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Drosophila regeneration

Péter Nagy, Gyöngyvér O Sándor, Gábor Juhász
Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by tightly controlled proliferation and differentiation of tissue-resident multipotent stem cells during aging and regeneration, which ensures organismal adaptation. Here we show that autophagy is required in Drosophila intestinal stem cells to sustain proliferation, and preserves the stem cell pool. Autophagy-deficient stem cells show elevated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest during aging, and are frequently eliminated via JNK-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, loss of Chk2, a DNA damage-activated kinase that arrests the cell cycle and promotes DNA repair and apoptosis, leads to uncontrolled proliferation of intestinal stem cells regardless of their autophagy status...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fernando Calahorro, Patricia G Izquierdo
Synapses are specialized contact sites that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. Important physical interactions across the synapse are mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules. These adhesions regulate formation of synapses during development and play a role during mature synaptic function. Importantly, genes regulating synaptogenesis and axon regeneration are conserved across the animal phyla. Genetic screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of molecules required for synapse patterning and assembly...
March 12, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Eek-Hoon Jho
Since the first component of Hippo signaling, Wts in Drosophila, was identified in 1995, the progress of Hippo signaling studies has been very slow initially. However, after the findings suggesting that the core kinase pathway established in Drosophila was evolutionarily conserved in metazoans for the determination of organ size around 2008, the number of publications related to Hippo signaling has grown exponentially. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying Hippo signaling response to intrinsic cues, such as cell-cell contact and mechanotransduction, as well as extrinsic cues, such as nutrients and soluble factors, has been one of the key topics of Hippo signaling...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
Jessica Perochon, Lynsey R Carroll, Julia B Cordero
Adult stem cells play critical roles in the basal maintenance of tissue integrity, also known as homeostasis, and in tissue regeneration following damage. The highly conserved Wnt signalling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell fate. In the gastrointestinal tract, Wnt signalling activation drives homeostasis and damage-induced repair. Additionally, deregulated Wnt signalling is a common hallmark of age-associated tissue dysfunction and cancer. Studies using mouse and fruit fly models have greatly improved our understanding of the functional contribution of the Wnt signalling pathway in adult intestinal biology...
March 2, 2018: Genes
Juan J Fraire-Zamora, Matias Simons
Epithelia have the ability to repair injuries through an evolutionary conserved wound healing mechanism. Wound healing events can be classified into the transcription-independent signals involving mobilization of ionic currents and cytoskeletal rearrangements or the transcription-dependent response with activation of repair genes. The vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) has been implicated in the regeneration of vertebrate structures, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we use wounding assays on the epidermis of Drosophila embryos to assess the role of the V-ATPase in the healing response...
February 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Melanie I Worley, Larissa A Alexander, Iswar K Hariharan
Regeneration following tissue damage often necessitates a mechanism for cellular re-programming, so that surviving cells can give rise to all cell types originally found in the damaged tissue. This process, if unchecked, can also generate cell types that are inappropriate for a given location. We conducted a screen for genes that negatively regulate the frequency of notum-to-wing transformations following genetic ablation and regeneration of the wing pouch, from which we identified mutations in the transcriptional co-repressor C-terminalBinding Protein (CtBP)...
January 26, 2018: ELife
Baolin Huang, Zihan Wu, Sai Ding, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
Localization of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with continuous and effective osteogenic stimulation is still a great challenge in the field of bone regeneration. To achieve this aim, rhBMP-2 was tethered on chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds through specific noncovalent interactions. CS, one of the core glycosaminoglycans, was covalently conjugated onto CPC scaffolds with the assistance of polydopamine (PDA) and further immobilized rhBMP-2 in a biomimetic form...
January 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Burcu Yener Ilce, Umut Cagin, Acelya Yilmazer
Increased life expectancy, due to the rise in life quality and the decline in mortality rates, is leading to a society in which the population aged 60 and over is growing more rapidly than the entire population. Although various models and model organisms have been employed to investigate the mechanism of aging, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are useful candidates to study human aging and age-related human diseases. This work discusses how iPSCs can be used as an alternative to the model organisms such as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, or the mouse...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Ting-Ting Wang, Feng-Ling Si, Zheng-Bo He, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are conserved ligand-gated ion channel receptors, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) were revealed as a new family of iGluRs. Their subdivision was unsettled, and their characteristics are little known. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in eastern Asia, and its genome was recently well sequenced and annotated. METHODS: We identified iGluR genes in the An. sinensis genome, analyzed their characteristics including gene structure, genome distribution, domains and specific sites by bioinformatic methods, and deduced phylogenetic relationships of all iGluRs in An...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shunsuke Kon
In multicellular organisms, incidentally emerging suboptimal cells are removed to maintain homeostasis of tissues. The unfavorable cells are excluded by a process termed cell competition whereby the resident normal cells actively eliminate the unfit cells of the identical lineage. Although the phenomenon of cell competition was originally discovered in Drosophila, a number of recent studies have provided implications of cell competition in tissue regeneration, development and oncogenesis in mammals. Here the roles of cell competition in fly to mammals are discussed...
