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Restorative neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210955/the-effects-of-igf-1-on-tnf-%C3%AE-treated-drg-neurons-by-modulating-atf3-and-gap-43-expression-via-pi3k-akt-s6k-signaling-pathway
#2
Lei Zhang, Yaping Yue, Meishuo Ouyang, Huaxiang Liu, Zhenzhong Li
Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in the development and progression of numerous neurological disorders. Recent reports have challenged the concept that TNF-α exhibits only deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory destruction, and have raised the awareness that it may play a beneficial role in neuronal growth and function in particular conditions, which prompts us to further investigate the role of this cytokine. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a cytokine possessing powerful neuroprotective effects in promoting neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, neurite elongation, and neurite regeneration...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209460/pharmacologic-cardioversion-with-intravenous-amiodarone-is-likely-safe-in-neurocritically-ill-patients
#3
Michael Su, David Seki, Asma M Moheet
Neurological injury is often associated with cardiac abnormalities, including electrophysiological issues. Cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation (<48h' duration) without anticoagulation carries about a 0.7% risk of thromboembolism. There is limited data on managing acute atrial fibrillation specifically in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) setting. We sought to determine the safety of using intravenous (IV) amiodarone for restoring sinus rhythm in patients with presumed new onset atrial or ventricular tachycardia after neurological injury...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208696/valproate-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells-via-the-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#4
Zhengmao Li, Fenzan Wu, Xie Zhang, Yi Chai, Daqing Chen, Yuetao Yang, Kebin Xu, Jiayu Yin, Rui Li, Hongxue Shi, Zhouguang Wang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao, Hongyu Zhang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis plays an important role in a range of neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injury, and diabetic neuropathy. Valproate (VPA), a typical antiepileptic drug, is commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. Recently, VPA has been reported to exert neurotrophic effects and promote neurite outgrowth, but its molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether VPA inhibited ER stress and promoted neuroprotection and neuronal restoration in SH-SY5Y cells and in primary rat cortical neurons, respectively, upon exposure to thapsigargin (TG)...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202095/the-effects-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
J Firth, B Stubbs, J Sarris, S Rosenbaum, S Teasdale, M Berk, A R Yung
BACKGROUND: When used as an adjunctive with antipsychotics, certain vitamins and minerals may be effective for improving symptomatic outcomes of schizophrenia, by restoring nutritional deficits, reducing oxidative stress, or modulating neurological pathways. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting effects of vitamin and/or mineral supplements on psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference between nutrient and placebo treatments...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197071/chemosensitivity-of-u251-cells-to-the-co-treatment-of-d-penicillamine-and-copper-possible-implications-on-wilson-disease-patients
#6
Meghri Katerji, Kassem Barada, Mustapha Jomaa, Firas Kobeissy, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Julnar Usta
D-Penicillamine (PA), a copper chelator, and one of the recommended drugs for treatment of Wilson disease (WD) has been reported to worsen the symptoms of patients with neurologic presentations. However, the cause of this paradoxical response has not been fully elucidated and requires further investigations. Accordingly, we have studied the in vitro effect of Copper (Cu) and/or PA treatment on human glioblastoma U251 cells as an in vitro model of Cu cytotoxicity. Treatment of U251 cells with either Cu or PA exerted no significant effect on their morphology, viability or ROS level...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196453/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-gait-disorders
#7
Vera Gramigna, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonio Cerasa, Simone Cutini, Roberta Vasta, Giuseppe Olivadese, Iolanda Martino, Aldo Quattrone
Walking is a complex motor behavior with a special relevance in clinical neurology. Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke, are characterized by gait disorders whose neurofunctional correlates are poorly investigated. Indeed, the analysis of real walking with the standard neuroimaging techniques poses strong challenges, and only a few studies on motor imagery or walking observation have been performed so far. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is becoming an important research tool to assess functional activity in neurological populations or for special tasks, such as walking, because it allows investigating brain hemodynamic activity in an ecological setting, without strong immobility constraints...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194443/sustained-inflammation-after-pericyte-depletion-induces-irreversible-blood-retina-barrier-breakdown
#8
Shuntaro Ogura, Kaori Kurata, Yuki Hattori, Hiroshi Takase, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Yoonha Hwang, Soyeon Ahn, Inwon Park, Wataru Ikeda, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yoko Fukushima, Hiromi Nara, Hideto Sakai, Takashi Fujiwara, Jun Matsushita, Masatsugu Ema, Masanori Hirashima, Takashi Minami, Masabumi Shibuya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Pilhan Kim, Takaki Miyata, Yuichiro Ogura, Akiyoshi Uemura
In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190682/perception-of-active-head-rotation-in-patients-with-severe-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#9
Shinobu Kaibe, Manabu Okita, Hideto Kaba
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere damage, and is characterized by a failure to perceive and report stimuli in the contralesional side of space. To test the reference shift hypothesis that contralesional spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients is attributed to a rightward deviation of the egocentric reference frame, we measured the final angular position to which controls and left-side neglect patients actively turned their head toward the left in response to a verbal instruction given from each of three locations-right, left, and front-in two conditions, with and without visual feedback...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#10
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190402/preserving-brain-function-in-a-comatose-patient-with-septic-hyperpyrexia-41-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-a-case-report
#11
Samantha Sterkel, Akinboyede Akinyemi, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, George Michel
BACKGROUND: Pyrexia is a physiological response through which the immune system responds to infectious processes. Hyperpyrexia is known to be neurodegenerative leading to brain damage. Some of the neurotoxic effects of hyperpyrexia on the brain include seizures, decreased cognitive speed, mental status changes, coma, and even death. In the clinical management of hyperpyrexia, the goal is to treat the underlying cause of elevated temperature and prevent end organ damage. CASE PRESENTATION: This case illustrates a 39-year-old white American man referred from another medical facility where he had undergone an upper gastrointestinal tract diagnostic procedure which became complicated by blood aspiration and respiratory distress...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188358/protective-effect-of-valproic-acid-in-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-possible-involvement-of-the-cholinergic-system
#12
Mirna Ezzat Sorial, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder that is the most common form of dementia. Cholinergic system dysfunction and amyloid beta formation are the two main underlying pathological mechanisms for the disease development. In recent studies, insulin receptor desensitization and disturbances in the downstream effects of insulin receptor signaling were observed in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Currently, intracereberoventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is found to induce behavioral, neurochemical, and structural alterations in animals resembling those found in SAD patients...
