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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19554991/water-pipe-narguile-smokers-in-lebanon-a-pilot-study
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COMPARATIVE STUDY
M Waked, P Salameh, Z Aoun
We carried out a comparative study to assess the demographic and social characteristics of water pipe (WP) smokers, the association with cigarette smoking and chronic respiratory diseases and the dependence profile on 4 groups: exclusive WP smokers, exclusive cigarette smokers, mixed smokers and absolute non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was statistically significantly higher in WP smokers than non-WP smokers; 36.5% of exclusive WP smokers smoked > or =7 WPs/week. Chronic respiratory disease and chronic bronchitis were reported more frequently in exclusive WP smokers than absolute non-smokers...
March 2009: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
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