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Anticonvulsivants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939215/multiple-intracerebral-hemorrhages-in-an-old-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Inimioara Mihaela Cojocaru, V Ştefănescu, Daniela Traşcă, Adelina Şerban-Pereţeanu, B Chicoş, M Cojocaru
A 78-year-old Caucasian man was admitted in the Department of Neurology for visual disturbances, started two days before. The next day the patient experienced headache, fever and gait disturbances. He had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, an ischemic stroke 13 years ago, longstanding seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (17 years), polynodular goiter, right ischio-pubian fracture and right femoral vein thrombosis a year ago due to a car accident, since he is treated with oral anticoagulants associated to antiaggregant, hypotensors, statin and oral antidiabetics...
October 2015: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877479/p-172-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-a-brain-injury-iatrogenic
#2
D Batouche, K Elhalimi, N Chaib, K Gaid, M A Negadi, Z Mentouri
OBJECTIFS: Le maintien d'une pression de perfusion cérébrale (PPC) entre 65-70mmHg chez l'enfant traumatisé crânien est un de nos objectifs de surveillance par le doppler transcrânien (DTC), mais peut céder la place à une personnalisation des objectifs hémodynamiques, cérébraux reposant sur un faisceau des paramètres qui sont « dépendants de chaque opérateur de garde ». À travers une observation nous allons pointer sur un effet iatrogène ayant conduit à un syndrome d'encéphalopathie postérieure réversible (SEPR)...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26267945/-clinical-pharmacology-of-medical-cannabinoids-in-chronic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Kuntheavy Ing Lorenzini, Barbara Broers, Patrice H Lalive, Pierre Dayer, Jules Desmeules, Valérie Piguet
In Switzerland, medical cannabinoids can be prescribed under compassionate use after special authorization in justified indications such as refractory pain. Evidence of efficacy in pain is limited and the clinical benefit seems to be modest. Their drug-drug interactions (DDI) profile is poorly documented. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 2C9 and 3A4 are involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which implies possible DDI with CYP450 inhibitor and inducer, such as anticonvulsivants and HIV protease inhibitors, which may be prescribed in patients with neuropathic pain...
June 24, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25882271/anticonvulsants-for-cocaine-dependence
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Minozzi, Michela Cinquini, Laura Amato, Marina Davoli, Michael F Farrell, Pier Paolo Pani, Simona Vecchi
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Although effective pharmacotherapy is available for alcohol and heroin dependence, none is currently available for cocaine dependence, despite two decades of clinical trials primarily involving antidepressant, anticonvulsivant and dopaminergic medications. Extensive consideration has been given to optimal pharmacological approaches to the treatment of individuals with cocaine dependence, and both dopamine antagonists and agonists have been considered...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25458866/-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions
#5
B Lebrun-Vignes, L Valeyrie-Allanore
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)...
April 2015: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25258293/can-vaccines-interact-with-drug-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Paolo Pellegrino, Emilio Clementi, Annalisa Capuano, Sonia Radice
Vaccines are safe and efficacious in reducing the burden of several serious infections affecting children and adults. Due to their efficacy, vaccines are often administered in patients with chronic diseases, likely to be under poly-therapy. Because of several case reports indicating changes in drug metabolism after vaccination, the hypothesis of an interaction between vaccines and specific drugs has been put forward. These interactions are conceivably of great concern, especially in patients treated with molecules characterised by a narrow therapeutic index...
February 2015: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241560/-drug-induced-eosinophilic-pleural-effusion
#7
Raluca Vasilescu
The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough...
April 2014: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24383246/-doctor-i-have-pain-and-pins-and-needles-in-my-legs-at-night
#8
Sophie Guinand, Baptiste Pedrazzini, Raphaël Heinzer, Jacques Cornuz, Bernard Favrat
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent chronic condition. It causes discomfort in the lower limbs with an urge to move the legs and sometimes paresthesias. It's frequently associated with sleep and mood disorders causing a significant impact on quality of life. There are four clinical criteria to diagnose it. Treatment includes management of reversible factors and if needed symptomatic treatment. Depending on symptoms severity, non-drug measures can be tried. First-line medication treatment should be dopaminergic agonists...
