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Drosophila regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218282/calcium-spikes-waves-and-oscillations-in-a-large-patterned-epithelial-tissue
#1
Ramya Balaji, Christina Bielmeier, Hartmann Harz, Jack Bates, Cornelia Stadler, Alexander Hildebrand, Anne-Kathrin Classen
While calcium signaling in excitable cells, such as muscle or neurons, is extensively characterized, calcium signaling in epithelial tissues is little understood. Specifically, the range of intercellular calcium signaling patterns elicited by tightly coupled epithelial cells and their function in the regulation of epithelial characteristics are little explored. We found that in Drosophila imaginal discs, a widely studied epithelial model organ, complex spatiotemporal calcium dynamics occur. We describe patterns that include intercellular waves traversing large tissue domains in striking oscillatory patterns as well as spikes confined to local domains of neighboring cells...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205638/effects-of-mir-146a-on-the-osteogenesis-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-bone-regeneration
#2
Qing Xie, Wei Wei, Jing Ruan, Yi Ding, Ai Zhuang, Xiaoping Bi, Hao Sun, Ping Gu, Zi Wang, Xianqun Fan
Increasing evidence has indicated that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) coordinates with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form intracellular networks regulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenesis. This study aimed to identify specific miRNAs in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) during BMP2-induced osteogenesis, we selected the most significantly down-regulated miRNA, miR-146a, to systematically investigate its role in regulating osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Overexpressing miR-146a notably repressed ADSC osteogenesis, whereas knocking down miR-146a greatly promoted this process...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114410/a-gap-junction-protein-inx2-modulates-calcium-flux-to-specify-border-cell-fate-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#3
Aresh Sahu, Ritabrata Ghosh, Girish Deshpande, Mohit Prasad
Intercellular communication mediated by gap junction (GJ) proteins is indispensable during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Here we report functional analysis of a gap junction protein, Innexin 2 (Inx2), in cell type specification during Drosophila oogenesis. Our data reveal a novel involvement of Inx2 in the specification of Border Cells (BCs), a migratory cell type, whose identity is determined by the cell autonomous STAT activity. We show that Inx2 influences BC fate specification by modulating STAT activity via Domeless receptor endocytosis...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065655/precision-optogenetic-tool-for-selective-single-and-multiple-cell-ablation-in-a-live-animal-model-system
#4
Kalpana Makhijani, Tsz-Leung To, Rubén Ruiz-González, Céline Lafaye, Antoine Royant, Xiaokun Shu
Cell ablation is a strategy to study cell lineage and function during development. Optogenetic methods are an important cell-ablation approach, and we have previously developed a mini singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG) tool that works in the living Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use directed evolution to generate miniSOG2, an improved tool for cell ablation via photogenerated reactive oxygen species. We apply miniSOG2 to a far more complex model animal system, Drosophila melanogaster, and demonstrate that it can be used to kill a single neuron in a Drosophila larva...
