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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675372/autophagy-activation-and-the-mechanism-of-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-hypoxia
#1
Rong Li, Li-Zhao Wang, Jun-Hui Du, Lei Zhao, Yang Yao
AIM: To explore the state of autophagy and related mechanisms in the murine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) under hypoxia stimulation. METHODS: The murine RMECs were primarily cultured and randomly divided into three groups: hypoxia group (cultured in 1% O2 environment), hypoxia+autophagy inhibition group [pretreated with 5 mmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) for 4h followed by incubation in 1% O2 ] and control group (cultured under normoxic condition)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675265/tissue-specific-transcriptome-profiling-of-drosophila-reveals-roles-for-gata-transcription-factors-in-longevity-by-dietary-restriction
#2
Adam J Dobson, Xiaoli He, Eric Blanc, Ekin Bolukbasi, Yodit Feseha, Mingyao Yang, Matthew D W Piper
Dietary restriction (DR) extends animal lifespan, but imposes fitness costs. This phenomenon depends on dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) and TOR signalling, which exert systemic effects. However, the roles of specific tissues and cell-autonomous transcriptional regulators in diverse aspects of the DR phenotype are unknown. Manipulating relevant transcription factors (TFs) specifically in lifespan-limiting tissues may separate the lifespan benefits of DR from the early-life fitness costs. Here, we systematically analyse transcription across organs of Drosophila subjected to DR or low TOR and predict regulatory TFs...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#3
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673596/the-torc1-signaling-pathway-regulates-respiration-induced-mitophagy-in-yeast
#4
Yang Liu, Koji Okamoto
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved autophagy process that selectively degrades mitochondria. This catabolic event is considered to be a mitochondrial quality control system crucial for cell homeostasis, however, mechanisms regulating mitophagy remain largely unknown. Here we show that the TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway regulates mitophagy in budding yeast via SEACIT (Seh1-associated complex inhibiting TORC1) consisting of Iml1, Npr2, and Npr3. Cells lacking SEACIT displayed strong defects in mitophagy during prolonged respiratory growth, while the other selective autophagy processes are only partially affected...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671673/cancer-specific-snps-originate-from-low-level-heteroplasmic-variants-in-human-mitochondrial-genomes-of-a-matched-cell-line-pair
#5
Annica Hedberg, Erik Knutsen, Anne Silje Løvhaugen, Tor Erik Jørgensen, Maria Perander, Steinar D Johansen
Low-level mitochondrial heteroplasmy is a common phenomenon in both normal and cancer cells. Here, we investigate the link between low-level heteroplasmy and mitogenome mutations in a human breast cancer matched cell line by high-throughput sequencing. We identified 23 heteroplasmic sites, of which 15 were common between normal cells (Hs578Bst) and cancer cells (Hs578T). Most sites were clustered within the highly conserved Complex IV and ribosomal RNA genes. Two heteroplasmic variants in normal cells were found as fixed mutations in cancer cells...
April 19, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666494/the-long-search-for-the-pain-gene
#6
Tor Wager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665102/antibiotic-associated-disruption-of-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-cirrhosis-is-restored-by-fecal-transplant
#7
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Tor Savidge, Hajime Takei, Zain A Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Prapaporn Boonma, Anthony Haag, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Cirrhotic patients are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) to restore gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In an FDA-monitored Phase 1 clinical safety trial, decompensated cirrhotic patients on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659790/ratio-of-transmitral-early-filling-velocity-to-early-diastolic-strain-rate-predicts-long-term-risk-of-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-general-population
#8
Mats Christian Højbjerg Lassen, Sofie Reumert Biering-Sørensen, Flemming Javier Olsen, Kristoffer Grundtvig Skaarup, Kirsten Tolstrup, Atif Nazier Qasim, Rasmus Møgelvang, Jan Skov Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
Aims: It has previously been demonstrated that the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to global diastolic strain rate (E/e'sr) is a significant predictor of cardiac events in specific patient populations. The utility of this measurement to predict cardiovascular events in a general population has not been evaluated. Methods and results: A total of 1238 participants in a general population study underwent a health examination including echocardiography where global longitudinal strain (GLS) and E/e'sr were determined...