November 27, 2013: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24340546/importance-of-sulfonamide-moiety-in-current-and-future-therapy
#9
Oana Maria Parasca, Florentina Gheaţă, Andreea Pânzariu, Ioana Geangalău, Lenuţa Profire
Sulfonamides and their different derivatives are extensively used in therapy due to their pharmacological properties. Sulfa drugs were amongst the oldest synthesized antimicrobial agents and are still widely used today to treat different microbial infections. Clinical treatment with sulfonamides has regained confidence with the use of a combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim to treat urinary tract bacterial infections. Today, they are widely used as antimicrobial agents, chiefly because of their low cost, low toxicity and excellent activity against bacterial diseases...
April 2013: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24314754/the-electroencephalogram-of-the-full-term-newborn-review-of-normal-features-and-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-patterns
#10
REVIEW
M-D Lamblin, E Walls Esquivel, M André
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to specify, by reference to the normal newborn, the current contribution of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to the diagnosis and prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the full-term newborn. Both digitized traditional EEG and cerebral function monitoring will be considered. DISCUSSION: A good knowledge of the EEG features of the sleep-wake cycle (SWC) is a prerequisite. We first describe the main features of normal and pathological EEGs...
December 2013: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23391596/toxicological-toxicokinetic-and-gastroprotective-evaluation-of-the-benzaldehyde-semicarbazone
#11
A E D Vieira, G L Araujo, C M Galassi, R F Rodrigues, G D Cassalli, M Kaiser, T Dalla Costa, H Beraldo, C A Tagliati
Benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BS) has presented positive results in several pharmacological models, including anticonvulsivant and anti-inflammatory models. The present study evaluated the preclinical toxicity (acute and subchronic), as well as the toxicokinetic and gastroprotective effects of BS against ethanol lesions. Oral doses of 300 and 2000mg/kg were used in the preclinical acute toxicity study; 100, 200, and 300mg/kg were used in both the subchronic toxicity evaluation and the gastric study; and 300mg/kg was used in the toxicokinetic study...
May 2013: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22542883/administration-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-before-birth-and-until-aging-decreases-kainate-induced-seizures-in-adult-zebrafish
#12
Saleta Sierra, Juan M Alfaro, Sonia Sánchez, Javier S Burgos
Docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) is the final compound in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthetic pathway and the most abundant PUFA found in the brain. DHA plays an essential role in the development of the brain, and the intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. Recently, it has been proposed that dietary intake of DHA could be a non-pharmacological interventional strategy for the treatment of seizures in humans. However, to date, the experimental approaches to study the antiepileptic effect of DHA have been exclusively restricted to rodent models during short-to-medium periods of treatment...
August 1, 2012: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22423481/a-rare-case-of-neonatal-sepsis-meningitis-caused-by-pasteurella-multocida-complicated-with-status-epilepticus-and-focal-cerebritis
#13
R Spadafora, G Pomero, A Delogu, L Gozzoli, P Gancia
Pasteurella multocida is normally present in respiratory and digestive tract of many domestic and wild animals, but is a rare pathogen in neonatal infection. Here we describe for the first time a case of meningitis complicated by status epilepticus and right parietal lobe cerebritis. The patient showed a dramatic clinical onset characterized by septic appearance and prolonged seizures. Multidrug anticonvulsivant therapy was used to control the status epilepticus, but despite the aggressive treatment electrical crises were still evident 24 hours after the admission...
July 2011: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22039732/-treatment-of-behavioral-disorders-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Renaud David, Julie Piano, Philippe Robert
Behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are now known to be frequently associated to cognitive and functional decline in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Recommendations for the management of BPSD have been proposed. Non-pharmacological interventions should be the first-line treatment. Anti-dementia agents (cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine) and psychotropic drugs (antipsychotics, antidepressants and anticonvulsivants) could be associated to non-pharmacological interventions only in case of limited response with non pharmacologic approaches...
