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Differentiation cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909419/outcomes-of-local-excision-plus-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-t1-rectal-cancer
#1
Toshiyuki Suzuki, Sotaro Sadahiro, Akira Tanaka, Kazutake Okada, Gota Saito, Hiroshi Miyakita, Takeshi Akiba, Hiroshi Yamamuro
OBJECTIVE: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend local excision and observation as standard treatment for selected patients with clinical T1N0M0 rectal cancer. In patients with pathological T1 (pT1) rectal cancer who received local excision, the local recurrence rate is at least 10%. We studied oncological outcomes in patients with pT1 rectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after local excision. METHODS: Local excision was performed in 65 patients with clinical T1N0M0 rectal cancer (≤8 cm from the anal verge, tumor size < 30 mm, well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma)...
June 15, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909207/low-grade-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-mimicking-a-schwannoma-the-role-and-importance-of-trimethylated-h3k27m-staining
#2
Hannah Gilder, Ross C Puffer, Robert J Spinner, Aditya Raghunathan, Mohamad Bydon
It is important to differentiate low grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) from benign nerve sheath tumors as MPNSTs may require a more aggressive treatment strategy during and after initial resection. Loss of expression of the trimethyl Histone H3 at the Lys27 position (H3K27-me3) has recently been described in MPNSTs, and may help distinguish this tumor from pathologic mimics. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of radiculopathy and a history of pelvic radiation for cervical cancer 7 years prior...
June 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909006/shelterin-differentially-respond-to-oxidative-stress-induced-by-tio-2-nps-and-regulate-telomere-length-in-human-hepatocytes-and-hepatocarcinoma-cells-in-vitro
#3
Han Wang, Juan Ni, Xihan Guo, Tao Zhou, Xiaoling Ma, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) have raised serious attention for their widely use and potential adverse effects on human mainly due to producing ROS. However, the influence of TiO2 -NPs on telomere maintaining has not been studied clearly. Shelterin plays core roles in telomere length (TL) regulation. Abnormal TL are associated with chromosome instability (CIN) and high risk of diseases. This study investigated whether TiO2 -NPs affect TL to induce CIN through ROS generation and the possible mechanisms...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908990/development-and-validation-of-response-markers-to-predict-survival-and-pleurodesis-success-in-patients-with-malignant-pleural-effusion-promise-a-multicohort-analysis
#4
Ioannis Psallidas, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Stephen Gerry, Marie Laëtitia Thézénas, Philip D Charles, Anastasia Samsonova, Herbert B Schiller, Roman Fischer, Rachelle Asciak, Robert J Hallifax, Rachel Mercer, Melissa Dobson, Tao Dong, Ian D Pavord, Gary S Collins, Benedikt M Kessler, Harvey I Pass, Nick Maskell, Georgios T Stathopoulos, Najib M Rahman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908785/radio-pathomic-maps-of-epithelium-and-lumen-density-predict-the-location-of-high-grade-prostate-cancer
#5
Sean D McGarry, Sarah L Hurrell, Kenneth A Iczkowski, William Hall, Amy L Kaczmarowski, Anjishnu Banerjee, Tucker Keuter, Kenneth Jacobsohn, John D Bukowy, Marja T Nevalainen, Mark D Hohenwalter, William A See, Peter S LaViolette
PURPOSE: This study aims to combine multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digitized pathology with machine learning to generate predictive maps of histologic features for prostate cancer localization. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-nine patients underwent MRI prior to prostatectomy. After surgery, tissue was sliced according to MRI orientation using patient-specific 3-dimensionally printed slicing jigs. Whole-mount sections were annotated by our pathologist and digitally contoured to differentiate the lumen and epithelium...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908099/pathogenesis-of-primordial-odontogenic-tumour-based-on-tumourigenesis-and-odontogenesis
#6
Toshinari Mikami, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor, Ikuko Ogawa, Vanesa Pereira-Prado, Naoki Fujiwara, Fabio Ramoa Pires, Roman Carlos, Takashi Takata, Yasunori Takeda
OBJECTIVE: Primordial odontogenic tumour (POT) is a rare benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumour. POT is composed of dental papilla-like tissue covered with cuboidal to columnar epithelium that resembles to inner and outer enamel epithelium of the enamel organ without dental hard tissue formation. The aim of this study was to examine pathogenesis of POT based on tumourigenesis and odontogenesis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six cases of POT were submitted for study...
June 16, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907935/circulating-mir-215-5p-and-mir-642a-5p-as-potential-biomarker-for-diagnosis-of-osteosarcoma-in-mexican-population
#7
Lucero Monterde-Cruz, Eric G Ramírez-Salazar, Genaro Rico-Martínez, Luis M Linares-González, Roberto Guzmán-González, Ernesto Delgado-Cedillo, Eréndira Estrada-Villaseñor, Margarita Valdés-Flores, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz, Alberto Hidalgo-Bravo
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone neoplasia affecting individuals in the second decade of life. The survival rate has not been improved during the last 25 years, in part because of the lack of specific markers. The microRNAs have been identified as important regulators of gene expression, experimental evidence suggests these molecules as key players in cancer development and progression. To identify miRNAs differentially expressed in serum from patients with osteosarcoma compared to healthy donors in Mexican population...
