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Cacao polyphenols

Heerim Kang, Chang Hyung Lee, Jong Rhan Kim, Jung Yeon Kwon, Myoung-Jin Son, Jong-Eun Kim, Ki Won Lee
Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
I Baiges, L Arola
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Shruti Sanjay Taparia, Aparna Khanna
Over the last four centuries, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value. As of today, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) and its products are consumed worldwide. They are of great research interest because of the concentration dependent antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties of some of their polyphenolic constituents, specially procyanidins and flavan-3-ols such as catechin. This study was aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular changes associated with cytotoxicity, caused due pro-oxidant activity of cocoa catechins and procyanidins, in ovarian cancer cell lines...
June 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lei Wang, Thomas Nägele, Hannes Doerfler, Lena Fragner, Palak Chaturvedi, Ella Nukarinen, Anke Bellaire, Werner Huber, Jakob Weiszmann, Doris Engelmeier, Ziva Ramsak, Kristina Gruden, Wolfram Weckwerth
Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv...
August 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Annisa Wicita Mustamin
BACKGROUND: Cacao bean husk ethanol extract (CBHEE) has polyphenol that acts as an antibacterial agent, specially anti-glucosyltransferase. AIM: This study is aimed to see the effectiveness of CBHEE to reduce the number of mutans streptococci colonies in the saliva of children (with young permanent teeth), when CBHE is used as mouth rinse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used cross-sectional study design with time-series experimental study and used simple random sampling on 30 subjects...
April 2016: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
D V Silva, S M J Branco, I S A Holanda, S Royaert, J C Motamayor, J P Marelli, R X Corrêa
Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hirofumi Zempo, Jun-ichi Suzuki, Ryo Watanabe, Kouji Wakayama, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Yuichi Ikeda, Hiroshi Akazawa, Issei Komuro, Mitsuaki Isobe
Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice...
April 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
SuJung Hu, Byung-Yong Kim, Moo-Yeol Baik
The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
C Hue, Z Gunata, A Breysse, F Davrieux, R Boulanger, F X Sauvage
Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found...
February 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Simone N M Ramos, Marcela M Salazar, Gonçalo A G Pereira, Priscilla Efraim
The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success...
2014: MethodsX
Barbara Albertini, Aurélie Schoubben, Davide Guarnaccia, Filippo Pinelli, Mirco Della Vecchia, Maurizio Ricci, Gian Carlo Di Renzo, Paolo Blasi
Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Seyed F Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Maria Daglia, Parizad Rezaei, Seyed M Nabavi
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Koichiro Suzuki, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Takayuki Yamamoto, Taiki Miyazawa, Fumiko Kimura, Masanori Kamei, Teruo Miyazawa
Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions...
2015: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Elba Sangronis, María José Soto, Yolmar Valero, Ignacio Buscema
In the cocoa bean industry, some by-products go underutilized. Some of these components could provide other innovative products, and such is the case with the husk of the cocoa bean. Previous studies have attributed the husk with a high antioxidant capacity, which added to its relative low cost, makes it an attractive ingredient for the production of infusions. However, prior to promoting it as such, its quality needs to be guaranteed. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the husk of cocoa, its microbiologic quality and other parameters in order to be considered raw material in the preparation of infusions...
June 2014: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
Beatriz Sarriá, Sara Martínez-López, José Luis Sierra-Cinos, Luis Garcia-Diz, Luis Goya, Raquel Mateos, Laura Bravo
Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17 g, 43.8 mg and 168.6 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3...
May 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
J J Vargas-Magaña, J F J Torres-Acosta, A J Aguilar-Caballero, C A Sandoval-Castro, H Hoste, J A Chan-Pérez
This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained...
December 15, 2014: Veterinary Parasitology
Faisal Ali, Amin Ismail, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Chong Pei Pei
Cocoa polyphenol (CP), due to their biological actions, may be supplementary treatments for adipose tissue-fat gain. However, the molecular mechanism of CPs is still ambiguous. This study investigated the hypothesis that CP treatment modulates expressing of lipid metabolism genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue (MES-WAT). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks. Thereafter, HFD rats (n = 10/group) were treated at a dose of 600 mg/kg bw/day CPs (HFD + CPs) for 4 weeks...
January 2015: Genomics
Diego A Duarte, Mariana Ap B Rosales, Alexandros Papadimitriou, Kamila C Silva, Vitor Hugo O Amancio, Jacqueline N Mendonça, Norberto P Lopes, José B Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes de Faria
Cocoa is rich in flavonoids, which are potent antioxidants with established benefits for cardiovascular health but unproven effects on neurodegeneration. Sirtuins (SIRTs), which make up a family of deacetylases, are thought to be sensitive to oxidation. In this study, the possible protective effects of cocoa in the diabetic retina were assessed. Rat Müller cells (rMCs) exposed to normal or high glucose (HG) or H2O2 were submitted to cocoa treatment in the presence or absence of SIRT-1 inhibitor and small interfering RNA The experimental animal study was conducted in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats randomized to receive low-, intermediate-, or high-polyphenol cocoa treatments via daily gavage for 16 weeks (i...
January 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Malen Massot-Cladera, Mar Abril-Gil, Sandra Torres, Angels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
A diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of polyphenols and fibre, is able to modify intestinal immune status as well as microbiota composition. The present study was aimed at investigating whether cocoa flavonoid content is uniquely responsible for these modulatory effects of cocoa, and to establish whether these effects depend on the rat strain. To this end, 3-week-old Wistar and Brown Norway rats were fed, for 4 weeks, either a standard diet or the following three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0...
December 28, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
Mar Garcia-Aloy, Rafael Llorach, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Olga Jáuregui, Dolores Corella, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Montserrat Fitó, Emilio Ros, Ramon Estruch, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
SCOPE: The aim of the current study was to apply an untargeted metabolomics strategy to characterize a model of cocoa intake biomarkers in a free-living population. METHODS AND RESULTS: An untargeted HPLC-q-ToF-MS based metabolomics approach was applied to human urine from 32 consumers of cocoa or derived products (CC) and 32 matched control subjects with no consumption of cocoa products (NC). The multivariate statistical analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) showed clear differences between CC and NC groups...
February 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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