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Anticonvulsivants toxicity

B Lebrun-Vignes, L Valeyrie-Allanore
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)...
April 2015: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Oana Maria Parasca, Florentina Gheaţă, Andreea Pânzariu, Ioana Geangalău, Lenuţa Profire
Sulfonamides and their different derivatives are extensively used in therapy due to their pharmacological properties. Sulfa drugs were amongst the oldest synthesized antimicrobial agents and are still widely used today to treat different microbial infections. Clinical treatment with sulfonamides has regained confidence with the use of a combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim to treat urinary tract bacterial infections. Today, they are widely used as antimicrobial agents, chiefly because of their low cost, low toxicity and excellent activity against bacterial diseases...
April 2013: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
A E D Vieira, G L Araujo, C M Galassi, R F Rodrigues, G D Cassalli, M Kaiser, T Dalla Costa, H Beraldo, C A Tagliati
Benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BS) has presented positive results in several pharmacological models, including anticonvulsivant and anti-inflammatory models. The present study evaluated the preclinical toxicity (acute and subchronic), as well as the toxicokinetic and gastroprotective effects of BS against ethanol lesions. Oral doses of 300 and 2000mg/kg were used in the preclinical acute toxicity study; 100, 200, and 300mg/kg were used in both the subchronic toxicity evaluation and the gastric study; and 300mg/kg was used in the toxicokinetic study...
May 2013: Food and Chemical Toxicology
H Ghozzi, A Hakim, Z Sahnoun, L Ben Mahmoud, R Atheymen, S Hammami, K Zeghal
INTRODUCTION: Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsivant drug widely prescribed in the treatment of many forms of generalized epilepsy. In literature, the incidence of liver damage induced by AVP is 0.01%. It is potentialized by the combination therapy (phenobarbital, carbamazepine). Severe hepatotoxicity is rare and appears to be independent of dose and to cause a high mortality. METHODS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma concentrations of AVP and the occurrence of side effects especially hepatotoxicity in patients receiving high doses of AVP...
August 2011: Revue Neurologique
Laurence Meyer, Christine Patte-Mensah, Omar Taleb, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan
Oxaliplatin (OXAL) is a platinum-based drug used for the treatment of colorectal, lung, breast and ovarian cancers. OXAL does not cause renal or hematologic toxicity. However, OXAL induces neuropathic pain which hampers the chemotherapy success. Attempts with neuroprotective agents including anticonvulsivants and antidepressants were made to prevent OXAL-induced painful neuropathy but the clinical data are controversial and the tested neuroprotectors are able to evoke themselves undesirable effects. Here, we demonstrated that the natural neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP), known to be devoid of toxic side-effects in humans and experimental models, prevented and suppressed OXAL-induced painful neuropathic symptoms...
January 2011: Pain
Alessandro Dario, Giustino Tomei
The temozolomide is a promising orally cytotoxic agent used in malignant glioma. The survival curve improvement after drug administration appears to be statistically significant. The review of temozolomide side effects is carried out by search on literature data found on web and is divided on the 4 grades of toxicity according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. The adverse effects related with TMZ administration are divided in three categories: myelosuppression, non haematologic toxicity, and infections...
May 2006: Current Drug Safety
Eduardo Navarro, Simeona J Alonso, Felipe A Martín, Miguel A Castellano
D-Arginine is extensively used in studies on L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway as an inactive form of L-arginine, even in man. In addition, it has previously been reported that this D-amino acid appears to have pharmacological activity. The present work aimed at evaluating the toxicity and pharmacology of D-arginine administered by the intraperitoneally route in albino male mice. Toxicity of D-arginine, alone as well as in the presence of propranolol and betamethasone was evaluated. D-Arginine in mice showed a light toxicity order (DL50: 2800 mg/kg)...
September 2005: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Olivier Pauwels
Certain macrolides (e.g. clarithromycin or erythromycin) are known to interact with the carbamazepine antiepileptic drug. Carbamazepine-macrolide interaction leads to an increase in the level of carbamazepine in the blood, so inducing carbamazepine toxicity. The aim of this paper is to compare the extent of the interaction for each macrolide and to study the effects of age, gender, weight, the carbamazepine and macrolide dosages and the use of other antiepileptic drugs on the extent of the carbamazepine-macrolide interaction...
