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PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830833/noscapine-targets-egfr-p-tyr1068-to-suppress-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-mg63-cells
#1
Ming He, Linlin Jiang, Zhaozhou Ren, Guangbin Wang, Jiashi Wang
Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659342/gene-actions-for-yield-and-its-attributes-and-their-implications-in-the-inheritance-pattern-over-three-generations-in-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l
#2
Brij K Mishra, R Mishra, S N Jena, Sudhir Shukla
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634038/isolation-and-characterization-of-reticuline-n-methyltransferase-involved-in-biosynthesis-of-the-aporphine-alkaloid-magnoflorine-in-opium-poppy
#3
Jeremy S Morris, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a large group of plant-specialized metabolites displaying an array of biological and pharmacological properties associated with numerous structural scaffolds and diverse functional group modification. N-Methylation is one of the most common tailoring reactions, yielding tertiary and quaternary pathway intermediates and products. Two N-methyltransferases accepting (i) early 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediates possessing a secondary amine and leading to the key branch-point intermediate (S)-reticuline and (ii) downstream protoberberines containing a tertiary amine and forming quaternary intermediates destined for phthalideisoquinolines and antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridines were previously characterized...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483984/manipulating-the-biosynthesis-of-bioactive-compound-alkaloids-for-next-generation-metabolic-engineering-in-opium-poppy-using-crispr-cas-9-genome-editing-technology
#4
Yagiz Alagoz, Tugba Gurkok, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473012/identification-of-a-secretory-phospholipase-a2-from-papaver-somniferum-l-that-transforms-membrane-phospholipids
#5
Veronika Jablonická, Johanna Mansfeld, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue...
September 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417928/plug-and-play-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-biosynthetic-gene-discovery-in-engineered-yeast
#6
J S Morris, M Dastmalchi, J Li, L Chang, X Chen, J M Hagel, P J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) metabolism has been the focus of a considerable research effort over the past half-century, primarily because of the pharmaceutical importance of several compounds produced by opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Advancements in genomics technologies have substantially accelerated the rate of gene discovery over the past decade, such that most biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of the major alkaloids of opium poppy have now been isolated and partially characterized...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378283/engineering-biosynthesis-of-the-anticancer-alkaloid-noscapine-in-yeast
#7
Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154652/blind-column-selection-protocol-for-two-dimensional-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#8
Niki K Burns, Luke M Andrighetto, Xavier A Conlan, Stuart D Purcell, Neil W Barnett, Jacquie Denning, Paul S Francis, Paul G Stevenson
The selection of two orthogonal columns for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (LC×LC) separation of natural product extracts can be a labour intensive and time consuming process and in many cases is an entirely trial-and-error approach. This paper introduces a blind optimisation method for column selection of a black box of constituent components. A data processing pipeline, created in the open source application OpenMS®, was developed to map the components within the mixture of equal mass across a library of HPLC columns; LC×LC separation space utilisation was compared by measuring the fractional surface coverage, fcoverage...
July 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061130/measurement-of-some-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-in-different-organs-of-persian-poppy-during-ontogenetical-stages
#9
Mahdi Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Abdol Hadi Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Abbasi
Papaver bracteatum, a perennial species, has been known as a rich source of thebaine and a potential alternative to Papaver somniferum for the production of codeine and some semisynthetic antagonist drugs. In this study, ion mobility spectrum (IMS) of the root, leaf, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, capsule wall, petal, and capsule content during developmental stages of P. bracteatum including annual rosette, perennial rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, preflowering, and lancing were investigated...
May 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972462/extraction-and-functional-properties-of-proteins-from-pre-roasted-and-enzyme-treated-poppyseed-papaver-somniferum-l-press-cakes
#10
Emin Yilmaz, Dilek Dündar Emir
In this study, proteins of the defatted meals obtained from cold-pressed poppyseed previously treated (pre-roasting and enzyme against control) were extracted and their compositional and functional properties were determined. Saline-alkaline extraction (pH 11-12, and 0.2-0.6 M NaCI) and isoelectric point (pH 4.0-5.5) precipitation technique showed that seed pre-roasting enhances protein yield while enzyme treatment reduces it. There were 7 bands on SDS-PAGE, and enzyme treated samples were weaker than control...
2016: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909086/functional-characterization-of-4-omt-and-7omt-genes-in-bia-biosynthesis
#11
Tugba Gurkok, Esma Ozhuner, Iskender Parmaksiz, Sebahattin Özcan, Mine Turktas, Arif İpek, Ibrahim Demirtas, Sezer Okay, Turgay Unver
Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844398/death-in-a-legal-poppy-field-in-spain
#12
María Antonia Martínez, Salomé Ballesteros, Elena Almarza, Joaquín Garijo
Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794966/endophytes-of-opium-poppy-differentially-modulate-host-plant-productivity-and-genes-for-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids
#13
Shiv S Pandey, Sucheta Singh, C S Vivek Babu, Karuna Shanker, N K Srivastava, Alok Kalra
Endophytes reside in different parts of the poppy plant and perform the tissue-specific functions. Most leaf endophytes modulate photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and productivity while capsule endophytes modulate alkaloid biosynthesis. Endophytes promote plant growth, provide protection from environmental stresses and are the source of important secondary metabolites. Here, we established that the endophytes of opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. may play a role in the modulation of plant productivity and benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis...
