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Drosophila regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126016/go-and-stop-signals-for-glial-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Alicia Hidalgo, Ann Logan
The regenerative response of ensheating glia to central nervous system (CNS) injury involves proliferation and differentiation, axonal re-enwrapment and some recovery of behaviour. Understanding this limited response could enable the enhancement of it. In Drosophila, the glial progenitor state is maintained by Notch, an activator of cell division and Prospero (Pros), a repressor. Injury provokes the activation of NFκB and up-regulation of Kon-tiki (Kon), driving cell proliferation. Homeostatic switch-off comes about as two negative feedback loops involving Pros terminate the response...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108672/foxa-transcription-factor-fork-head-maintains-the-intestinal-stem-progenitor-cell-identities-in-drosophila
#3
Qing Lan, Min Cao, Rahul K Kollipara, Jeffrey B Rosa, Ralf Kittler, Huaqi Jiang
Understanding how somatic stem cells respond to tissue needs is important, since aberrant somatic stem cell behaviors may lead to tissue degeneration or tumorigenesis. Here, from an in vivo RNAi screen targeting transcription factors that regulate intestinal regeneration, we uncovered a requirement for the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) in the maintenance of intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities. FoxA/Fkh maintains the expressions of stem/progenitor cell markers and is required for stem cell proliferation during intestinal homeostasis and regeneration...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108021/hippo-tgf-%C3%AE-and-src-mapk-pathways-regulate-transcription-of-the-upd3-cytokine-in-drosophila-enterocytes-upon-bacterial-infection
#4
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074370/the-zinc-finger-protein-cg12744-is-essential-for-differentiation-and-regeneration-after-infection-in-the-adult-drosophila-midgut
#5
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
Pluripotent stem cell activity is essential to maintain regeneration and homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut following environmental challenges. Although multiple pathways have been implicated in epithelial renewal, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and correlations between relevant genes and pathways remain elusive. In this study, we show that the zinc finger protein CG12744 plays an important role in the differentiation and regeneration of epithelial cells in response to oral infection with Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15...
October 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072161/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-muscle-satellite-cells-in-drosophila
#6
Dhananjay Chaturvedi, Heinrich Reichert, Rajesh D Gunage, K VijayRaghavan
Work on genetic model systems such as Drosophila and mouse has shown that the fundamental mechanisms of myogenesis are remarkably similar in vertebrates and invertebrates. Strikingly, however, satellite cells, the adult muscle stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles in vertebrates, have not been reported in invertebrates. In this study, we show that lineal descendants of muscle stem cells are present in adult muscle of Drosophila as small, unfused cells observed at the surface and in close proximity to the mature muscle fibers...
October 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041955/pluripotent-nontumorigenic-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-cells-muse-cells-a-seven-year-retrospective
#7
REVIEW
Samantha C Fisch, María L Gimeno, Julia D Phan, Ariel A Simerman, Daniel A Dumesic, Marcelo J Perone, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Multilineage differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, discovered in the spring of 2010 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, were quickly recognized by scientists as a possible source of pluripotent cells naturally present within mesenchymal tissues. Muse cells normally exist in a quiescent state, singularly activated by severe cellular stress in vitro and in vivo. Muse cells have the capacity for self-renewal while maintaining pluripotent cell characteristics indicated by the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers...
October 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028797/stat-wingless-and-nurf-38-determine-the-accuracy-of-regeneration-after-radiation-damage-in-drosophila
#8
Shilpi Verghese, Tin Tin Su
We report here a study of regeneration in Drosophila larval wing imaginal discs after damage by ionizing radiation. We detected faithful regeneration that restored a wing disc and abnormal regeneration that produced an extra wing disc. We describe a sequence of changes in cell number, location and fate that occur to produce an ectopic disc. We identified a group of cells that not only participate in ectopic disc formation but also recruit others to do so. STAT92E (Drosophila STAT3/5) and Nurf-38, which encodes a member of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor complex, oppose each other in these cells to modulate the frequency of ectopic disc growth...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962196/smad7-overexpressing-rat-bmscs-inhibit-the-fibrosis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-regulating-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-pathway
#9
Shi-Pin Wu, Zhi Yang, Fu-Rong Li, Xiao-Di Liu, Hong-Tao Chen, Dong-Na Su
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into hepatocytes, promote the regeneration of hepatic cells and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is one of the key factors in the development of liver fibrosis, which also promotes extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic 7 (Smad7) is an essential negative regulator in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. In the present study, bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated from rat bone marrow and transfected with lentiviral vectors carrying the Smad7 gene...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945500/dual-role-of-bmp-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-self-renewal
#10
Aiguo Tian, Jin Jiang
Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division...
