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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458057/roles-of-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-insect-development-and-organ-growth
#1
Xianyu Lin, Guy Smagghe
Organismal development is a complex process as it requires coordination of many aspects to grow into fit individuals, such as the control of body size and organ growth. Therefore, the mechanisms of precise control of growth are essential for ensuring the growth of organisms at a correct body size and proper organ proportions during development. The control of the growth rate and the duration of growth (or the cessation of growth) are required in size control. The insulin signaling pathway and the elements involved are essential in the control of growth...
February 16, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456722/fucosterol-exhibits-selective-antitumor-anticancer-activity-against-hela-human-cervical-cell-line-by-inducing-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-cell-cycle-migration-inhibition-and-downregulation-of-m-tor-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway
#2
Hongye Jiang, Jie Li, Aiyue Chen, Yinguang Li, Meng Xia, Peng Guo, Shuzhong Yao, Shuqin Chen
Cervical cancer greatly contributes to cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. The growing incidence of cervical cancer is of primary concern, and has signaled the need for multiple treatment options. Despite preliminary responses to chemotherapy and/or surgical interventions, the tumors consistently relapse. Previously, natural products gained attention for their diverse bioactivities, which include however are not limited to, neuroprotective, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The present study evaluated the anticancer activity of fucosterol against a panel of human cancer cell lines...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456138/the-inr-akt-torc1-growth-promoting-signaling-negatively-regulates-jak-stat-activity-and-migratory-cell-fate-during-morphogenesis
#3
Di Kang, Dou Wang, Jianbing Xu, Chao Quan, Xuan Guo, Heng Wang, Jun Luo, Zhongzhou Yang, Shuai Chen, Jiong Chen
Cell growth and cell differentiation are two distinct yet coupled developmental processes, but how they are coordinated is not well understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, we found that the growth-promoting InR/Akt/TOR pathway was involved in suppressing the fate determination of the migratory border cells. The InR/Akt/TOR pathway signals through TOR and Raptor, components of TORC1, to downregulate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is necessary and sufficient for border cell fate determination. TORC1 promotes the protein stability of SOCS36E, the conserved negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, through physical interaction, suggesting that TORC1 acts as a key regulator coordinating both cell growth and cell differentiation...
February 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454773/relationship-between-left-atrial-functional-measures-and-incident-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-general-population-the-copenhagen-city-heart-study
#4
Flemming J Olsen, Rasmus Møgelvang, Gorm B Jensen, Jan S Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether left atrial (LA) functional measures predict atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general population. BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests LA functional measures are predictors of AF in several patient groups. METHODS: In a community-based cohort study, approximately 2,000 individuals underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram. Conventional echocardiographic measures and extended LA measures, including the minimal and maximal LA volumes (LAVmin and LAVmax , respectively) and left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF), were performed...
February 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454612/ecdysteroidogenesis-and-development-in-heliothis-virescens-lepidoptera-noctuidae-focus-on-ptth-stimulated-pathways
#5
Carmen Scieuzo, Marisa Nardiello, Rosanna Salvia, Marco Pezzi, Milvia Chicca, Marilena Leis, Sabino A Bufo, S Bradleigh Vinson, Asha Rao, Heiko Vogel, Patrizia Falabella
Post-embryonic development and molting in insects are regulated by endocrine changes, including prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysone secretion by the prothoracic glands (PGs). In Lepidoptera, two pathways are potentially involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/TOR). We investigated the potential roles of both these pathways in Heliothis virescens ecdysteroidogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449612/ixr1-regulates-ribosomal-gene-transcription-and-yeast-response-to-cisplatin
#6
Ángel Vizoso-Vázquez, Mónica Lamas-Maceiras, M Isabel González-Siso, M Esperanza Cerdán
Ixr1 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMGB protein that regulates the hypoxic regulon and also controls the expression of other genes involved in the oxidative stress response or re-adaptation of catabolic and anabolic fluxes when oxygen is limiting. Ixr1 also binds with high affinity to cisplatin-DNA adducts and modulates DNA repair. The influence of Ixr1 on transcription in the absence or presence of cisplatin has been analyzed in this work. Ixr1 regulates other transcriptional factors that respond to nutrient availability or extracellular and intracellular stress stimuli, some controlled by the TOR pathway and PKA signaling...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449332/inhibition-of-endothelial-notch1-signaling-attenuates-inflammation-by-reducing-cytokine-mediated-histone-acetylation-at-inflammatory-enhancers