May 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600674/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-myb-and-wrky-transcription-factor-genes-in-papaver-somniferum-l
#14
Tayebeh Kakeshpour, Shadi Nayebi, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Ahmad Moieni, Ghasem Karimzadeh
Papaver somniferum L. is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is important from pharmacological and strategic point of view. The cDNA clones of two putative MYB and WRKY genes were isolated (GeneBank accession numbers KP411870 and KP203854, respectively) from this plant, via the nested-PCR method, and characterized. The MYB transcription factor (TF) comprises 342 amino acids, and exhibits the structural features of the R2R3MYB protein family. The WRKY TF, a 326 amino acid-long polypeptide, falls structurally into the group II of WRKY protein family...
October 2015: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593749/characterization-and-origin-of-the-b-and-c-compounds-in-the-acid-neutral-forensic-signatures-of-heroin-products-from-the-acylation-of-porphyroxine-and-subsequent-hydrolysis
#15
John F Casale, Ellen S Casale, Steven G Toske, Patrick A Hays, Sini Panicker
Two significant compounds often found in the gas chromatographic analysis of the acid/neutral extracts from illicit heroin have remained uncharacterized for 30 years. The unknown compounds are referred to as the 'B' and 'C' compounds. It has been postulated that these compounds arise from acetylation of porphyroxine, a rhoeadine alkaloid found at trace levels in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Porphyroxine was isolated from opium and acetylated to produce N,O(8) -diacetylporphyroxine. Mild hydrolysis produced N,O(8) -diacetyl-O(14) -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (the C compound) and N-acetyl-O(14) -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (the B compound)...
November 23, 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26319514/psap2-an-ap2-erf-family-transcription-factor-from-papaver-somniferum-enhances-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco
#16
Sonal Mishra, Ujjal J Phukan, Vineeta Tripathi, Dhananjay K Singh, Suaib Luqman, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses ...
September 2015: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264169/papaverine-7-o-demethylase-a-novel-2-oxoglutarate-fe-2-dependent-dioxygenase-from-opium-poppy
#17
Scott C Farrow, Peter J Facchini
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces several pharmacologically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including the vasodilator papaverine. Pacodine and palaudine are tri-O-methylated analogs of papaverine, which contains four O-linked methyl groups. However, the biosynthetic origin of pacodine and palaudine has not been established. Three members of the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenases (2ODDs) family in opium poppy display widespread O-dealkylation activity on several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with diverse structural scaffolds, and two are responsible for the antepenultimate and ultimate steps in morphine biosynthesis...
September 14, 2015: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26179481/the-noscapine-chronicle-a-pharmaco-historic-biography-of-the-opiate-alkaloid-family-and-its-clinical-applications
#18
REVIEW
Padmashree C G Rida, Dillon LiVecche, Angela Ogden, Jun Zhou, Ritu Aneja
Given its manifold potential therapeutic applications and amenability to modification, noscapine is a veritable "Renaissance drug" worthy of commemoration. Perhaps the only facet of noscapine's profile more astounding than its versatility is its virtual lack of side effects and addictive properties, which distinguishes it from other denizens of Papaver somniferum. This review intimately chronicles the rich intellectual and pharmacological history behind the noscapine family of compounds, the length of whose arms was revealed over decades of patient scholarship and experimentation...
September 2015: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165663/light-microscopy-can-reveal-the-consumption-of-a-mixture-of-psychotropic-plant-and-fungal-material-in-suspicious-death
#19
Patricia E J Wiltshire, David L Hawksworth, Kevin J Edwards
Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157146/cytochrome-p450-3a-enzymes-catalyze-the-o6-demethylation-of-thebaine-a-key-step-in-endogenous-mammalian-morphine-biosynthesis
#20
Valerie M Kramlinger, Mónica Alvarado Rojas, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, F Peter Guengerich
Morphine, first characterized in opium from the poppy Papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest known analgesics. Endogenous morphine has been identified in several mammalian cells and tissues. The synthetic pathway of morphine in the opium poppy has been elucidated. The presence of common intermediates in plants and mammals suggests that biosynthesis occurs through similar pathways (beginning with the amino acid L-tyrosine), and the pathway has been completely delineated in plants. Some of the enzymes in the mammalian pathway have been identified and characterized...
August 14, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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