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Drosophila regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781994/a-drosophila-in-vivo-injury-model-for-studying-neuroregeneration-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system
#1
Dan Li, Feng Li, Pavithran Guttipatti, Yuanquan Song
The regrowth capacity of damaged neurons governs neuroregeneration and functional recovery after nervous system trauma. Over the past few decades, various intrinsic and extrinsic inhibitory factors involved in the restriction of axon regeneration have been identified. However, simply removing these inhibitory cues is insufficient for successful regeneration, indicating the existence of additional regulatory machinery. Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, shares evolutionarily conserved genes and signaling pathways with vertebrates, including humans...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750169/drosophila-as-a-model-system-to-study-cell-signaling-in-organ-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Sara Ahmed-de-Prado, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is a fascinating phenomenon that allows organisms to replace or repair damaged organs or tissues. This ability occurs to varying extents among metazoans. The rebuilding of the damaged structure depends on regenerative proliferation that must be accompanied by proper cell fate respecification and patterning. These cellular processes are regulated by the action of different signaling pathways that are activated in response to the damage. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster have the ability to regenerate and have been extensively used as a model system to study regeneration...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715504/the-biology-and-evolution-of-the-dilp8-lgr3-pathway-a-relaxin-like-pathway-coupling-tissue-growth-and-developmental-timing-control
#3
REVIEW
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 28, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653289/src-activation-decouples-cell-division-orientation-from-cell-geometry-in-mammalian-cells
#4
Xiaoyan Sun, Hongsheng Qi, Xiuzhen Zhang, Li Li, Jiaping Zhang, Qunli Zeng, George S Laszlo, Bo Wei, Tianhong Li, Jianxin Jiang, Alex Mogilner, Xiaobing Fu, Min Zhao
Orientation of cell division plane plays a crucial role in morphogenesis and regeneration. Misoriented cell division underlies many important diseases, such as cancer. Studies with Drosophila and C. elegance models show that Src, a proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, is a critical regulator of this aspect of mitosis. However, the role for Src in controlling cell division orientation in mammalian cells is not well understood. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches and two extracellular signals to orient cell division, we demonstrated a critical role for Src...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615557/wingless-wnt-signaling-in-intestinal-development-homeostasis-regeneration-and-tumorigenesis-a-drosophila-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Yashi Ahmed
In mammals, the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and proliferation, whereas Wnt pathway hyperactivation, resulting primarily from the inactivation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), triggers the development of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. The Drosophila adult gut has recently emerged as a powerful model to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wingless/Wnt signaling regulates intestinal development, homeostasis, regeneration, and tumorigenesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615551/the-biology-of-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligases-in-drosophila-development-immunity-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Mona Abed, Eliya Bitman-Lotan, Amir Orian
The ubiquitin and SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathways modify proteins that in turn regulate diverse cellular processes, embryonic development, and adult tissue physiology. These pathways were originally discovered biochemically in vitro, leading to a long-standing challenge of elucidating both the molecular cross-talk between these pathways and their biological importance. Recent discoveries in Drosophila established that ubiquitin and SUMO pathways are interconnected via evolutionally conserved SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) proteins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568120/role-of-hippo-signaling-in-regulating-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Lixin Hong, Xun Li, Dawang Zhou, Jing Geng, Lanfen Chen
The Hippo signaling pathway has been established as a key regulator of organ size control, tumor suppression, and tissue regeneration in multiple organisms. Recently, emerging evidence has indicated that Hippo signaling might play an important role in regulating the immune system in both Drosophila and mammals. In particular, patients bearing a loss-of-function mutation of MST1 are reported to have an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome. MST1/2 kinases, the mammalian orthologs of Drosophila Hippo, may activate the non-canonical Hippo signaling pathway via MOB1A/B and/or NDR1/2 or cross-talk with other essential signaling pathways to regulate both innate and adaptive immunity...