#7
Lars la Cour Poulsen, Reidunn Jetne Edelmann, Stig Krüger, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Akshay Shah, Tor Espen Stav-Noraas, Anastasia Renzi, Monika Szymanska, Junbai Wang, Manuel Ehling, Rui Benedito, Monika Kasprzycka, Espen Bækkevold, Olav Sundnes, Kim S Midwood, Helge Scott, Philippe Collas, Christian W Siebel, Ralf H Adams, Guttorm Haraldsen, Eirik Sundlisæter, Johanna Hol
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial upregulation of adhesion molecules serves to recruit leukocytes to inflammatory sites and appears to be promoted by NOTCH1; however, current models based on interactions between active NOTCH1 and NF-κB components cannot explain the transcriptional selectivity exerted by NOTCH1 in this context. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Observing that Cre/Lox-induced conditional mutations of endothelial Notch modulated inflammation in murine contact hypersensitivity, we found that IL (interleukin)-1β stimulation induced rapid recruitment of RELA to genomic sites occupied by NOTCH1-RBPJ and that NOTCH1 knockdown reduced H3K27 acetylation at a subset of NF-κB-directed inflammatory enhancers...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446801/emergence-ecology-and-dispersal-of-the-pandemic-generating-vibrio-cholerae-lineage
#8
REVIEW
Mohammad T Islam, Munirul Alam, Yan Boucher
Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threat globally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineage harbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generated two biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved and displaced their predecessors worldwide...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446126/layer-specific-global-longitudinal-strain-reveals-impaired-cardiac-function-in-patients-with-reversible-ischemia
#9
Christoffer E Hagemann, Søren Hoffmann, Flemming J Olsen, Peter G Jørgensen, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Jan S Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
AIMS: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) detects early signs of left ventricular dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether layer-specific global longitudinal strain (GLS) has incremental value in diagnosis of patients with reversible ischemia assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and no history of ischemic heart disease were retrospectively identified to have been examined by 2DSTE, SPECT, and coronary angiography (CAG)...
February 15, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445291/raptor-mediates-the-antiproliferation-of-cardamonin-by-mtorc1-inhibition-in-skov3-cells
#10
Daohua Shi, Yanting Zhu, Peiguang Niu, Jintuo Zhou, Huajiao Chen
Purpose: Cardamonin inhibits the proliferation of SKOV3 cells by suppressing the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, the mechanism of cardamonin on mTORC1 inhibition has not been well demonstrated. The regulatory-associated protein of TOR (Raptor) is an essential component of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the role of Raptor in the mTORC1 inhibition effect of cardamonin in SKOV3 cells. Methods: The expression of Raptor was knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442531/the-impact-of-pneumatic-tube-transport-on-whole-blood-coagulation-and-platelet-function-assays
#11
Peter H Nissen, Dorte E Wulff, Niels Tørring, Anne-Mette Hvas
Pneumatic tube is an attractive way to transport blood samples from the emergency department to the central laboratory facility. We aimed to investigate the impact of pneumatic tube transportation on blood samples for analysis of whole blood coagulation and platelet function. We included 21 healthy adult individuals and measured global coagulation assays by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) using impedance aggregometry (ROTEM Platelet), on samples transported manually or by pneumatic tube transport...
February 14, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442402/ectopic-pregnancy-in-women-with-recurrent-miscarriage
#12
Carlo Ticconi, Maria V Capogna, Federica Martelli, Barbara Borelli, Valentina Bruno, Raffaella Ergasti, Roberto Sorge, Emilio Piccione, Adalgisa Pietropolli
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). METHODS: In this case-control retrospective study, the clinical cards of women followed as outpatients in the RM and low-risk pregnancy offices of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit at the Policlinico Tor Vergata University Hospital were carefully reviewed for the occurrence of EP. RESULTS: Overall, 598 women with RM and 2043 normal women without RM (controls) were included in the study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441840/the-ethics-of-real-time-ems-direction-suggested-curricular-content
#13
Jay M Brenner, Andrew L Aswegan, Laura E Vearrier, Jesse B Basford, Kenneth V Iserson
Ethical dilemmas can create moral distress in even the most experienced emergency physicians (EPs). Following reasonable and justified approaches can help alleviate such distress. The purpose of this article is to guide EPs providing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) direction to navigate through common ethical issues confronted in the prehospital delivery of care, including protecting privacy and confidentiality, decision-making capacity and refusal of treatment, withholding of treatment, and termination of resuscitation (TOR)...
