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Gluten tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620596/celiac-disease-30-years-after-diagnosis-struggling-with-gluten-free-adherence-or-gaining-gluten-tolerance
#1
Lorenzo Norsa, Federica Branchi, Marianna Bravo, Francesca Ferretti, Leda Roncoroni, Francesco Somalvico, Dario Conte, Maria Teresa Bardella, Sabrina Fabiano, Giulio Barigelletti, Luca Elli
OBJECTIVES: Studies investigating patients with coeliac disease (CD) on very long-term follow-up are limited. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with CD diagnosed more than 30 years ago. METHODS: Clinical, histologic, genetic and demographic data of patients with CD diagnosis made before 1985 were collected and their standardised mortality ratio (SMR) calculated. According to the gluten free diet (GFD) status, CD patients were divided into three groups and a specific questionnaire on GFD awareness and gluten-free products was administered to patients and caregivers...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606211/review-shaping-a-sustainable-food-future-by-rediscovering-long-forgotten-ancient-grains
#2
REVIEW
Acga Cheng
Genetic erosion of crops has been determined way back in the 1940s and accelerated some twenty years later by the inception of the Green Revolution. Claims that the revolution was a complete triumph remain specious, especially since the massive production boost in the global big three grain crops; wheat, maize, and rice that happened back then is unlikely to recur under current climate irregularities. Presently, one of the leading strategies for sustainable agriculture is by unlocking the genetic potential of underutilized crops...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514905/reovirus-induced-apoptosis-in-the-intestine-limits-establishment-of-enteric-infection
#3
Judy J Brown, Sarah P Short, Jennifer Stencel-Baerenwald, Kelly Urbanek, Andrea J Pruijssers, Nicole McAllister, Mine Ikizler, Gwen Taylor, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Solomiia Khomandiak, Bana Jabri, Christopher S Williams, Terence S Dermody
Several viruses induce intestinal epithelial cell death during enteric infection. However, it is unclear whether proapoptotic capacity promotes or inhibits replication in this tissue. We infected mice with two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in the capacity to alter immunological tolerance to new food antigen. Infection with reovirus strain T1L, which induces an inflammatory immune response to fed antigen, is prolonged in the intestine, whereas T3D-RV, which does not induce this response, is rapidly cleared from the intestine...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422237/new-coeliac-disease-treatments-and-their-complications
#4
Luis Vaquero, Laura Rodríguez-Martín, Francisco León, Francisco Jorquera, Santiago Vivas
The only accepted treatment for coeliac disease is strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. This type of diet may give rise to reduced patient quality of life with economic and social repercussions. For this reason, dietary transgressions are common and may elicit intestinal damage. Several treatments aimed at different pathogenic targets of coeliac disease have been developed in recent years: modification of gluten to produce non-immunogenic gluten, endoluminal therapies to degrade gluten in the intestinal lumen, increased gluten tolerance, modulation of intestinal permeability and regulation of the adaptive immune response...
March 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411655/investigational-drug-therapies-for-coeliac-disease-where-to-from-here
#5
REVIEW
James Haridy, Diana Lewis, Evan D Newnham
Despite decades of research and a detailed knowledge of the immunopathological basis of coeliac disease (CD), adherence to a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) remains the single proven and available treatment. The increasing prevalence of CD combined with variable adherence to the GFD in a significant proportion of patients demands new therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: Trial registries, clinicaltrials.gov, pharmaceutical company website searches as well as published data from PubMed and conference proceedings were used to extract the most recent outcomes for CD therapeutics...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191561/epitope-specific-immunotherapy-targeting-cd4-positive-t-cells-in-celiac-disease-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-effects-on-intestinal-histology-and-plasma-cytokines-with-escalating-dose-regimens-of-nexvax2-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1
#6
A James M Daveson, Hooi C Ee, Jane M Andrews, Timothy King, Kaela E Goldstein, John L Dzuris, James A MacDougall, Leslie J Williams, Anita Treohan, Michael P Cooreman, Robert P Anderson
BACKGROUND: Nexvax2® is a novel, peptide-based, epitope-specific immunotherapy intended to be administered by regular injections at dose levels that increase the threshold for clinical reactivity to natural exposure to gluten and ultimately restore tolerance to gluten in patients with celiac disease. Celiac disease patients administered fixed intradermal doses of Nexvax2 become unresponsive to the HLA-DQ2·5-restricted gluten epitopes in Nexvax2, but gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine release mimicking gluten exposure, that accompany the first dose, limit the maximum tolerated dose to 150μg...