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057309/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-of-muscle-degeneration-disorders
#5
R E Kreipke, Y V Kwon, H R Shcherbata, H Ruohola-Baker
Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful platform with which researchers can dissect complex genetic questions and biochemical pathways relevant to a vast array of human diseases and disorders. Of particular interest, much work has been done with flies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle degeneration diseases. The fly is particularly useful for modeling muscle degeneration disorders because there are no identified satellite muscle cells to repair adult muscle following injury. This allows for the identification of endogenous processes of muscle degeneration as discrete events, distinguishable from phenotypes due to the lack of stem cell-based regeneration...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003126/emerging-role-of-hippo-signalling-in-pancreatic-biology-yap-re-expression-and-plausible-link-to-islet-cell-apoptosis-and-replication
#6
REVIEW
Anjana Sharma, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Ashutosh Kumar
Diabetes mellitus is an ailment that develops when the functional capacity of the pancreas does not meet the metabolic requirements of the whole body, either due to insulin insufficiency or resistance to insulin action. Current therapies that control glycaemia are limited by their unwanted effects or their inability to prevent the development of long-term complications. Regeneration and replacement of beta cell therapies are shaping the goals of future management of diabetes. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, plays a vital role in controlling the organ size...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003097/hippo-signaling-in-the-liver-regulates-organ-size-cell-fate-and%C3%A2-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Sachin H Patel, Fernando D Camargo, Dean Yimlamai
The Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway, is a regulator of organ size. The pathway takes its name from the Drosophila protein kinase, Hippo (STK4/MST1 and STK3/MST2 in mammals), which, when inactivated, leads to considerable tissue overgrowth. In mammals, MST1 and MST2 negatively regulate the transcriptional co-activators yes-associated protein 1 and WW domain containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1/TAZ), which together regulate expression of genes that control proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932297/dynamic-self-organisation-of-haematopoiesis-and-a-symmetric-cell-division
#8
Marthe Måløy, Frode Måløy, Per Jakobsen, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal
A model of haematopoiesis that links self-organisation with symmetric and asymmetric cell division is presented in this paper. It is assumed that all cell divisions are completely random events, and that the daughter cells resulting from symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions are, in general, phenotypically identical, and still, the haematopoietic system has the flexibility to self-renew, produce mature cells by differentiation, and regenerate undifferentiated and differentiated cells when necessary, due to self-organisation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923046/mitochondria-and-caspases-tune-nmnat-mediated-stabilization-to-promote-axon-regeneration
#9
Li Chen, Derek M Nye, Michelle C Stone, Alexis T Weiner, Kyle W Gheres, Xin Xiong, Catherine A Collins, Melissa M Rolls
Axon injury can lead to several cell survival responses including increased stability and axon regeneration. Using an accessible Drosophila model system, we investigated the regulation of injury responses and their relationship. Axon injury stabilizes the rest of the cell, including the entire dendrite arbor. After axon injury we found mitochondrial fission in dendrites was upregulated, and that reducing fission increased stabilization or neuroprotection (NP). Thus axon injury seems to both turn on NP, but also dampen it by activating mitochondrial fission...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920252/group-i-paks-promote-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Giselle A Joseph, Min Lu, Maria Radu, Jennifer K Lee, Steven J Burden, Jonathan Chernoff, Robert S Krauss
Skeletal myogenesis is regulated by signal transduction, but the factors and mechanisms involved are not well understood. The group I Paks Pak1 and Pak2 are related protein kinases and direct effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1. Group I Paks are ubiquitously expressed and specifically required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation and involves the cadherin coreceptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916025/the-role-of-the-extracellular-biophysical-cues-in-modulating-hippo-yap-pathway
#11
Jung-Soon Mo
The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. In Drosophila and vertebrates, it consists of a highly conserved kinase cascade, which involve MST and Lats that negatively regulate the activity of downstream transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. Through its interaction with TEADs and other transcription factors, they mediate both proliferative and antiapoptotic gene expression and thus regulate tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation or mutation of the Hippo pathway is linked to tumorigenesis and cancer development...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893747/analysis-of-the-function-of-apoptosis-during-imaginal-wing-disc-regeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Sara Ahmed, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is the ability that allows organisms to replace missing organs or lost tissue after injuries. This ability requires the coordinated activity of different cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a key role as a source of signals necessary for regeneration in different organisms. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterised model system for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration. Although it has been shown that signals produced by apoptotic cells are needed for homeostasis and regeneration of some tissues of this organism, such as the adult midgut, the contribution of apoptosis to disc regeneration remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888240/topological-organisation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-phospholipase-c-resynthesis-cycle-pitps-bridge-the-er-pm-gap
#13
REVIEW
Shamshad Cockcroft, Padinjat Raghu
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a receptor-regulated enzyme that hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) at the plasma membrane (PM) triggering three biochemical consequences, the generation of soluble inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), membrane-associated diacylglycerol (DG) and the consumption of PM PI(4,5)P2 Each of these three signals triggers multiple molecular processes impacting key cellular properties. The activation of PLC also triggers a sequence of biochemical reactions, collectively referred to as the PI(4,5)P2 cycle that culminates in the resynthesis of this lipid...