February 14, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441718/the-checkpoint-kinase-tor-target-of-rapamycin-regulates-expression-of-a-nuclear-encoded-chloroplast-rela-spot-homolog-rsh-and-modulates-chloroplast-ribosomal-rna-synthesis-in-a-unicellular-red-alga
#14
Sousuke Imamura, Yuhta Nomura, Tokiaki Takemura, Imran Pancha, Keiko Taki, Kazuki Toguchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Kan Tanaka
Chloroplasts are plant organelles that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis depends upon chloroplast ribosomes and their translational activity. However, regulation of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis remains an important unanswered question. In this study, we found that inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR), a general eukaryotic checkpoint kinase, results in a decline in chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Upon TOR inhibition, transcriptomics and other analyses revealed increased expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) gene (CmRSH4b), which encodes a homolog of the guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) synthetases that modulate rRNA synthesis in bacteria...
February 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436338/multiple-phenotypic-and-genotypic-artemisinin-sensitivity-evaluation-of-malian-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates
#15
Karamoko Niaré, Lucie Paloque, Sandie Ménard, Pety Tor, Arba P Ramadani, Jean-Michel Augereau, Antoine Dara, Antoine Berry, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Ogobara K Doumbo
We assessed the ex vivo/in vitro sensitivity of 54 Malian Plasmodium falciparum isolates to artemisinin for the monitoring of drug resistance in this area. The artemisinin sensitivity of parasites was evaluated using 1) the ex vivo and in vitro parasite recrudescence detection after treatment of the ring stage with 1-200 nM artemisinin for 48 hours and 2) the in vitro parasite recrudescence kinetics assay over 7 days after 6-hour treatment of the ring stage with 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In addition, as recommended by the World Health Organization for artemisinin resistance characterization, the ring-stage survival assay (RSA0-3 h) was performed and the parasite isolates were sequenced at the kelch 13 propeller locus...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435962/context-cue-focality-influences-strategic-prospective-memory-monitoring
#16
B Hunter Ball, Julie M Bugg
Monitoring the environment for the occurrence of prospective memory (PM) targets is a resource-demanding process that produces cost (e.g., slower responding) to ongoing activities. However, research suggests that individuals are able to monitor strategically by using contextual cues to reduce monitoring in contexts in which PM targets are not expected to occur. In the current study, we investigated the processes supporting context identification (i.e., determining whether or not the context is appropriate for monitoring) by testing the context cue focality hypothesis...
February 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435282/circadian-clock-and-oral-cancer
#17
Minou Nirvani, Cuong Khuu, Tor Paaske Utheim, Lars Peter Sand, Amer Sehic
The circadian clock is comprised of a master component situated in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clock genes in almost every cell of the body. The circadian clock genes and their encoded proteins govern the organism to follow the natural signals of time, and adapt to external changes in the environment. The majority of physiological processes in mammals exhibit variable circadian rhythms, which are generated and coordinated by an oscillation in the expression of the clock genes. A number of studies have reported that alteration in the expression level of clock genes is correlated with several pathological conditions, including cancer...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432194/structurally-modulated-codelivery-of-sirna-and-argonaute-2-for-enhanced-rna-interference
#18
Jiahe Li, Connie Wu, Wade Wang, Yanpu He, Elad Elkayam, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Paula T Hammond
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a promising class of inhibitors in both fundamental research and the clinic. Numerous delivery vehicles have been developed to facilitate siRNA delivery. Nevertheless, achieving highly potent RNA interference (RNAi) toward clinical translation requires efficient formation of RNA-induced gene-silencing complex (RISC) in the cytoplasm. Here we coencapsulate siRNA and the central RNAi effector protein Argonaute 2 (Ago2) via different delivery carriers as a platform to augment RNAi...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431107/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-the-prevalence-and-severity-of-aortic-stenosis-in-elderly-patients
#19
Morten Sengeløv, Susan Cheng, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Kunihiro Matsushita, Suma Konety, Scott D Solomon, Aaron R Folsom, Amil M Shah
BACKGROUND: The relationship between ideal cardiovascular health reflected in the cardiovascular health score (CVHS) and valvular heart disease is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of CVHS attainment through midlife to late life with aortic stenosis prevalence and severity in late life. METHODS AND RESULTS: The following 6 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were assessed in ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study participants at 5 examination visits between 1987 and 2013 (visits 1-4 in 1987-1998 and visit 5 in 2011-2013): smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, and blood glucose...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428381/genetic-diversity-of-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae-o1-from-sabah-malaysia-2015
#20
Myo Thura Zaw, Nor Amalina Emran, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Maria Suleiman, Tajul Ariffin Awang Mohd, Aza Sherin Yusuff, Khin Saw Naing, Than Myint, Muhammad Jikal, Mohd Azmi Salleh, Zaw Lin
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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