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Gluten tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940785/transglutaminases-in-autoimmune-and-inherited-skin-diseases-the-phenomena-of-epitope-spreading-and-functional-compensation
#1
REVIEW
Sarolta Kárpáti, Miklós Sárdy, Krisztián Németh, Balázs Mayer, Neil Smyth, Mats Paulsson, Heiko Traupe
Transglutaminases (TGs) are structurally and functionally related enzymes that modify the posttranslational structure and activity of proteins or peptides, and thus are able to turn on or switch off their function. Depending on location and activities, TGs are able to modify the signaling, the function and the fate of cells and extracellular connective tissues. Beside mouse models also human diseases enable us to appreciate the function of various TGs. In this paper skin diseases induced by genetic damages or autoimmune targeting of these enzymes will be discussed...
September 23, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913792/what-will-be-the-benefits-of-biotech-wheat-for-european-agriculture
#2
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866080/the-tartary-buckwheat-genome-provides-insights%C3%A2-into-rutin-biosynthesis-and-abiotic-stress%C3%A2-tolerance
#3
Lijun Zhang, Xiuxiu Li, Bin Ma, Qiang Gao, Huilong Du, Yuanhuai Han, Yan Li, Yinghao Cao, Ming Qi, Yaxin Zhu, Hongwei Lu, Mingchuan Ma, Longlong Liu, Jianping Zhou, Chenghu Nan, Yongjun Qin, Jun Wang, Lin Cui, Huimin Liu, Chengzhi Liang, Zhijun Qiao
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an important pseudocereal crop that is strongly adapted to growth in adverse environments. Its gluten-free grain contains complete proteins with a well-balanced composition of essential amino acids and is a rich source of beneficial phytochemicals that provide significant health benefits. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-scale Tartary buckwheat genome sequence of 489.3 Mb that is assembled by combining whole-genome shotgun sequencing of both Illumina short reads and single-molecule real-time long reads, sequence tags of a large DNA insert fosmid library, Hi-C sequencing data, and BioNano genome maps...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597430/identification-of-drought-stress-related-proteins-from-1s-l-1b-chromosome-substitution-line-of-wheat-variety-chinese-spring
#4
Jiaxing Zhou, Chaoying Ma, Shoumin Zhen, Min Cao, Friedich J Zeller, Sai L K Hsam, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat, one of the most important crops, has a detrimental effect on both yield and quality under drought stress. As our preliminary experiment showed that the Chinese Spring wheat-Aegilops longissima chromosome substitution line CS-1S(l) (1B) had a better drought tolerance than CS, the substitution line CS-1S(l)(1B) was used to identify drought stress related proteins by means of a comparative proteome approach in this work. Our present study aimed to explore the gene resources for drought resistance in 1S(l) genome...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555380/anti-gliadin-antibodies-in-breast-milk-from-celiac-mothers-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#5
María Roca, Sabine Lisa Vriezinga, Paula Crespo-Escobar, Renata Auricchio, David Hervás, Gemma Castillejo, Maria Carmen Mena, Isabel Polanco, Riccardo Troncone, Maria Luisa Mearin, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx
PURPOSE: To analyze the presence of total IgA and anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) in BM from CD mothers who follow a gluten-free diet (GFD) and from mothers on a normal gluten-containing diet (ND). METHODS: 218 samples of mature milk were obtained at different months of lactation (1-6) from 83 mothers (2 or more samples per mother) from Italy (Naples), The Netherlands (Leiden) and Spain (Madrid, Valencia and Reus): 42 CD mothers on GFD for more than 2 years and 41 non-CD mothers on a ND...
May 29, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506538/epitope-specific-immunotherapy-targeting-cd4-positive-t-cells-in-coeliac-disease-two-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-studies
#6
Gautam Goel, Tim King, A James Daveson, Jane M Andrews, Janakan Krishnarajah, Richard Krause, Gregor J E Brown, Ronald Fogel, Charles F Barish, Roger Epstein, Timothy P Kinney, Philip B Miner, Jason A Tye-Din, Adam Girardin, Juha Taavela, Alina Popp, John Sidney, Markku Mäki, Kaela E Goldstein, Patrick H Griffin, Suyue Wang, John L Dzuris, Leslie J Williams, Alessandro Sette, Ramnik J Xavier, Ludvig M Sollid, Bana Jabri, Robert P Anderson
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet...