September 2011: La Revue du Praticien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21798772/procalcitonin-a-high-acute-phase-reactant-in-antiepileptic-hypersentivity-syndrome-in-pediatric-age
#15
Verónica Cantarín-Extremera, Cristina Castaño-De La Mota, Javier Alvarez-Coca, Mariluz Ruiz-Falcó Rojas, Luis González Gutierrez-Solana, Juan José García Peñas, Jorge Martínez-Pérez, Anna Duat-Rodríguez, Laura López-Marín, Rebeca Losada-Del Pozo
Antiepileptic hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in pediatric cases. It is associated with aromatic anticonvulsivant drugs and others antibiotics with or without associated reactivation of virus. The pathogenesis of the process is not clear. Clinical feature of this syndrome include cutaneous reactions, fever and lymphadenopathies, but different organs can be involved. In laboratory analyses we can find leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and increase in transaminase levels. Significant elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) has been described in two adults patients...
March 2012: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21763975/-clinical-analysis-of-paroxysmal-motor-phenomena-in-the-neonate
#16
S Nguyen The Tich
The newborn infant is prone to motor phenomena of various physiological mechanisms and pathological significance whereas they can share close clinical patterns. A detailed clinical analysis, that should be supported by a video EEG recording, is necessary. That may help to distinguish myoclonus, jitteriness or seizures. Some rare phenomenom such as hyperekplexia or myotonia have also to be known. The pregnancy and birth history, the clinical examination and the search for association of various motor phenomena give essential clues for the diagnosis...
July 2011: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21743406/clinical-therapeutic-management-of-drooling-review-and-update
#17
REVIEW
Javier Silvestre-Rangil, Francisco-Javier Silvestre, Angel Puente-Sandoval, Juan Requeni-Bernal, Juan-Manuel Simó-Ruiz
Drooling is the uncontrolled leakage of saliva outside the mouth, generally as a result of difficulty in swallowing the saliva produced. Many factors contribute to drooling, though it is more commonly seen in children with brain paralysis - particularly those receiving anticonvulsivant medication. Drooling is also often seen in patients with lip sealing problems or malocclusions such as anterior open bite. Clinically, the affected patients can develop skin irritation or abrasions, problems of hygiene, unpleasant smell and - in the more severe presentations - the need to wear protectors or frequently change clothing...
September 2011: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21661203/-neuropsychiatric-side-effects-of-antituberculosis-agents
#18
L Fekih, L Boussoffara, S Fenniche, H Abdelghaffar, M Lamine Megdiche
UNLABELLED: Accurency of neurological or psychiatric complications secondary to the administration of antituberculosis may be at the origin of diagnosis and therapeutic problems. This work aims at studying the frequency of these manifestations, their clinical presentations and their therapeutic approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried on from January 1990 to June 2008 at Ibn Nafis Pulmonary Department of Abderrahmen Mami Hospital in Ariana...
February 2011: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21586381/-transient-epileptic-amnesia-a-case-report-and-a-reappraisal
#19
REVIEW
Isabelle M A Favre, Olivier Véran, Isabelle Payen, Laurent Vercueil
Transient Epileptic Amnesia is a late-onset form of temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent attacks of transient retrograde and anterograde amnesia usually lasting less than one hour and beginning in late-middle to old age. Attacks commonly occur on waking, a potentially helpful diagnostic clue. The amnesic attacks may be associated with persistent memory complaints. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinical history, wake or sleep - deprived EEG (often repeated) and/or a clear - cut response to anticonvulsivant therapy...
March 2011: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21492891/-relationship-between-plasma-concentrations-of-valproic-acid-and-hepatotoxicity-in-patients-receiving-high-doses
#20
H Ghozzi, A Hakim, Z Sahnoun, L Ben Mahmoud, R Atheymen, S Hammami, K Zeghal
INTRODUCTION: Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsivant drug widely prescribed in the treatment of many forms of generalized epilepsy. In literature, the incidence of liver damage induced by AVP is 0.01%. It is potentialized by the combination therapy (phenobarbital, carbamazepine). Severe hepatotoxicity is rare and appears to be independent of dose and to cause a high mortality. METHODS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma concentrations of AVP and the occurrence of side effects especially hepatotoxicity in patients receiving high doses of AVP...
August 2011: Revue Neurologique
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