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Wingless regeneration

Magdalena Dabrowska, Marek Skoneczny, Zbigniew Zielinski, Wojciech Rode
BACKGROUND: The nurse cell (NC) constitutes in mammalian skeletal muscles a confined intracellular niche to support the metabolic needs of muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. encapsulating species. The main biological functions of NC were identified as hypermitogenic growth arrest and pro-inflammatory phenotype, both inferred to depend on AP-1 (activator protein 1) transcription factor. Since those functions, as well as AP-1 activity, are known to be regulated among other pathways, also by Wnt (Wingless-Type of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Integration Site) signaling, transcription profiling of molecules participating in Wnt signaling cascades in NC, was performed...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Shilpi Verghese, Tin Tin Su
Drosophila melanogaster larvae irradiated with doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that kill about half of the cells in larval imaginal discs still develop into viable adults. How surviving cells compensate for IR-induced cell death to produce organs of normal size and appearance remains an active area of investigation. We have identified a subpopulation of cells within the continuous epithelium of Drosophila larval wing discs that shows intrinsic resistance to IR- and drug-induced apoptosis. These cells reside in domains of high Wingless (Wg, Drosophila Wnt-1) and STAT92E (sole Drosophila signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT] homolog) activity and would normally form the hinge in the adult fly...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Mingli Li, Jillian L Lindblad, Ernesto Perez, Andreas Bergmann, Yun Fan
BACKGROUND: ATG1 belongs to the Uncoordinated-51-like kinase protein family. Members of this family are best characterized for roles in macroautophagy and neuronal development. Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a caspase-directed and JNK-dependent process which is involved in tissue repair and regeneration after massive stress-induced apoptotic cell loss. Under certain conditions, AiP can cause tissue overgrowth with implications for cancer. RESULTS: Here, we show that Atg1 in Drosophila (dAtg1) has a previously unrecognized function for both regenerative and overgrowth-promoting AiP in eye and wing imaginal discs...
2016: BMC Biology
Jason D Gibson, Michael B O'Sullivan, Farhang Alaee, David N Paglia, Ryu Yoshida, Rosa M Guzzo, Hicham Drissi
: : The success of cell-based therapies to restore joint cartilage requires an optimal source of reparative progenitor cells and tight control of their differentiation into a permanent cartilage phenotype. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been extensively shown to promote mesenchymal cell differentiation into chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, developmental studies have demonstrated decreased chondrocyte maturation by Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 5A (Wnt5a)...
August 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Timothy N Perkins, Mieke A Dentener, Frank R Stassen, Gernot G Rohde, Brooke T Mossman, Emiel F M Wouters, Niki L Reynaert
Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases...
June 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kenneth Maiese
As the world's population continues to age, it is estimated that degenerative joint disease disorders such as osteoarthritis will impact at least 130 million individuals throughout the globe by the year 2050. Advanced age, obesity, genetics, gender, bone density, trauma, and a poor level of physical activity can lead to the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. However, factors that lead to degenerative joint disease and involve gender, genetics, epigenetic mechanisms, and advanced age are not within the control of an individual...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Nobuaki Ozeki, Makio Mogi, Naoko Hase, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Ayami Kondo, Kazuhiko Nakata
We established a differentiation method for homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7⁺hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7⁺hSMSC-OB) cells, and found that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13-regulated proliferation of these cells. These data suggest that MMP-13 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of osteoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-13 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wingless/int1 (Wnt) signaling and increased the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells...
February 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robin E Harris, Linda Setiawan, Josh Saul, Iswar K Hariharan
Many organisms lose the capacity to regenerate damaged tissues as they mature. Damaged Drosophila imaginal discs regenerate efficiently early in the third larval instar (L3) but progressively lose this ability. This correlates with reduced damage-responsive expression of multiple genes, including the WNT genes wingless (wg) and Wnt6. We demonstrate that damage-responsive expression of both genes requires a bipartite enhancer whose activity declines during L3. Within this enhancer, a damage-responsive module stays active throughout L3, while an adjacent silencing element nucleates increasing levels of epigenetic silencing restricted to this enhancer...
February 3, 2016: ELife
Jarosław Lewandowski, Tomasz J Kolanowski, Maciej Kurpisz
The derivation of pluripotent stem cells from human embryos and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells opened a new chapter in studies on the regeneration of the post-infarction heart and regenerative medicine as a whole. Thus, protocols for obtaining iPSCs were enthusiastically adopted and widely used for further experiments on cardiac differentiation. iPSC-mediated cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) under in vitro culture conditions are generated by simulating natural cardiomyogenesis and involve the wingless-type mouse mammary tumour virus integration site family (WNT), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathways...