March 22, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563503/cell-fate-changes-induced-by-a-distal-less-enhancer-trap-transgene-in-the-drosophila-antennal-imaginal-disc
#8
Syeda Nayab Fatima Abidi, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
The imaginal discs of the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster have been used to study cell-fate specification and plasticity, including homeotic changes and regeneration-induced transdetermination. The identity of the reprogramming mechanisms that induce plasticity has been of great interest in the field. Here we identify a change from antennal fate to eye fate induced by a Distal-less-GAL4 (DllGAL4) P-element insertion that is a mutant allele of Dll and expresses GAL4 in the antennal imaginal disc...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563183/dendrite-regeneration-of-adult-drosophila-sensory-neurons-diminishes-with-aging-and-is-inhibited-by-epidermal-derived-matrix-metalloproteinase-2
#9
Laura DeVault, Tun Li, Sarah Izabel, Katherine L Thompson-Peer, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh Nung Jan
Dendrites possess distinct structural and functional properties that enable neurons to receive information from the environment as well as other neurons. Despite their key role in neuronal function, current understanding of the ability of neurons to regenerate dendrites is lacking. This study characterizes the structural and functional capacity for dendrite regeneration in vivo in adult animals and examines the effect of neuronal maturation on dendrite regeneration. We focused on the class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neuron of the Drosophila sensory system, which has a dendritic arbor that undergoes dramatic remodeling during the first 3 d of adult life and then maintains a relatively stable morphology thereafter...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556895/efficient-genome-editing-in-cultured-cells-and-embryos-of-debao-pig-and-swamp-buffalo-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#10
Xiaoping Su, Kuiqing Cui, Shanshan Du, Hongli Li, Fenghua Lu, Deshun Shi, Qingyou Liu
Myostatin (MSTN), a protein encoded by growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the development and regeneration of muscle. Accordingly, myostatin-deficient animals exhibit a double-muscling phenotype. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient genome-editing tool and has been applied to gene modification in cells from many model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, mouse, rat, sheep, and human. Here, we edited the GDF8 gene in fibroblasts and embryos of Debao pig and swamp buffalo using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
March 19, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545557/autophagy-maintains-stem-cells-and-intestinal-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#11
Péter Nagy, Gyöngyvér O Sándor, Gábor Juhász
Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by tightly controlled proliferation and differentiation of tissue-resident multipotent stem cells during aging and regeneration, which ensures organismal adaptation. Here we show that autophagy is required in Drosophila intestinal stem cells to sustain proliferation, and preserves the stem cell pool. Autophagy-deficient stem cells show elevated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest during aging, and are frequently eliminated via JNK-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, loss of Chk2, a DNA damage-activated kinase that arrests the cell cycle and promotes DNA repair and apoptosis, leads to uncontrolled proliferation of intestinal stem cells regardless of their autophagy status...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532181/the-presynaptic-machinery-at-the-synapse-of-c-elegans
#12
REVIEW
Fernando Calahorro, Patricia G Izquierdo
Synapses are specialized contact sites that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. Important physical interactions across the synapse are mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules. These adhesions regulate formation of synapses during development and play a role during mature synaptic function. Importantly, genes regulating synaptogenesis and axon regeneration are conserved across the animal phyla. Genetic screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of molecules required for synapse patterning and assembly...
March 12, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519294/hippo-signaling-special-issue-of-bmb-reports-in-2018
#13
Eek-Hoon Jho
Since the first component of Hippo signaling, Wts in Drosophila, was identified in 1995, the progress of Hippo signaling studies has been very slow initially. However, after the findings suggesting that the core kinase pathway established in Drosophila was evolutionarily conserved in metazoans for the determination of organ size around 2008, the number of publications related to Hippo signaling has grown exponentially. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying Hippo signaling response to intrinsic cues, such as cell-cell contact and mechanotransduction, as well as extrinsic cues, such as nutrients and soluble factors, has been one of the key topics of Hippo signaling...
