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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922681/cxcr4-promotes-cisplatin-resistance-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-cyp1b1-dependent-manner
#1
Songping Xie, Zhenbo Tu, Jie Xiong, Ganjun Kang, Lina Zhao, Weidong Hu, Haiyan Tan, Kingsley Miyanda Tembo, Qianshan Ding, Xinzhou Deng, Jie Huang, Qiuping Zhang
Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure and high mortality in advanced lung cancer. Cisplatin, an important chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancer, has been observed to show enormously reduced chemotherapeutic efficacy owing to the development of chemoresistance. CXCR4, a stromal-derived-factor-1 specific chemokine receptor, is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and participates in cancer progression by regulating cell growth, apoptosis or invasion. In this study, we therefore investigated whether CXCR4 plays a role in the cisplatin associated resistance in NSCLC...
December 2, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921054/a-rare-case-of-sunitinib-induced-exfoliative-esophagitis
#2
Swapna Gayam, Ashwini Anumandla
Sunitinib is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been approved for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors resistant to imatinib. It is usually well tolerated and severe gastrointestinal side effects are rare. There are very few reports of sunitinib causing severe esophagitis, and only one of them was previously reported as exfoliative esophagitis. We describe a case of severe sunitinib-induced exfoliative esophagitis that resulted in overt gastrointestinal bleed.
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920649/hepatoid-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-case-report-next-generation-tumor-profiling-and-literature-review
#3
James M Chang, Nitin N Katariya, Dora M Lam-Himlin, Danielle J Haakinson, Ramesh K Ramanathan, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Mitesh J Borad, Rahul Pannala, Douglas Faigel, Adyr A Moss, Amit K Mathur
Fewer than 25 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We present a case in a 61-year-old male with a remote history of Hodgkin's lymphoma and gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. On surveillance endoscopic ultrasound, an 8 × 5 mm cystic lesion was seen in the tail of the pancreas. MRI showed a focal pancreatic duct cut-off with mild ductal dilation. Fine needle aspiration was performed, which was concerning for acinar cell carcinoma. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and recovered uneventfully...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919785/a-comparative-assessment-of-preclinical-chemotherapeutic-response-of-tumors-using-quantitative-non-gaussian-diffusion-mri
#4
Junzhong Xu, Ke Li, R Adam Smith, John C Waterton, Ping Zhao, Zhaohua Ding, Mark D Does, H Charles Manning, John C Gore
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation is often not mono-exponential (i.e. non-Gaussian diffusion) with stronger diffusion weighting. Several non-Gaussian diffusion models have been developed and may provide new information or higher sensitivity compared with the conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) method. However the relative merits of these models to detect tumor therapeutic response is not fully clear. METHODS: Conventional ADC, and three widely-used non-Gaussian models, (bi-exponential, stretched exponential, and statistical model), were implemented and compared for assessing SW620 human colon cancer xenografts responding to barasertib, an agent known to induce apoptosis via polyploidy...
December 2, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919216/topoisomerase-ii-inhibitors-and-poisons-and-the-influence-of-cell-cycle-checkpoints
#5
Nicholas D Arcy, Brian Gabrielli
Interactions between the decatenation checkpoint and Topoisomerase II (TopoII) are vital for maintaining integrity of the genome. Agents that target this enzyme have been in clinical use in cancer therapy for over 30 years with great success. The types of compounds that have been developed to target TopoII are broadly divided into poisons and catalytic inhibitors. The TopoII poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapies, although in common to most chemotherapeutic agents, they display considerable normal tissue toxicity...
December 5, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919208/is-metformin-a-therapeutic-paradigm-for-colorectal-cancer-insight-into-the-molecular-pathway
#6
Zar Chii Thent, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Fairuz Azmi, Mu Izuddin Senin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major leading causes of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional anti-neoplastic agents, metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic agent, has recently found to have anti-cancer property. Several studies observed the effect of metformin towards its anti-cancer effect on colon or colorectal cancer in diabetic patients. However, only a few studies showed its effect on colorectal cancer in relation to the non-diabetic status. The present review aimed to highlight the insight into the molecular pathway of metformin towards colorectal cancer in the absence of diabetes mellitus...