February 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185296/a-report-of-cerebral-malaria-treated-with-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange
#13
Waseem Q Anani, Gerald P Smith, Mehraboon Irani, Kathleen E Puca
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182597/surgical-treatment-for-subaxial-cervical-facet-dislocations-with-incomplete-or-without-neurological-deficit-a-prospective-study-of-52-cases
#14
Xingjie Jiang, Yu Yao, Mingchen Yu, Yong Cao, Huilin Yang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to treat patients with subaxial cervical facet dislocations with incomplete or without neurological deficit by a prospectively designed surgical protocol and observe the short-term clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty-two consecutive subaxial cervical dislocation patients with incomplete or without neurological deficit were enrolled. The surgical strategy was determined based on whether or not the initial anterior closed reduction was successful and whether or not the patients were simultaneously combined with traumatic disc herniation (TDH)...
February 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182332/challenging-the-great-vascular-wall-can-we-envision-a-simple-yet-comprehensive-therapy-for-stroke
#15
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Stroke is a leading cause of death in adult life, closely behind ischemic heart disease, and causes a significant and abiding socioeconomic burden. However, current therapies are not able to ensure full neurologic and/or sequelae-free recovery to all stroke survivors. We believe treatment efficacy and patient rehabilitation could be enhanced significantly by targeting blood-brain barrier (BBB) deregulation and inflammation-induced barrier loss occurring after stroke. In this pathological context, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) enter the bloodstream towards the lesion site but their insufficient numbers and impaired angiogenic ability compromise neurovascular regeneration...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166109/whether-to-proceed-with-deep-brain-stimulator-battery-change-in-a-patient-with-signs-of-potential-sepsis-and-parkinson-hyperpyrexia-syndrome-a-case-report
#16
Chyong-Jy Joyce Liu, Anica Crnkovic, John Dalfino, Leina Yoko Singh
Parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome (PHS) is a neurologic emergency associated with anti-Parkinson medication withdrawal; however, its clinical presentation mimics sepsis. We describe the case of a 69-year-old man with advanced Parkinson disease who presented for exchange of the depleted battery in his subthalamic deep brain stimulator. The patient's preoperative symptoms of fever, rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability presented a dilemma whether to proceed with battery exchange to treat PHS or postpone surgery due to potential sepsis...
February 3, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163115/jia-jian-di-huang-yin-zi-decoction-reduces-apoptosis-induced-by-both-mitochondrial-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-caspase12-pathways-in-the-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Jie Bao, Zhonghai Yu, Min Cai, Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Jia-Jian-Di-Huang-Yin-Zi decoction (JJDHYZ) has been used to treat the symptoms of neurological disorders with a long history. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects and possible mechanisms of JJDHYZ on a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced subacute mouse model of Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, MPTP, JJDHYZ low dosage (JJDHYZ-L, 8...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161683/the-therapeutic-contribution-of-nanomedicine-to-treat-neurodegenerative-diseases-via-neural-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
REVIEW
Dario Carradori, Joel Eyer, Patrick Saulnier, Véronique Préat, Anne des Rieux
The discovery of adult neurogenesis drastically changed the therapeutic approaches of central nervous system regenerative medicine. The stimulation of this physiologic process can increase memory and motor performances in patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Neural stem cells contribute to the neurogenesis process through their differentiation into specialized neuronal cells. In this review, we describe the most important methods developed to restore neurological functions via neural stem cell differentiation...
January 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161027/update-on-traumatic-acute-spinal-cord-injury-part-2
#19
M Mourelo Fariña, S Salvador de la Barrera, A Montoto Marqués, M E Ferreiro Velasco, R Galeiras Vázquez
The aim of treatment in acute traumatic spinal cord injury is to preserve residual neurologic function, avoid secondary injury, and restore spinal alignment and stability. In this second part of the review, we describe the management of spinal cord injury focusing on issues related to short-term respiratory management, where the preservation of diaphragmatic function is a priority, with prediction of the duration of mechanical ventilation and the need for tracheostomy. Surgical assessment of spinal injuries based on updated criteria is discussed, taking into account that although the type of intervention depends on the surgical team, nowadays treatment should afford early spinal decompression and stabilization...
February 1, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160121/destination-brain-the-past-present-and-future-of-therapeutic-gene-delivery
#20
REVIEW
Chaitanya R Joshi, Vinod Labhasetwar, Anuja Ghorpade
Neurological diseases and disorders (NDDs) present a significant societal burden and currently available drug- and biological-based therapeutic strategies have proven inadequate to alleviate it. Gene therapy is a suitable alternative to treat NDDs compared to conventional systems since it can be tailored to specifically alter select gene expression, reverse disease phenotype and restore normal function. The scope of gene therapy has broadened over the years with the advent of RNA interference and genome editing technologies...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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