April 2002: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
A Mantovani, G Calamandrei
Increasing evidence points to the possible risks of delayed effects upon prenatal exposure to chemicals; the evaluation of such effects may pose serious problems to clinicians, epidemiologists and toxicologists. In fact, several systems (e.g., nervous, excretory) show important developmental processes well after the organogenetic period, up to the postnatal phase; accordingly, these are also expected to be sensitive targets of developmental toxicants, resulting in impairment of the function and/or functional reserve...
June 2001: Current Pharmaceutical Design
J D Bosia, S Borzi, D Cocozzella, O Corallini, M Mayet, M Malca, M Padrone, A Rivero, G Cecchi, E Fraquelli, J O Curciarello
Diphenylhydantoin is a anticonvulsivant and antiarrhythmic drug. We reported a less frequent case of diphenylhydantoin associated acute hepatotoxicity in a 18-year old woman who immediately after child birth presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures secondary to arachnoid cyst in the left temporal-lobe. The patient developed a mononucleosis like coinciding with previous descriptions. Histological features observed in the liver biopsy specimen showed compatible changes with toxic acute liver failure (ALF)...
2000: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
M Carrozzo, M Togliatto, S Gandolfo
The term Erythema Multiforme (EM) include actually a wide range of clinical expressions, from exclusive oral erosions (Oral EM) to mucocutaneous lesions (EM Minor), sometimes with severe involvement of multiple mucosal membrane (EM major, Stevens-Johnson syndrome [SJS]) or with involvement of a large area of the total body surface (toxic epidermal necrolysis [TEN]). However, this terminology is not worldwide accepted and often the various clinical categories show some overlapping features. Among the great number of suspected etiological factors, herpes simplex virus is involved in many cases of EM minor whereas SJS and TEN are caused in 80% of cases by systemic drugs, mainly by anticonvulsivants, sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics...
May 1999: Minerva Stomatologica
M De Negri, L Doria, R Gaggero, S Rolando
Neurological and psychic side effects of anticonvulsivant drugs in pediatric age are separately considered. Neurological side effects are classified according to different ages: in the neonatal period sedation is preeminent, later psychomotor deterioration or cerebellar and/or extrapyramidal signs may occur. Less frequently antiepileptic drugs are responsible of worsening of seizures up to a toxic encephalopathy. Psychic side effects are more variable and unpredicatable. The same drugs can cause both psychomotor excitement or psychic slowness...
March 1981: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
F R Wang, Q P Xu, P Li
In this paper, comparative studies on main pharmacological activities and toxilogical activities of water extracts from cultivated Saposhnikovia divaricata (SD) and wild SD in Qixia county of Shandong province were performed. The results showed that the febrifugal analgesic and anticonvulsived activities of water extracts from cultivated SD and wild SD were primary same. Estimative results of LD50 showed that order of toxicity were such as firstly direct cultivated SD, secondly cuttage SD and finally wild SD...
December 1991: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine
M Bogdal, L Krzywosiński, H Kierylowicz, B Womela
The Influence of a New Benzonaphtyridone Derivative (IFC-45) with Antidepressant Activity on the Central Nervous System. Part II: The Influence on the Amphetamine and Reserpine Effects and Other Pharmacological Studies. Pol. J. Pharmacol, Pharm. 1975, 27, 479--491. IFC-45 (chem. formula see p. I, page 471) potentiated amphetamine action in a similar manner as standard drugs, had significant but slightly less than the compared standards anti-reserpine activity. IFC-45 did not act anticonvulsivantly, did not affect physostigmine toxicity or evipan anaesthesia...
September 1975: Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
G E Solomon, M W Hilgartner, H Kutt
A few neonates born to mothers receiving anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy have shown defects in vitamin K dependent clotting factors with or without clinical bleeding. Experimentally, phenytoin (diphenyl hydantoin, DPH) has induced clotting defects in cats and inhibited production of clotting factors in rat liver slices. Phenobarbital has produced similar but milder defects. Anticonvulsants have been observed to produce clotting defects in 9 children, 2 weeks to 8 years in age. Elevated levels of phenytoin or other anticonvulsants, or a combination of anticonvulsants were measured in the children...
1977: Neurología, Neurocirugía, Psiquiatría
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