December 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888216/drosophila-sulf1-is-required-for-the-termination-of-intestinal-stem-cell-division-during-regeneration
#14
Masahiko Takemura, Hiroshi Nakato
Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate is crucial for regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular heparan sulfate endosulfatase Sulf1 resulted in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which was caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK-STAT, EGFR and Hedgehog pathways...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881663/periodic-actin-structures-in-neuronal-axons-are-required-to-maintain-microtubules
#16
Yue Qu, Ines Hahn, Stephen E D Webb, Simon P Pearce, Andreas Prokop
Axons are cable-like neuronal processes wiring the nervous system. They contain parallel bundles of microtubules as structural backbones, surrounded by regularly spaced actin rings termed the periodic membrane skeleton (PMS). Despite being an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous, highly ordered feature of axons, the function of PMS is unknown. Here we studied PMS abundance, organization, and function, combining versatile Drosophila genetics with superresolution microscopy and various functional readouts. Analyses with 11 actin regulators and three actin-targeting drugs suggest that PMS contains short actin filaments that are depolymerization resistant and sensitive to spectrin, adducin, and nucleator deficiency, consistent with microscopy-derived models proposing PMS as specialized cortical actin...
January 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821528/what-determines-direction-of-asymmetry-genes-environment-or-chance
#17
REVIEW
A Richard Palmer
Conspicuous asymmetries seen in many animals and plants offer diverse opportunities to test how the development of a similar morphological feature has evolved in wildly different types of organisms. One key question is: do common rules govern how direction of asymmetry is determined (symmetry is broken) during ontogeny to yield an asymmetrical individual? Examples from numerous organisms illustrate how diverse this process is. These examples also provide some surprising answers to related questions. Is direction of asymmetry in an individual determined by genes, environment or chance? Is direction of asymmetry determined locally (structure by structure) or globally (at the level of the whole body)? Does direction of asymmetry persist when an asymmetrical structure regenerates following autotomy? The answers vary greatly for asymmetries as diverse as gastropod coiling direction, flatfish eye side, crossbill finch bill crossing, asymmetrical claws in shrimp, lobsters and crabs, katydid sound-producing structures, earwig penises and various plant asymmetries...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809489/structural-insights-into-the-drosophila-melanogaster-retinol-dehydrogenase-a-member-of-the-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-family
#18
Lukas Hofmann, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Nathan S Alexander, Darwin Babino, Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell, Surajit Banerjee, Johannes von Lintig, Krzysztof Palczewski
The 11-cis-retinylidene chromophore of visual pigments isomerizes upon interaction with a photon, initiating a downstream cascade of signaling events that ultimately lead to visual perception. 11-cis-Retinylidene is regenerated through enzymatic transformations collectively called the visual cycle. The first and rate-limiting enzymatic reaction within this cycle, i.e., the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol, is catalyzed by retinol dehydrogenases. Here, we determined the structure of Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptor retinol dehydrogenase (PDH) isoform C that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family...
November 29, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790090/the-drosophila-transcription-factor-dimmed-affects-neuronal-growth-and-differentiation-in-multiple-ways-depending-on-neuron-type-and-developmental-stage
#19
Yiting Liu, Jiangnan Luo, Dick R Nässel
Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661120/frmd6-inhibits-human-glioblastoma-growth-and-progression-by-negatively-regulating-activity-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#20
Yin Xu, Kaiqiang Wang, Qin Yu
FRMD6 is an Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM) family protein and a human homologue of Drosophila expanded (ex). Ex functions in parallel of Drosophila merlin at upstream of the Hippo signaling pathway that controls proliferation, apoptosis, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Even though the core kinase cascade (MST1/2-Lats1/2-YAP/TAZ) of the Hippo pathway has been well established, its upstream regulators are not well understood. Merlin promotes activation of the Hippo pathway. However, the effect of FRMD6 on the Hippo pathway is controversial...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
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