December 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940785/transglutaminases-in-autoimmune-and-inherited-skin-diseases-the-phenomena-of-epitope-spreading-and-functional-compensation
#7
REVIEW
Sarolta Kárpáti, Miklós Sárdy, Krisztián Németh, Balázs Mayer, Neil Smyth, Mats Paulsson, Heiko Traupe
Transglutaminases (TGs) are structurally and functionally related enzymes that modify the post-translational structure and activity of proteins or peptides, and thus are able to turn on or switch off their function. Depending on location and activities, TGs are able to modify the signalling, the function and the fate of cells and extracellular connective tissues. Besides mouse models, human diseases enable us to appreciate the function of various TGs. In this study, skin diseases induced by genetic damages or autoimmune targeting of these enzymes will be discussed...
September 23, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913792/what-will-be-the-benefits-of-biotech-wheat-for-european-agriculture
#8
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866080/the-tartary-buckwheat-genome-provides-insights%C3%A2-into-rutin-biosynthesis-and-abiotic-stress%C3%A2-tolerance
#9
Lijun Zhang, Xiuxiu Li, Bin Ma, Qiang Gao, Huilong Du, Yuanhuai Han, Yan Li, Yinghao Cao, Ming Qi, Yaxin Zhu, Hongwei Lu, Mingchuan Ma, Longlong Liu, Jianping Zhou, Chenghu Nan, Yongjun Qin, Jun Wang, Lin Cui, Huimin Liu, Chengzhi Liang, Zhijun Qiao
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an important pseudocereal crop that is strongly adapted to growth in adverse environments. Its gluten-free grain contains complete proteins with a well-balanced composition of essential amino acids and is a rich source of beneficial phytochemicals that provide significant health benefits. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-scale Tartary buckwheat genome sequence of 489.3 Mb that is assembled by combining whole-genome shotgun sequencing of both Illumina short reads and single-molecule real-time long reads, sequence tags of a large DNA insert fosmid library, Hi-C sequencing data, and BioNano genome maps...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597430/identification-of-drought-stress-related-proteins-from-1s-l-1b-chromosome-substitution-line-of-wheat-variety-chinese-spring
#10
Jiaxing Zhou, Chaoying Ma, Shoumin Zhen, Min Cao, Friedich J Zeller, Sai L K Hsam, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat, one of the most important crops, has a detrimental effect on both yield and quality under drought stress. As our preliminary experiment showed that the Chinese Spring wheat-Aegilops longissima chromosome substitution line CS-1S(l) (1B) had a better drought tolerance than CS, the substitution line CS-1S(l)(1B) was used to identify drought stress related proteins by means of a comparative proteome approach in this work. Our present study aimed to explore the gene resources for drought resistance in 1S(l) genome...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555380/anti-gliadin-antibodies-in-breast-milk-from-celiac-mothers-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#11
María Roca, Sabine Lisa Vriezinga, Paula Crespo-Escobar, Renata Auricchio, David Hervás, Gemma Castillejo, Maria Carmen Mena, Isabel Polanco, Riccardo Troncone, Maria Luisa Mearin, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx
PURPOSE: To analyze the presence of total IgA and anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) in BM from CD mothers who follow a gluten-free diet (GFD) and from mothers on a normal gluten-containing diet (ND). METHODS: 218 samples of mature milk were obtained at different months of lactation (1-6) from 83 mothers (2 or more samples per mother) from Italy (Naples), The Netherlands (Leiden) and Spain (Madrid, Valencia and Reus): 42 CD mothers on GFD for more than 2 years and 41 non-CD mothers on a ND...