December 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918237/gpx3-promoter-methylation-predicts-platinum-sensitivity-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Lorraine Pelosof, Sashidhar Yerram, Todd Armstrong, Nina Chu, Ludmila Danilova, Breann Yanagisawa, Manuel Hidalgo, Nilofer Azad, James G Herman
Epigenetic control of gene expression is a major determinant of tumor phenotype and has been found to influence sensitivity to individual chemotherapeutic agents. Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3, plasma glutathione peroxidase) is a key component of cellular antioxidant regulation and its gene has been reported to be methylated in specific tumor types. GPX3 role in oxidative damage has been associated with sensitivity to platinums in other tumors but its importance in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been determined...
December 5, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917871/delivery-of-acetylthevetin-b-an-antitumor-cardiac-glycoside-using-polymeric-micelles-for-enhanced-therapeutic-efficacy-against-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Jing-Jing Zhu, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yun-Qiu Miao, Shu-Fang He, Dan-Mei Tian, Xin-Sheng Yao, Jin-Shan Tang, Yong Gan
Acetylthevetin B (ATB), a cardiac glycoside from the seed of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) K Schum (yellow oleander), exhibits not only antitumor activity but also potential cardiac toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to enhance its antitumor action and decrease its adverse effects via chitosan-Pluronic P123 (CP) micelle encapsulation. Two ATB-loaded CP micelles (ATB-CP1, ATB-CP2) were prepared using an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. They were spherical in shape with a particle size of 40-50 nm, showed a neutral zeta potential, and had acceptable encapsulation efficiency (>90%)...
December 5, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917682/the-preclinical-discovery-and-development-of-bortezomib-for-the-treatment-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#9
Richard Arkwright, Tri Minh Pham, Jeffrey A Zonder, Q Ping Dou
Introduction- Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable, often aggressive B-cell malignancy. Bortezomib (BTZ), the 20S proteasome inhibitor was originally developed and approved for treatment of relapsed refractory multiple myeloma, and subsequently approved for treatment of MCL. BTZ's single-agent activity induces clinical responses in approximately one-third of relapsed MCL patients. BTZ-containing combination therapies have further improved the quality and duration of clinical responses compared to standard chemotherapies in previously untreated MCL patients...
December 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916966/alpha-and-beta-cyclodextrin-inclusion-complexes-with-5-fluorouracil-characterization-and-cytotoxic-activity-evaluation
#10
Cristina Di Donato, Margherita Lavorgna, Roberto Fattorusso, Carla Isernia, Marina Isidori, Gaetano Malgieri, Concetta Piscitelli, Chiara Russo, Luigi Russo, Rosa Iacovino
Cyclodextrins are natural macrocyclic oligosaccharides able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of guests, affecting their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. In order to obtain an improvement of the bioavailability and solubility of 5-fluorouracil, a pyrimidine analogue used as chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of the colon, liver, and stomac cancers, the drug was complexed with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were prepared in the solid state by kneading method and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry...
December 1, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916347/new-treatment-strategy-with-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-for-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Takashi Horiuchi, Tadashi Uwagawa, Yoshihiro Shirai, Nobuhiro Saito, Ryota Iwase, Koichiro Haruki, Hiroaki Shiba, Toya Ohashi, Katsuhiko Yanaga
BACKGROUND: Because of difficulties with early diagnosis, most patients with pancreatic cancer receive chemotherapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (version 2.2015) suggest therapy with gemcitabine (GEM) plus nab-paclitaxel (nPTX) as a category 1 recommendation for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. According to the results of many studies, the activation of chemotherapeutic agents-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) causes chemoresistance. Hence, we hypothesized that the addition of nafamostat mesilate (NM), a potent NF-κB inhibitor, to GEM/nPTX therapy could enhance the antitumor effect in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911951/body-surface-area-and-baseline-blood-pressure-predict-subclinical-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-in-women-treated-for-early-breast-cancer
#13
Paul Kotwinski, Gillian Smith, Jackie Cooper, Julie Sanders, Louise Ma, Albert Teis, David Kotwinski, Michael Mythen, Dudley J Pennell, Alison Jones, Hugh Montgomery
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anthracyclines are highly effective chemotherapeutic agents which may cause long-term cardiac damage (chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity) and heart failure. The pathogenesis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity remains incompletely understood and individual susceptibility difficult to predict. We sought clinical features which might contribute to improved risk assessment. METHODS: Subjects were women with early breast cancer, free of pre-existing cardiac disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911399/tools-to-study-the-role-of-architectural-protein-hmgb1-in-the-processing-of-helix-distorting-site-specific-dna-interstrand-crosslinks