March 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498662/wnt-signalling-in-intestinal-stem-cells-lessons-from-mice-and-flies
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Perochon, Lynsey R Carroll, Julia B Cordero
Adult stem cells play critical roles in the basal maintenance of tissue integrity, also known as homeostasis, and in tissue regeneration following damage. The highly conserved Wnt signalling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell fate. In the gastrointestinal tract, Wnt signalling activation drives homeostasis and damage-induced repair. Additionally, deregulated Wnt signalling is a common hallmark of age-associated tissue dysfunction and cancer. Studies using mouse and fruit fly models have greatly improved our understanding of the functional contribution of the Wnt signalling pathway in adult intestinal biology...
March 2, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418044/vacuolar-atpase-is-required-for-erk-dependent-wound-healing-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#15
Juan J Fraire-Zamora, Matias Simons
Epithelia have the ability to repair injuries through an evolutionary conserved wound healing mechanism. Wound healing events can be classified into the transcription-independent signals involving mobilization of ionic currents and cytoskeletal rearrangements or the transcription-dependent response with activation of repair genes. The vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) has been implicated in the regeneration of vertebrate structures, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we use wounding assays on the epidermis of Drosophila embryos to assess the role of the V-ATPase in the healing response...
January 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372681/ctbp-impedes-jnk-and-upd-stat-driven-cell-fate-misspecifications-in-regenerating-drosophila-imaginal-discs
#16
Melanie I Worley, Larissa A Alexander, Iswar K Hariharan
Regeneration following tissue damage often necessitates a mechanism for cellular re-programming, so that surviving cells can give rise to all cell types originally found in the damaged tissue. This process, if unchecked, can also generate cell types that are inappropriate for a given location. We conducted a screen for genes that negatively regulate the frequency of notum-to-wing transformations following genetic ablation and regeneration of the wing pouch, from which we identified mutations in the transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP)...
January 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355717/localization-and-promotion-of-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bioactivity-on-extracellular-matrix-mimetic-chondroitin-sulfate-functionalized-calcium-phosphate-cement-scaffolds
#17
Baolin Huang, Zihan Wu, Sai Ding, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
Localization of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with continuous and effective osteogenic stimulation is still a great challenge in the field of bone regeneration. To achieve this aim, rhBMP-2 was tethered on chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds through specific noncovalent interactions. CS, one of the core glycosaminoglycans, was covalently conjugated onto CPC scaffolds with the assistance of polydopamine (PDA) and further immobilized rhBMP-2 in a biomimetic form...
April 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350802/cellular-reprogramming-a-new-way-to-understand-aging-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Burcu Yener Ilce, Umut Cagin, Acelya Yilmazer
Increased life expectancy, due to the rise in life quality and the decline in mortality rates, is leading to a society in which the population aged 60 and over is growing more rapidly than the entire population. Although various models and model organisms have been employed to investigate the mechanism of aging, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are useful candidates to study human aging and age-related human diseases. This work discusses how iPSCs can be used as an alternative to the model organisms such as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, or the mouse...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334982/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-classification-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-genes-iglurs-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#19
Ting-Ting Wang, Feng-Ling Si, Zheng-Bo He, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are conserved ligand-gated ion channel receptors, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) were revealed as a new family of iGluRs. Their subdivision was unsettled, and their characteristics are little known. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in eastern Asia, and its genome was recently well sequenced and annotated. METHODS: We identified iGluR genes in the An. sinensis genome, analyzed their characteristics including gene structure, genome distribution, domains and specific sites by bioinformatic methods, and deduced phylogenetic relationships of all iGluRs in An...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250773/physiological-and-pathological-relevance-of-cell-competition-in-fly-to-mammals
#20
REVIEW
Shunsuke Kon
In multicellular organisms, incidentally emerging suboptimal cells are removed to maintain homeostasis of tissues. The unfavorable cells are excluded by a process termed cell competition whereby the resident normal cells actively eliminate the unfit cells of the identical lineage. Although the phenomenon of cell competition was originally discovered in Drosophila, a number of recent studies have provided implications of cell competition in tissue regeneration, development and oncogenesis in mammals. Here the roles of cell competition in fly to mammals are discussed...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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