May 29, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506538/epitope-specific-immunotherapy-targeting-cd4-positive-t-cells-in-coeliac-disease-two-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-studies
#12
Gautam Goel, Tim King, A James Daveson, Jane M Andrews, Janakan Krishnarajah, Richard Krause, Gregor J E Brown, Ronald Fogel, Charles F Barish, Roger Epstein, Timothy P Kinney, Philip B Miner, Jason A Tye-Din, Adam Girardin, Juha Taavela, Alina Popp, John Sidney, Markku Mäki, Kaela E Goldstein, Patrick H Griffin, Suyue Wang, John L Dzuris, Leslie J Williams, Alessandro Sette, Ramnik J Xavier, Ludvig M Sollid, Bana Jabri, Robert P Anderson
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet...
July 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#13
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386004/reovirus-infection-triggers-inflammatory-responses-to-dietary-antigens-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#14
Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J Brown, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J Pruijssers, Jordan D Ernest, Jason A Iskarpatyoti, Léa M M Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B Barreiro, Ramnik J Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S Dermody, Bana Jabri
Viral infections have been proposed to elicit pathological processes leading to the initiation of T helper 1 (TH 1) immunity against dietary gluten and celiac disease (CeD). To test this hypothesis and gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens, we developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in their immunopathological outcomes. Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but we discovered that it can nonetheless disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg ) conversion and promoting TH 1 immunity to dietary antigen...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300220/effects-of-gliadin-consumption-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283419/circulating-gluten-specific-foxp3-cd39-regulatory-t-cells-have-impaired-suppressive-function-in-patients-with-celiac-disease
#16
Laura Cook, C Mee Ling Munier, Nabila Seddiki, David van Bockel, Noé Ontiveros, Melinda Y Hardy, Jana K Gillies, Megan K Levings, Hugh H Reid, Jan Petersen, Jamie Rossjohn, Robert P Anderson, John J Zaunders, Jason A Tye-Din, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by dietary gluten. Although the effector T-cell response in patients with celiac disease has been well characterized, the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the loss of tolerance to gluten remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define whether patients with celiac disease have a dysfunction or lack of gluten-specific forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)+ Treg cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140462/physiopathology-and-management-of-gluten-induced-celiac-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Pandey, Nar Singh Chauhan
Proline- and glutamine-rich gluten proteins are one of the major constituents of cereal dietary proteins, which are largely resistant to complete cleavage by the human gastrointestinal (GI) digestive enzymes. Partial digestion of gluten generates approximately 35 amino acids (aa) immunomodulatory peptides which activate T-cell-mediated immune system, followed by immunological inflammation of mucosa leading to the onset of celiac disease (CD). CD is an autoimmune disease associated with HLA-DQ2/DQ8 polymorphism and dysbiosis of gut microbiota...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035551/agy-a-novel-egg-yolk-derived-anti-gliadin-antibody-is-safe-for-patients-with-celiac-disease
#18
Dory A Sample, Hoon H Sunwoo, Hien Q Huynh, Heather L Rylance, Cheri L Robert, Bi-Wen Xu, Sung H Kang, Naiyana Gujral, Levinus A Dieleman
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-triggered autoimmune disorder of the small intestine. A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only approved treatment; however, strict adherence is difficult and many suffer from inadvertent gluten exposure. Oral egg yolk anti-gliadin antibody (AGY) is a novel treatment to neutralize gluten and may improve the efficacy of the GFD. AIMS: To determine the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of AGY in patients with CD...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017986/incorporation-of-carrot-pomace-powder-in-wheat-flour-effect-on-flour-dough-and-cookie-characteristics
#19
Mukhtar Ahmad, Touseef Ahmed Wani, S M Wani, F A Masoodi, Adil Gani
Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990287/coeliac-disease-a-unique-model-for-investigating-broken-tolerance-in-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
Melinda Y Hardy, Jason A Tye-Din
Coeliac disease, a prevalent immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten, provides an exceptional human model to dissect the genetic, environmental and immunologic factors operating in autoimmunity. Despite the causative antigen being an exogenous food protein, coeliac disease has many features in common with autoimmune disease including a strong HLA class II association and the presence of pathogenic CD4+ T cells and autoantibodies. CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes specifically target and destroy intestinal epithelium in response to stress signals and not a specific antigen...
November 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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