June 15, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907598/clinical-response-of-the-novel-activating-alk-i1171t-mutation-in-neuroblastoma-to-the-alk-inhibitor-ceritinib
#8
Jikui Guan, Susanne Fransson, Joachim Tetteh T Siaw, Diana Treis, Jimmy Van den Eynden, Damini Chand, Ganesh Umapathy, Petter Svenberg, Kristina Ruuth, Sandra Wessman, Alia Shamikh, Hans Jacobsson, Lena Gordon, Jakob Stenman, Erik Larsson, Par-Johan Svensson, Magnus Hansson, Tommy Martinsson, Per Kogner, Ruth H Palmer, Bengt Hallberg
Tumors with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion rearrangements, including non-small cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, are highly sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), underscoring the notion that such cancers are addicted to ALK activity. While mutations in ALK are heavily implicated in childhood neuroblastoma, response to the ALK TKI crizotinib has been disappointing. Embryonal tumors in patients with DNA repair defects such as Fanconi anemia (FA) often have a poor prognosis, due to lack of therapeutic options...
June 15, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907569/arginine-methylation-of-smad7-by-prmt1-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-epithelial-stem-cell-generation
#9
Yoko Katsuno, Jian Qin, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Hongjun Wang, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Tingwei Zhang, Samy Lamouille, Jian Wu, A L L Burlingame, Jian Xu, Rik Derynck
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development, and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression, and has been associated with the epithelial stem cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine TGF-β drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated Smad3 as major effector. TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation is inhibited by Smad7 and to a lesser extent by Smad6, and Smad6 and Smad7 both inhibit Smad1 and Smad5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907340/roles-of-aldolase-family-genes-in-human-cancers-and-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Yu-Chan Chang, Yi-Chieh Yang, Chia-Ping Tien, Chih-Jen Yang, Michael Hsiao
The aldolase family members involved in metabolism and glycolysis are present in three isoforms: ALDOA, ALDOB, and ALDOC. Aldolases are differentially expressed in human tissues, and aberrant expression has been observed in several human diseases and cancer types. However, non-enzymatic functions through protein-protein interactions or epigenetic modifications have been reported in recent years. Using high-throughput screening and -omics database integration, aldolase has been validated as an independent clinical prognostic marker of human cancers...
June 12, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907230/a-novel-retinoid-x-receptor-agonist-uab30-inhibits-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-in-vitro
#11
Adele P Williams, Alicia M Waters, Jerry E Stewart, Venkatram R Atigadda, Elizabeth Mroczek-Musulman, Donald D Muccio, Clinton J Grubbs, Elizabeth A Beierle
BACKGROUND: While patients with early-stage rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have seen steady improvement in prognosis over the last 50 y, those with advanced-stage or high-grade disease continue to have a dismal prognosis. Retinoids have been shown to cause growth suppression and terminal differentiation in RMS cells, but the toxicities associated with retinoic acid limit its use. Rexinoids provide an alternative treatment approach to retinoic acid. Rexinoids primarily bind the retinoid X receptor with minimal retinoic acid receptor binding, the entity responsible for many of the toxicities of retinoid therapies...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907208/well-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-and-robotic-transaxillary-surgery-at-a-north-american-institution
#12
Meghan Garstka, Khuzema Mohsin, Daniah Bu Ali, Hosam Shalaby, Kareem Ibraheem, Mahmoud Farag, Sang-Wook Kang, Emad Kandil
BACKGROUND: Recent studies from Asia have reported the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted thyroid surgery. In the United States, several small series and case reports have been published, mostly regarding treatment of benign disease. The aim of our study is to report the safety and feasibility of robotic surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients at a North American institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a prospectively collected single-center clinical database at Tulane University Medical Center...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907163/cytokine-release-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Philipp Gödel, Marion Subklewe, Hans Joachim Stemmler, Hans Anton Schlößer, Max Schlaak, Matthias Kochanek, Boris Böll, Michael S von Bergwelt-Baildon
During the last decade the field of cancer immunotherapy has witnessed impressive progress. Highly effective immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibition, and T-cell engaging therapies like bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) single-chain antibody constructs and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown remarkable efficacy in clinical trials and some of these agents have already received regulatory approval. However, along with growing experience in the clinical application of these potent immunotherapeutic agents comes the increasing awareness of their inherent and potentially fatal adverse effects, most notably the cytokine release syndrome (CRS)...