April 5, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652786/long-term-results-of-surgery-compared-with-nonoperative-treatment-for-lumbar-degenerative-spondylolisthesis-in-the-spine-patient-outcomes-research-trial-sport
#9
William A Abdu, Olivia A Sacks, Anna N A Tosteson, Wenyan Zhao, Tor D Tosteson, Tamara S Morgan, Adam Pearson, James N Weinstein, Jon D Lurie
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized trial with a concurrent observational cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To compare eight-year outcomes between surgery and nonoperative care and among different fusion techniques for symptomatic lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical treatment of DS has been shown to be more effective than nonoperative treatment out to four years. This study sought to further determine the long-term (8-year) outcomes. METHODS: Surgical candidates with DS from thirteen centers with at least twelve weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging were offered enrollment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or observational cohort study (OBS)...
April 12, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650421/financial-outcomes-of-transoral-robotic-surgery-a-narrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Sammy Othman, Brian J McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current cost impact and financial outcomes of transoral robotic surgery in Otolaryngology. DATA SOURCES: A narrative review of the literature with a defined search strategy using Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. REVIEW METHODS: Using keywords ENT or otolaryngology, cost or economic, transoral robotic surgery or TORs, searches were performed in Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science and reviewed by the authors for inclusion and analysis...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650326/the-plant-target-of-rapamycin-kinase-a-connector-between-sulfur-and-growth
#11
Céline Forzani, Gustavo Turqueto Duarte, Christian Meyer
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants that is incorporated into sulfur-containing amino acids or metabolites crucial for plant growth and stress adaptation. A recent publication shows a connection between sulfur sensing, growth processes, and the conserved eukaryotic target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase signaling pathway.
April 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625135/effect-of-heterochromatin-stability-on-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-in-drosophila
#12
Ho-Jun Jeon, Young-Shin Kim, Joong-Gook Kim, Kyu Heo, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Joung-Sun Park, Mi-Ae Yoo
Chromatin change is one of the crucial causes of aging. Specifically, maintenance of heterochromatin stability is critical for cellular integrity, and its loss induces genomic instability and cellular aging. However, the causes and effects of heterochromatin instability in multicellular tissue aging still remain unclear. Here, in the adult Drosophila midgut, we report age-related loss of heterochromatin stability in enterocytes (ECs) due to the loss and dispersion of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)...
April 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625096/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-components-of-the-tor-pathway-of-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838
#13
Liv Sandlund, Heidi Kongshaug, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepods, Caligida) is a marine ectoparasite infecting salmonid fishes in the northern hemisphere. At present, salmon lice infections are the most severe disease problem in the salmon farming industry causing significant economic losses. Due to development of resistance towards available chemotherapeutants, it is clear that new chemotherapeutants or non-chemical control methods are essential to manage the parasite in the future. The TOR signaling pathway is present in all metazoans and is a major regulator of cellular activity according to nutrient availability...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624592/anti-o-specific-polysaccharide-osp-immune-responses-following-vaccination-with-oral-cholera-vaccine-cvd-103-hgr-correlate-with-protection-against-cholera-after-infection-with-wild-type-vibrio-cholerae-o1-el-tor-inaba-in-north-american-volunteers
#14
Kamrul Islam, Motaher Hossain, Meagan Kelly, Leslie M Mayo Smith, Richelle C Charles, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Regina C LaRocque, Stephen B Calderwood, Jakub K Simon, Wilbur H Chen, Douglas Haney, Michael Lock, Caroline E Lyon, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Mitchell Cohen, Myron M Levine, Marc Gurwith, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an acute voluminous dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 and occasionally O139. A growing body of evidence indicates that immune responses targeting the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae are involved in mediating protection against cholera. We therefore assessed whether antibody responses against OSP occur after vaccination with live attenuated oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR, and whether such responses correlate with protection against cholera...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623476/transcription-and-microrna-profiling-of-cultured-human-tympanic-membrane-epidermal-keratinocytes