September 25, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935711/distinct-regenerative-potential-of-trunk-and-appendages-of-drosophila-mediated-by-jnk-signalling
#11
Raquel Martín, Noelia Pinal, Ginés Morata
The Drosophila body comprises a central part, the trunk, and outgrowths of the trunk, the appendages. Much is known about appendage regeneration, but little about the trunk. As the wing imaginal disc contains a trunk component, the notum, and a wing appendage, we have investigated the response to ablation of these two components. We find that in contrast with the strong regenerative response of the wing, the notum does not regenerate. Nevertheless, the elimination of the wing primordium elicits a proliferative response of notum cells, but they do not regenerate wing; they form a notum duplicate...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928361/mir-9a-modulates-maintenance-and-ageing-of-drosophila-germline-stem-cells-by-limiting-n-cadherin-expression
#12
Yehonatan Epstein, Noam Perry, Marina Volin, Maayan Zohar-Fux, Rachel Braun, Lilach Porat-Kuperstein, Hila Toledano
Ageing is characterized by a decline in stem cell functionality leading to dampened tissue regeneration. While the expression of microRNAs across multiple species is markedly altered with age, the mechanism by which they govern stem cell-sustained tissue regeneration is unknown. We report that in the Drosophila testis, the conserved miR-9a is expressed in germline stem cells and its levels are significantly elevated during ageing. Transcriptome and functional analyses show that miR-9a directly regulates the expression of the adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad)...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925355/loss-of-foxo-rescues-stem-cell-aging-in-drosophila-germ-line
#13
Filippo Artoni, Rebecca E Kreipke, Ondina Palmeira, Connor Dixon, Zachary Goldberg, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
Aging stem cells lose the capacity to properly respond to injury and regenerate their residing tissues. Here, we utilized the ability of Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs) to survive exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) as a model of adult stem cell injury and identified a regeneration defect in aging GSCs: while aging GSCs survive exposure to IR, they fail to reenter the cell cycle and regenerate the germline in a timely manner. Mechanistically, we identify foxo and mTOR homologue, Tor as important regulators of GSC quiescence following exposure to ionizing radiation...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899644/transcriptomics-reveals-tissue-organ-specific-differences-in-gene-expression-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera
#14
Chan-Hee Kim, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Yong Hun Jo, Maurice R Elphick, Nam Gyu Park
Starfish (Phylum Echinodermata) are of interest from an evolutionary perspective because as deuterostomian invertebrates they occupy an "intermediate" phylogenetic position with respect to chordates (e.g. vertebrates) and protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila). Furthermore, starfish are model organisms for research on fertilization, embryonic development, innate immunity and tissue regeneration. However, large-scale molecular data for starfish tissues/organs are limited. To provide a comprehensive genetic resource for the starfish Patiria pectinifera, we report de novo transcriptome assemblies and global gene expression analysis for six P...
