau Sheu
In the present study, we attempted to develop a lecithin-stabilized micellar drug delivery system (LsbMDDs) for loading docetaxel (DTX) to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and minimize systemic toxicity. A novel DTX-loaded LsbMDDs was optimally prepared by a thin-film hydration method and then hydrated with a lecithin nanosuspension while being subjected to ultrasonication. Physical characteristics of the optimized DTX-loaded LsbMDDs formulations were examined and found to have a mean size of <200 nm, an encapsulation efficiency of >90%, and drug loading of >6% with stability at room temperature and at 4° C being longer than 2 and 7 days, respectively...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152737/molecular-mechanisms-of-drug-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Leyla Norouzi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Sarookhani, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Sahar Moghbelinejad, Saranaz Jangjoo, Rasoul Salehi
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy among the gynecological cancers, with a 5-year survival rate, mainly due to being diagnosed at advanced stages, recurrence and resistance to the current chemotherapeutic agents. Drug resistance is a complex phenomenon and the number of known involved genes and cross-talks between signaling pathways in this process is growing rapidly. Thus, discovering and understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in chemo-resistance are crucial for management of treatment and identifying novel and effective drug targets as well as drug discovery to improve therapeutic outcomes...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152232/recent-therapeutic-advances-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Prithviraj Bose, Varsha Gandhi
The last several years have witnessed a paradigm shift in the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The course of this very heterogeneous disease, traditionally treated with chemotherapeutic agents usually in combination with rituximab, typically has been characterized by remissions and relapses, and survival times vary greatly, depending on intrinsic biological attributes of the leukemia. The developments of the last few years have been transformative, ushering in an era of novel, molecularly targeted therapies, made possible by extensive efforts to elucidate the biology of the disease that predated the new targeted drugs...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151951/potential-synergistic-effect-of-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-with-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer
#13
Kalliopi Domvri, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Nikolaos Zogas, Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt
Purpose: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and novel therapeutic approaches targeting crucial pathways are urgently needed to improve its treatment. Differentiation-based therapeutics (Methylxanthines) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (type 4 and 5), have been implicated in cancer treatment. Our objectives were to capture any potential anti-tumor effect of these drug combinations with chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Methods: Theophylline as Methylxanthines, Roflumilast as phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor and Sildenafil as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor are the drugs that we combined with the chemotherapeutic agents (Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Carboplatin) in vitro...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149832/optimizing-metal-based-chemotherapeutics-targeting-chemoresistance-related-patterns-in-molecular-tumor-immunology-and-immunosuppressive-tumor-networks
#14
Athanasios Salifoglou, Savvas Petanidis, Efrosini Kioseoglou
Tumor cell chemoresistance is a major challenge in cancer therapeutics. Major select metal-based drugs are potent anticancer agents yet they exhibit undesirable side-effects and are effective against only a few types of cancers. A need, therefore, arises for new metallodrugs with an improved spectrum of efficacy and lower toxicity. Development of anticancer drugs based on antitumor metals is currently a very active field, with considerable efforts having been made toward elucidating the mechanisms of immune action of complex metalloforms and optimizing their immunoregulatory bioactivity through appropriate structural modification...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145976/not-only-p-glycoprotein-amplification-of-the-abcb1-containing-chromosome-region-7q21-confers-multidrug-resistance-upon-cancer-cells-by-coordinated-overexpression-of-an-assortment-of-resistance-related-proteins
#15
Ilaria Genovese, Andrea Ilari, Yehuda G Assaraf, Francesco Fazi, Gianni Colotti
The development of drug resistance continues to be a dominant hindrance toward curative cancer treatment. Overexpression of a wide-spectrum of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and in particular of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1) is a well-known resistance mechanism for a plethora of cancer chemotherapeutics including for example taxenes, anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, and epipodopyllotoxins, demonstrated by a large array of published papers, both in tumor cell lines and in a variety of tumors, including various solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145260/reversible-severe-fatty-liver-induced-by-capecitabine-a-case-report
#16
Yiyan Jiang, Qiancheng He, Suxia Li, Chang Shi, Xiaolei Yang
RATIONALE: Capecitabine (CAP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast and gastrointestinal cancers. The most common adverse reactions of CAP primarily included gastrointestinal and dermatological effects. Whereas, the CAP-induced fatty liver had never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, a-69-year old female presented a history of hypertension with regulated blood pressure, whereas diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145169/a-zinc-schiff-base-complex-inhibits-cancer-progression-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-by-inducing-apoptosis
#17
Arpita Banerjee, Kaushik Banerjee, Abhinaba Sinha, Satyajit Das, Saikat Majumder, Subrata Majumdar, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
Cancer chemotherapy suffers from selectivity and undesired toxicity of the drugs. Since zinc is a biocompatible tracer element and cysteine derivatives are used in cancer chemoprevention, we intend to develop a complex of zinc and cysteine-derivatives as potent, non-toxic anticancer agents. Herein, we synthesized and characterized cysteine based ligand, 2-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-3-mercapto-propionic acid and its Zn-complex, which are found to be non-toxic towards normal human PBMC. Data also revealed that only Zn-complex exhibited remarkable apoptosis in drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cancer cells as assessed by MTT, Cell cycle and AnnexinV binding assay...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145109/cisplatin-induced-acute-mesenteric-ischaemia-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Shivun Khosla, Lauren Kennedy, Yasser Abdulaal
INTRODUCTION: Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, widely used in cancer therapies for numerous solid tumours. It is becoming more recognised that a potentially life-threatening complication of cisplatin is accelerated arterial and venous thrombosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of a 62year-old with no risk factors for vascular disease who presented with thromboembolic acute mesenteric ischaemia of the small bowel during treatment with cisplatin for head and neck cancer...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144383/monitoring-for-response-to-antineoplastic-drugs-the-potential-of-a-metabolomic-approach
#19
REVIEW
Jodi Rattner, Oliver F Bathe
For most cancers, chemotherapeutic options are rapidly expanding, providing the oncologist with substantial choices. Therefore, there is a growing need to select the best systemic therapy, for any individual, that effectively halts tumor progression with minimal toxicity. Having the capability to predict benefit and to anticipate toxicity would be ideal, but remains elusive at this time. An alternative approach is an adaptive approach that involves close observation for treatment response and emergence of resistance...
November 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143796/angelica-sinensis-polysaccharides-ameliorate-stress-induced-premature-senescence-of-hematopoietic-cell-via-protecting-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-from-oxidative-injuries-caused-by-5-fluorouracil
#20
Hanxianzhi Xiao, Lirong Xiong, Xiaoying Song, Pengwei Jin, Linbo Chen, Xiongbin Chen, Hui Yao, Yaping Wang, Lu Wang
Myelosuppression is the most common complication of chemotherapy. Decline of self-renewal capacity and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) induced by chemotherapeutic agents may be the cause of long-term myelosuppression after chemotherapy. Whether the mechanism of SIPS of hematopoietic cells relates to chemotherapeutic injury occurred in hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) is still not well elucidated. This study explored the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an acetone extract polysaccharide found as the major effective ingredients of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb named Chinese Angelica (Dong Quai), on oxidative damage of homo sapiens bone marrow/stroma cell line (HS-5) caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and the effect of ASP relieving oxidative stress in HM on SIPS of hematopoietic cells...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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