January 17, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Kenneth Maiese
Globally, greater than 30 million individuals are afflicted with disorders of the nervous system accompanied by tens of thousands of new cases annually with limited, if any, treatment options. Erythropoietin (EPO) offers an exciting and novel therapeutic strategy to address both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. EPO governs a number of critical protective and regenerative mechanisms that can impact apoptotic and autophagic programmed cell death pathways through protein kinase B (Akt), sirtuins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, and wingless signaling...
January 1, 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Leesa L Sampson, Ashley K Davis, Matthew W Grogg, Yi Zheng
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays...
March 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kenneth Maiese
Globally, greater than 30 million individuals are afflicted with disorders of the nervous system accompanied by tens of thousands of new cases annually with limited, if any, treatment options. Erythropoietin (EPO) offers an exciting and novel therapeutic strategy to address both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. EPO governs a number of critical protective and regenerative mechanisms that can impact apoptotic and autophagic programmed cell death pathways through protein kinase B (Akt), sirtuins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, and wingless signaling...
January 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Sunetra Das
Regeneration is a developmental process that allows an organism to re-grow a lost body part. Historically, the most studied aspect of limb regeneration across Pancrustacea is its morphological basis and its dependence on successful molting. Although there are distinct morphological differences in regeneration processes between insects and crustaceans, in both groups the phenomenon is initiated via formation of a blastema, followed by proliferation, dedifferentiation, and redifferentiation of blastemal cells to generate a functional limb...
November 2015: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Lívia Santos, Gregor Fuhrmann, Maya Juenet, Nadav Amdursky, Christine-Maria Horejs, Paola Campagnolo, Molly M Stevens
Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is of vital importance during the early stages of bone healing. Extracellular stiffness plays an important role in regulating endothelial cell behavior and angiogenesis, but how this mechanical cue affects proliferation kinetics, gene regulation, and the expression of proteins implicated in angiogenesis and bone regeneration remains unclear. Using collagen-coated polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are exposed to an environment that mimics the elastic properties of collagenous bone, and cellular proliferation and gene and protein expressions are assessed...
August 13, 2015: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Chen Zhou, Guodong Yang, Mo Chen, Ling He, Lusai Xiang, Christopher Ricupero, Jeremy J Mao, Junqi Ling
As transcription factors of the lines (LIN)-11/Islet (Isl)-1/mitosis entry checkpoint (MEC)-3 (LIM)-homeobox subfamily, LIM homeobox (Lhx)6 and -8 are remarkably conserved and involved in the morphogenesis of multiple organ systems. Lhx6 and -8 play overlapping and distinctive roles, but in general act as cell fate mediators and in turn are regulated by several transcriptional factors, such as sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factors, and wingless-int (Wnt)/β-catenin. In this review, we first summarize Lhx6 and -8 distributions in development and then explore how Lhx6 and -8 act as transcription factors and coregulators of cell lineage specification...
October 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Larissa V Ponomareva, Antony Athippozhy, Jon S Thorson, S Randal Voss
Amphibian vertebrates are important models in regenerative biology because they present exceptional regenerative capabilities throughout life. However, it takes considerable effort to rear amphibians to juvenile and adult stages for regeneration studies, and the relatively large sizes that frogs and salamanders achieve during development make them difficult to use in chemical screens. Here, we introduce a new tail regeneration model using late stage Mexican axolotl embryos. We show that axolotl embryos completely regenerate amputated tails in 7days before they exhaust their yolk supply and begin to feed...
December 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Tomonori Katsuyama, Federico Comoglio, Makiko Seimiya, Erik Cabuy, Renato Paro
Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding...
May 5, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Catarina Franco, Sonja Hess
Embryonic development, adult tissue repair, and cancer share a number of common regulating pathways. The basic processes that govern the events that induce mesenchymal properties in epithelial cells-a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition-are central for embryonic development, and can be resumed in adults either during wound healing or tissue regeneration. A misregulation of these pathways is involved in pathological situations, such as tissue fibrosis and cancer. Proteomic approaches have emerged as promising tools to better understand the signaling pathways that govern these complex biological processes...
March 2015: Proteomics
Honghua Song, Lili Man, Yingjie Wang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
The Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway plays important roles in central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration, and β-catenin, the central component, has been considered in association with adult neurogenesis. To decipher its roles on spontaneous spinal cord regeneration, we cloned β-catenin from Gekko japonicus and examined its function in regenerating spinal cord. The protein was localized in the neurons and oligodendrocytes and maintained a stable expression levels during the spinal cord regeneration...
March 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Zhichun Zhang, Qingru Guo, Hua Tian, Ping Lv, Chunyan Zhou, Xuejun Gao
INTRODUCTION: Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10A (WNT10A) plays crucial roles in odontogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WNT10A on human dental pulp cells (DPCs), which contain a mixed population of cells, including stem and progenitor cells, and participate in dentin repair or dentin-pulp regeneration. METHODS: Healthy human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used as a study model. The expression of WNT10A protein in dental pulp was determined by immunohistochemistry...
October 2014: Journal of Endodontics
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