#14
Anirban Mukherjee, Karen M Vasquez
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a non-histone architectural protein that is involved in regulating many important functions in the genome, such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. HMGB1 binds to structurally distorted DNA with higher affinity than to canonical B-DNA. For example, we found that HMGB1 binds to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), which covalently link the two strands of the DNA, cause distortion of the helix, and if left unrepaired can cause cell death. Due to their cytotoxic potential, several ICL-inducing agents are currently used as chemotherapeutic agents in the clinic...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911272/foxo4-expression-is-related-to-stem-cell-like-properties-and-resistance-to-treatment-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
Kyung Ju Ryu, Chaehwa Park, Mineui Hong, Young Hyeh Ko, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Cancer stem cells are proposed to be responsible for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, including doxorubicin. As phenylbutyrate enhances cancer stem cell properties, we analyzed surviving lymphoma cells after treatment with doxorubicin and phenylbutyrate. Human B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including Toledo, BJAB, Daudi, and Raji were incubated with IC90 concentrations of doxorubicin (300 nM) or phenylbutyrate (8 mM). After 48 h, live cells were sorted and analyzed for their resistance to treatment by examining gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray and biological characteristics...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911037/decoding-the-molecular-basis-for-the-population-mechanism-of-the-triplet-phototoxic-precursors-in-uva-light-activated-pyrimidine-anticancer-drugs
#16
Lara Martínez-Fernández, Giovanni Granucci, Marvin Pollum, Carlos Crespo-Hernández, Maurizio Persico, Ines Corral Perez
Photosensitization of DNA by thionucleosides is a promising photo-chemotherapeutic treatment option for a variety of malignancies. DNA metabolization of thiated prodrugs can lead to cell death upon exposure to a low dose of UVA light. The exact mechanisms of thionucleoside phototoxicity are still not fully understood. In this work, we have combined femtosecond broadband transient absorption experiments with state-of-the-art molecular simulations to provide mechanistic insights for the ultrafast and efficient population of the triplet-state in the UVA-activated pyrimidine anticancer drug: 4-thiothymine...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910856/acquired-resistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-is-multifactorial-with-cell-context-dependent-involvement-of-resistance-genes
#17
R Mezencev, L V Matyunina, G T Wagner, J F McDonald
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal of malignancies, in large measure, due to the propensity of PDAC cells to acquire resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. A better understanding of the molecular basis of acquired resistance is a major focus of contemporary PDAC research. We report here the results of a study to independently develop cisplatin resistance in two distinct parental PDAC cell lines, AsPC1 and BxPC3, and to subsequently examine the molecular mechanisms associated with the acquired resistance...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910780/naringenin-ameliorates-doxorubicin-toxicity-and-hypoxic-condition-in-dalton-s-lymphoma-ascites-tumor-mouse-model-evidence-from-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Venkatesan Kathiresan, Swathika Subburaman, Arun Venkatesh Krishna, Mathivanan Natarajan, Gandhidasan Rathinasamy, Kumaresan Ganesan, Murugesan Ramachandran
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known cytotoxic agent used extensively as a chemotherapeutic drug to eradicate a wide variety of human cancers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress during DOX treatment can induce cardiac, renal, and hepatic toxicities, which can constrain its use as a potential cytotoxic agent. The present work investigates the antioxidant potential of naringenin (NAR) against DOXinduced toxicities of a Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor-bearing mouse model. Mice were randomized into four groups: a negative control, positive control, DOX (2...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910750/antiretroviral-agents-looking-for-the-best-possible-chemotherapeutic-options-to-conquer-hiv
#19
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908784/cisplatin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-function-in-rats
#20
Naomi Lomeli, Kaijun Di, Jennifer Czerniawski, John F Guzowski, Daniela A Bota
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of chemotherapeutic agents and comprises a wide variety of neurological problems. No effective treatments for CRCI are currently available. Here we examined the mechanisms involving cisplatin-induced hippocampal damage following cisplatin administration in a rat model and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC). We also assessed the protective effects of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine in mitigating these damages...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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