July 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#7
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386004/reovirus-infection-triggers-inflammatory-responses-to-dietary-antigens-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#8
Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J Brown, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J Pruijssers, Jordan D Ernest, Jason A Iskarpatyoti, Léa M M Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B Barreiro, Ramnik J Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S Dermody, Bana Jabri
Viral infections have been proposed to elicit pathological processes leading to the initiation of T helper 1 (TH1) immunity against dietary gluten and celiac disease (CeD). To test this hypothesis and gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens, we developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in their immunopathological outcomes. Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but we discovered that it can nonetheless disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) conversion and promoting TH1 immunity to dietary antigen...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300220/effects-of-gliadin-consumption-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#9
Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283419/circulating-gluten-specific-foxp3-cd39-regulatory-t-cells-have-impaired-suppressive-function-in-patients-with-celiac-disease
#10
Laura Cook, C Mee Ling Munier, Nabila Seddiki, David van Bockel, Noé Ontiveros, Melinda Y Hardy, Jana K Gillies, Megan K Levings, Hugh H Reid, Jan Petersen, Jamie Rossjohn, Robert P Anderson, John J Zaunders, Jason A Tye-Din, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by dietary gluten. Although the effector T-cell response in patients with celiac disease has been well characterized, the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the loss of tolerance to gluten remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define whether patients with celiac disease have a dysfunction or lack of gluten-specific forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) Treg cells...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140462/physiopathology-and-management-of-gluten-induced-celiac-disease
#11
REVIEW
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Pandey, Nar Singh Chauhan
Proline- and glutamine-rich gluten proteins are one of the major constituents of cereal dietary proteins, which are largely resistant to complete cleavage by the human gastrointestinal (GI) digestive enzymes. Partial digestion of gluten generates approximately 35 amino acids (aa) immunomodulatory peptides which activate T-cell-mediated immune system, followed by immunological inflammation of mucosa leading to the onset of celiac disease (CD). CD is an autoimmune disease associated with HLA-DQ2/DQ8 polymorphism and dysbiosis of gut microbiota...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035551/agy-a-novel-egg-yolk-derived-anti-gliadin-antibody-is-safe-for-patients-with-celiac-disease
#12
Dory A Sample, Hoon H Sunwoo, Hien Q Huynh, Heather L Rylance, Cheri L Robert, Bi-Wen Xu, Sung H Kang, Naiyana Gujral, Levinus A Dieleman
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-triggered autoimmune disorder of the small intestine. A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only approved treatment; however, strict adherence is difficult and many suffer from inadvertent gluten exposure. Oral egg yolk anti-gliadin antibody (AGY) is a novel treatment to neutralize gluten and may improve the efficacy of the GFD. AIMS: To determine the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of AGY in patients with CD...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017986/incorporation-of-carrot-pomace-powder-in-wheat-flour-effect-on-flour-dough-and-cookie-characteristics
#13
Mukhtar Ahmad, Touseef Ahmed Wani, S M Wani, F A Masoodi, Adil Gani
Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990287/coeliac-disease-a-unique-model-for-investigating-broken-tolerance-in-autoimmunity
#14
REVIEW
Melinda Y Hardy, Jason A Tye-Din
Coeliac disease, a prevalent immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten, provides an exceptional human model to dissect the genetic, environmental and immunologic factors operating in autoimmunity. Despite the causative antigen being an exogenous food protein, coeliac disease has many features in common with autoimmune disease including a strong HLA class II association and the presence of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells and autoantibodies. CD8(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes specifically target and destroy intestinal epithelium in response to stress signals and not a specific antigen...
November 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979231/comparative-study-on-the-freeze-stability-of-yeast-and-chemical-leavened-steamed-bread-dough
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu, Xueming Xu, Zhengyu Jin
The present study comparatively evaluated the evolution of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough (YLD/CLD) quality during freeze/thaw (FT) cycles. The steamed bread quality of CLD was more freeze-stable than that of the YLD after 3 FT cycles. Decreased yeast viability contributed to the loss of gassing power in YLD while no significant differences were observed for CLD during FT cycles. However, faster gas release rate in frozen CLD indicated gas retention loss due to the distortion of gluten network...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830928/oral-iron-absorption-test-with-ferrous-bisglycinate-chelate-in-children-with-celiac-disease-preliminary-results
#16
Giuseppe A Mazza, Luisa Pedrelli, Elisabetta Battaglia, Laura Giancotti, Roberto Miniero
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immunologically-mediated enteropathy resulting in small-bowel mucosal villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia. Iron malabsorption is usually observed in CD. Only few studies investigated oral iron absorption in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA), using the oral iron absorption test (OIAT). We considered useful to investigate the OIAT, using Ferrous Bisglycinate Chelate (FBC), in patients with CD at diagnosis or on Gluten Free Diet (GFD) from at least 1 year...
November 10, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794703/how-your-date-of-birth-may-determine-your-gluten-tolerance
#17
(no author information available yet)
The season in which you were born and even your place of birth could affect your risk of developing childhood coeliac disease.
September 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746327/exposure-assessment-to-fumonisins-b1-b2-and-b3-through-consumption-of-gluten-free-foodstuffs-intended-for-people-affected%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-celiac-disease
#18
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
November 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633005/improved-quantitation-of-gluten-in-wheat-starch-for-celiac-disease-patients-by-gel-permeation-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-detection-gp-hplc-fld
#19
Katharina Anne Scherf, Herbert Wieser, Peter Koehler
Purified wheat starch (WSt) is commonly used in gluten-free products for celiac disease (CD) patients. It is mostly well-tolerated, but doubts about its safety for CD patients persist. One reason may be that most ELISA kits primarily recognize the alcohol-soluble gliadin fraction of gluten, but insufficiently target the alcohol-insoluble glutenin fraction. To address this problem, a new sensitive method based on the sequential extraction of gliadins, glutenins, and gluten from WSt followed by gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (GP-HPLC-FLD) was developed...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620516/dental-and-oral-considerations-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#20
REVIEW
Sara Karlin, Ellen Karlin, Timothy Meiller, Nasir Bashirelahi
Celiac disease (CD) is the world's most common genetic food intolerance disorder. Children with celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a storage protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The first recognizable symptom in children is often an oral manifestation, rather than the typical gastrointestinal symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to review the oral and dental manifestations of CD to help pediatric dentists identify and refer atypically symptomatic patients to their pediatricians.
2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
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