#15
Peder Aabel, Tor Paaske Utheim, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Helge Rask-Andersen, Rodney James Dilley, Magnus von Unge
The human tympanic membrane (TM) has a thin outer epidermal layer which plays an important role in TM homeostasis and ear health. The specialised cells of the TM epidermis have a different physiology compared to normal skin epidermal keratinocytes, displaying a dynamic and constitutive migration that maintains a clear TM surface and assists in regeneration. Here, we characterise and compare molecular phenotypes in keratinocyte cultures from TM and normal skin. TM keratinocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623473/copper-complex-derived-from-s-benzyldithiocarbazate-and-3-acetylcoumarin-induced-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cell
#16
Jhi Biau Foo, May Lee Low, Ji Hui Lim, Yan Zhi Lor, Rusyidah Zainol Abidin, Vilasini Eh Dam, Napsiah Abdul Rahman, Chaw Yee Beh, Lee Chin Chan, Chee Wun How, Yin Sim Tor, Latifah Saiful Yazan
Copper complexes have been widely studied for the anti-tumour application as cancer cells are reported to take up greater amounts of copper than normal cells. Preliminary study revealed that the newly synthesised copper complex [Cu(SBCM)2 ] displayed marked anti-proliferative towards triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Therefore, Cu(SBCM)2 has great potential to be developed as an agent for the management of breast cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate the mode of cell death induced by Cu(SBCM)2 towards MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
April 5, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622589/genome-wide-associations-of-global-electrical-heterogeneity-ecg-phenotype-the-aric-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-and-chs-cardiovascular-health-study
#17
Larisa G Tereshchenko, Nona Sotoodehnia, Colleen M Sitlani, Foram N Ashar, Muammar Kabir, Mary L Biggs, Michael P Morley, Jonathan W Waks, Elsayed Z Soliman, Alfred E Buxton, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Scott D Solomon, Wendy S Post, Thomas P Cappola, David S Siscovick, Dan E Arking
BACKGROUND: ECG global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) is associated with sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study would identify genetic loci related to GEH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested genotyped and imputed variants in black (N=3057) and white (N=10 769) participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study and CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). GEH (QRS-T angle, sum absolute QRST integral, spatial ventricular gradient magnitude, elevation, azimuth) was measured on 12-lead ECGs...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622450/invasive-and-non-invasive-prognostic-markers-what-to-trust-and-how-to-optimize-surveillance-after-heart-transplantation
#18
EDITORIAL
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Tim P van de Hoef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620922/immediate-symptom-relief-after-a-first-session-of-massage-therapy-or-reiki-in-hospitalized-patients-a-5-year-clinical-experience-from-a-rural-academic-medical-center
#19
Maxwell T Vergo, Briane M Pinkson, Kathleen Broglio, Zhongze Li, Tor D Tosteson
OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing demand for and use of alternative and complementary therapies, such as reiki and massage therapy, in hospital-based settings. Most controlled studies and practice-based reports include oncology and surgical patient populations; thus the effect in a more heterogeneous hospitalized patient population is hard to estimate. We examined the immediate symptom relief from a single reiki or massage session in a hospitalized population at a rural academic medical center...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620600/environmental-enteropathy-micronutrient-adequacy-and-length-velocity-in-nepalese-children-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#20
Marianne S Morseth, Sigrun Henjum, Catherine Schwinger, Tor A Strand, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Binob Shrestha, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Liv Elin Torheim
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is likely associated with growth retardation in children, but the association between EE and length velocity z-score (LVZ) has not been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess associations between fecal markers for intestinal inflammation and LVZ and whether these associations were influenced by micronutrient adequacy among 9-24 months old children in Bhaktapur, Nepal. METHODS: Data was divided into 5 time slots (9-12, 12-15, 15-18, 18-21 and 21-24 months)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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