December 18, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Michael V Taylor, Simon M Hughes
Mef2 is a conserved and significant transcription factor in the control of muscle gene expression. In cell culture Mef2 synergises with MyoD-family members in the activation of gene expression and in the conversion of fibroblasts into myoblasts. Amongst its in vivo roles, Mef2 is required for both Drosophila muscle development and mammalian muscle regeneration. Mef2 has functions in other cell-types too, but this review focuses on skeletal muscle and surveys key findings on Mef2 from its discovery, shortly after that of MyoD, up to the present day...
December 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alexander Fulford, Nicolas Tapon, Paulo S Ribeiro
Cellular signalling lies at the heart of every decision involved in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The Hippo pathway was discovered nearly two decades ago through seminal work in Drosophila and rapidly emerged as a crucial signalling network implicated in developmental and oncogenic growth, tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Here, we review recent advances in the field relating to the upstream regulation of Hippo signalling and the intracellular tug-of-war that tightly controls its main target, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie/YAP...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
December 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alicia Hidalgo, Ann Logan
The regenerative response of ensheating glia to central nervous system (CNS) injury involves proliferation and differentiation, axonal re-enwrapment and some recovery of behaviour. Understanding this limited response could enable the enhancement of it. In Drosophila, the glial progenitor state is maintained by Notch, an activator of cell division and Prospero (Pros), a repressor. Injury provokes the activation of NFκB and up-regulation of Kon-tiki (Kon), driving cell proliferation. Homeostatic switch-off comes about as two negative feedback loops involving Pros terminate the response...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Qing Lan, Min Cao, Rahul K Kollipara, Jeffrey B Rosa, Ralf Kittler, Huaqi Jiang
Understanding how somatic stem cells respond to tissue needs is important, since aberrant somatic stem cell behaviors may lead to tissue degeneration or tumorigenesis. Here, from an in vivo RNAi screen targeting transcription factors that regulate intestinal regeneration, we uncovered a requirement for the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) in the maintenance of intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities. FoxA/Fkh maintains the expressions of stem/progenitor cell markers and is required for stem cell proliferation during intestinal homeostasis and regeneration...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
Pluripotent stem cell activity is essential to maintain regeneration and homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut following environmental challenges. Although multiple pathways have been implicated in epithelial renewal, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and correlations between relevant genes and pathways remain elusive. In this study, we show that the zinc finger protein CG12744 plays an important role in the differentiation and regeneration of epithelial cells in response to oral infection with Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
Dhananjay Chaturvedi, Heinrich Reichert, Rajesh D Gunage, K VijayRaghavan
Work on genetic model systems such as Drosophila and mouse has shown that the fundamental mechanisms of myogenesis are remarkably similar in vertebrates and invertebrates. Strikingly, however, satellite cells, the adult muscle stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles in vertebrates, have not been reported in invertebrates. In this study, we show that lineal descendants of muscle stem cells are present in adult muscle of Drosophila as small, unfused cells observed at the surface and in close proximity to the mature muscle fibers...
October 26, 2017: ELife
Samantha C Fisch, María L Gimeno, Julia D Phan, Ariel A Simerman, Daniel A Dumesic, Marcelo J Perone, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Multilineage differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, discovered in the spring of 2010 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, were quickly recognized by scientists as a possible source of pluripotent cells naturally present within mesenchymal tissues. Muse cells normally exist in a quiescent state, singularly activated by severe cellular stress in vitro and in vivo. Muse cells have the capacity for self-renewal while maintaining pluripotent cell characteristics indicated by the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers...
October 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Shilpi Verghese, Tin Tin Su
We report here a study of regeneration in Drosophila larval wing imaginal discs after damage by ionizing radiation. We detected faithful regeneration that restored a wing disc and abnormal regeneration that produced an extra wing disc. We describe a sequence of changes in cell number, location and fate that occur to produce an ectopic disc. We identified a group of cells that not only participate in ectopic disc formation but also recruit others to do so. STAT92E (Drosophila STAT3/5) and Nurf-38, which encodes a member of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor complex, oppose each other in these cells to modulate the frequency of ectopic disc growth...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
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