June 15, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907133/emerging-role-of-lipid-metabolism-alterations-in-cancer-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mei Yi, Junjun Li, Shengnan Chen, Jing Cai, Yuanyuan Ban, Qian Peng, Ying Zhou, Zhaoyang Zeng, Shuping Peng, Xiaoling Li, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Bo Xiang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) represent a small population of cancer cells with self-renewal and tumor-initiating properties. Unlike the bulk of tumor cells, CSCs or TICs are refractory to traditional therapy and are responsible for relapse or disease recurrence in cancer patients. Stem cells have distinct metabolic properties compared to differentiated cells, and metabolic rewiring contributes to self-renewal and stemness maintenance in CSCs. MAIN BODY: Recent advances in metabolomic detection, particularly in hyperspectral-stimulated raman scattering microscopy, have expanded our knowledge of the contribution of lipid metabolism to the generation and maintenance of CSCs...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906493/the-tamoxifen-derivative-ridaifen-b-is-a-high-affinity-selective-cb-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-exhibiting-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-osteoclastogenic-effects
#15
Lirit N Franks, Benjamin M Ford, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Haibo Zhao, Paul L Prather
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) target estrogen receptors (ERs) to treat breast cancer and osteoporosis. Several SERMs exhibit anti-cancer activity not related to ERs. To discover novel anti-cancer drugs acting via ER-independent mechanisms, derivatives of the SERM tamoxifen, known as the "ridaifen" compounds, have been developed that exhibit reduced or no ER affinity, while maintaining cytotoxicity. Tamoxifen and other SERMs bind to cannabinoid receptors with moderate affinity. Therefore, ER-independent effects of SERMs might be mediated via cannabinoid receptors...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906450/inactivation-of-cdk12-delineates-a-distinct-immunogenic-class-of-advanced-prostate-cancer
#16
Yi-Mi Wu, Marcin Cieślik, Robert J Lonigro, Pankaj Vats, Melissa A Reimers, Xuhong Cao, Yu Ning, Lisha Wang, Lakshmi P Kunju, Navonil de Sarkar, Elisabeth I Heath, Jonathan Chou, Felix Y Feng, Peter S Nelson, Johann S de Bono, Weiping Zou, Bruce Montgomery, Ajjai Alva, Dan R Robinson, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Using integrative genomic analysis of 360 metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) samples, we identified a novel subtype of prostate cancer typified by biallelic loss of CDK12 that is mutually exclusive with tumors driven by DNA repair deficiency, ETS fusions, and SPOP mutations. CDK12 loss is enriched in mCRPC relative to clinically localized disease and characterized by focal tandem duplications (FTDs) that lead to increased gene fusions and marked differential gene expression. FTDs associated with CDK12 loss result in highly recurrent gains at loci of genes involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication...
June 14, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905937/iron-overload-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes-an-updated-overview
#17
REVIEW
Nour M Moukalled, Fuad A El Rassi, Sally N Temraz, Ali T Taher
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905929/beyond-classic-risk-adjustment-socioeconomic-status-and-hospital-performance-in-urologic-oncology-surgery
#18
Anobel Y Odisho, Ruth Etzioni, John L Gore
BACKGROUND: Safety-net hospitals (SNHs) care for more patients of low socioeconomic status (SES) than non-SNHs and are disproportionately punished under SES-naive Medicare readmission risk-adjustment models. This study was designed to develop a risk-adjustment framework that incorporates SES and to assess the impact on readmission rates. METHODS: California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data from 2007 to 2011 were used to identify patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (n = 3771) or partial nephrectomy (PN; n = 5556) or radical nephrectomy (RN; n = 13,136) for kidney cancer...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905475/differential-effects-of-quercetin-and-its-two-derivatives-isorhamnetin-and-isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide-in-inhibiting-proliferation-of-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#19
Qiu Wu, Paul A Kroon, Hongjun Shao, Paul W Needs, Xingbin Yang
Quercetin (Que) has consistently been reported to be useful cytotoxic compound in vivo and in vitro, but little is known on its metabolites. Here we examined and compared cytotoxic effect of Que and its water-soluble metabolites, isorhamnetin (IS) and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (I3G) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and explain their tumor-inhibitory mechanism and structure-function relationship. The results showed that Que, IS and I3G could dose-dependently inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells, and the cytotoxic effect was ranked as Que > IS > I3G...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905031/silencing-arhgap9-correlates-with-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-and-inhibits-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer
#20
Tianyi Wang, Minwen Ha
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and screening relevant genes and markers that are involved in BC tumor genesis and progression is of great value. We previously found that messenger RNA expression of ARHGAP9 was high in BC tissue, but it is unclear whether ARHGAP9 participates in the progression of human BC. In this study, we found that ARHGAP9 expression was correlated with poor patient survival, American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical staging, tumor size, and tumor differentiation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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