September 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837701/lissencephaly-1-dependent-axonal-retrograde-transport-of-l1-type-cam-neuroglian-in-the-adult-drosophila-central-nervous-system
#15
Sirisha R Kudumala, Tyrone Penserga, Jana Börner, Olesya Slipchuk, Priyanka Kakad, LaTasha H Lee, Aater Qureshi, Jan Pielage, Tanja A Godenschwege
Here, we established the Drosophila Giant Fiber neurons (GF) as a novel model to study axonal trafficking of L1-type Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM) Neuroglian (Nrg) in the adult CNS using live imaging. L1-type CAMs are well known for their importance in nervous system development and we previously demonstrated a role for Nrg in GF synapse formation. However, in the adult they have also been implicated in synaptic plasticity and regeneration. In addition, to its canonical role in organizing cytoskeletal elements at the plasma membrane, vertebrate L1CAM has also been shown to regulate transcription indirectly as well as directly via its import to the nucleus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818097/two-drosophila-model-neurons-can-regenerate-axons-from-the-stump-or-from-a-converted-dendrite-with-feedback-between-the-two-sites
#16
Kavitha S Rao, Melissa M Rolls
BACKGROUND: After axon severing, neurons recover function by reinitiating axon outgrowth. New outgrowth often originates from the remaining axon stump. However, in many mammalian neurons, new axons initiate from a dendritic site when the axon is injured close to the cell body. METHODS: Drosophila sensory neurons are ideal for studying neuronal injury responses because they can be injured reproducibly in a variety of genetic backgrounds. In Drosophila, it has been shown that a complex sensory neuron, ddaC, can regenerate an axon from a stump, and a simple sensory neuron, ddaE, can regenerate an axon from a dendrite...
August 17, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791751/the-gene-network-underlying-the-glial-regenerative-response-to-central-nervous-system-injury
#17
REVIEW
Kentaro Kato, Maria Losada-Perez, Alicia Hidalgo
Although the central nervous system does not regenerate, injury induces repair and regenerative responses in glial cells. In mammals, activated microglia clear up apoptotic cells and debris resulting from the injury, astrocytes form a scar that contains the lesion, and NG2-glia elicit a prominent regenerative response. NG2-glia regenerate themselves and differentiate into oligodendrocytes, which remyelinate axons leading to some recovery of locomotion. The regenerative response of glial cells is evolutionarily conserved across the animals and Drosophila genetics revealed an underlying gene network...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760809/genome-wide-identification-of-grainy-head-targets-in-drosophila-reveals-regulatory-interactions-with-the-pou-domain-transcription-factor-vvl
#18
Liqun Yao, Shenqiu Wang, Jakub O Westholm, Qi Dai, Ryo Matsuda, Chie Hosono, Sarah Bray, Eric C Lai, Christos Samakovlis
Grainy head (Grh) is a conserved transcription factor (TF) controlling epithelial differentiation and regeneration. To elucidate Grh functions we identified embryonic Grh targets by ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis. We show that Grh controls hundreds of target genes. Repression or activation correlates with the distance of Grh-binding sites to the transcription start sites of its targets. Analysis of 54 Grh-responsive enhancers during development and upon wounding suggests cooperation with distinct TFs in different contexts...
September 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757480/research-progresses-on-the-molecular-structure-of-the-hippo-signaling-pathway-components
#19
REVIEW
Li-qiao Hu, Zhao-cai Zhou, Wei Tian
The Hippo signaling pathway has been identified to be involved in development and tissue homeostasis during the past decade, and is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to mammals. It transduces the signal through a series of protein-protein interaction and kinase cascades, to control the cell number and organ size by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Dysregulation of the Hippo signaling pathway is associated with tumorigenesis and cancers, so it is a crucial target for cancer therapy and regeneration medicine...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753614/the-drosophila-duox-maturation-factor-is-a-key-component-of-a-positive-feedback-loop-that-sustains-regeneration-signaling
#20
Sumbul Jawed Khan, Syeda Nayab Fatima Abidi, Andrea Skinner, Yuan Tian, Rachel K Smith-Bolton
Regenerating tissue must initiate the signaling that drives regenerative growth, and sustain that signaling long enough for regeneration to complete. How these key signals are sustained is unclear. To gain a comprehensive view of the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, we performed whole-genome mRNAseq of actively regenerating tissue from damaged Drosophila wing imaginal discs. We used genetic tools to ablate the wing primordium to induce regeneration, and carried out transcriptional profiling of the regeneration blastema by fluorescently labeling and sorting the blastema cells, thus identifying differentially expressed genes...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
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