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Restorative neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724340/pharmacological-therapeutics-in-friedreich-ataxia-the-present-state
#1
Cassandra Strawser, Kimberly Schadt, Lauren Hauser, Ashley McCormick, Mckenzie Wells, Jane Larkindale, Hong Lin, David R Lynch
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive, inherited, neurodegenerative disease for which there is currently no cure or approved treatment. FRDA is caused by deficits in the production and expression of frataxin, a protein found in the mitochondria that is most likely responsible for regulating iron-sulfur cluster enzymes within the cell. A decrease in frataxin causes dysfunction of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, accumulation of mitochondrial iron, and other events leading to downstream cellular dysfunction...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721821/current-perspectives-for-the-use-of-gonane-progesteronergic-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-central-hypoventilation-syndromes
#2
Camille Loiseau, Florence Cayetanot, Fanny Joubert, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Philippe Cardot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alain Frugiere, Christian Straus, Laurence Bodineau
BACKGROUND: Central alveolar hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) encompass neurorespiratory diseases resulting from congenital or acquired neurological disorders. Hypercapnia, acidosis, and hypoxemia resulting from CHS negatively affect physiological functions and can be life-threatening. To date, the absence of pharmacological treatment implies that the patients must receive assisted ventilation throughout their lives. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relevance of determining conditions in which using gonane synthetic progestins could be of potential clinical interest for the treatment of CHS...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713528/the-double-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-an-innovative-one-stage-surgical-technique-for-posterior-kyphosis-correction
#3
Marcus Jäger, Tjark Tassemeier
Posttraumatic deformities after vertebral fractures are challenging for orthopedic surgeons in the non-operative and operative field. Especially osteoporotic fractures may cause a hyperkyphosis resulting in segmental or global sagittal imbalance and chronic back pain. Different vertebral osteotomies are potent to restore sagittal profile but show a very high perioperative risk including neurological and soft tissue complications. In addition, some of these extensive operations require a two-step procedure including posterior and anterior approaches...
June 23, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#4
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708040/anterior-lumbar-discectomy-and-fusion-for-acute-cauda-equina-syndrome-caused-by-recurrent-disc-prolapse-report-of-3-cases
#5
Kimberly-Anne Tan, Mathew D Sewell, Yma Markmann, Andrew J Clarke, Oliver M Stokes, Daniel Chan
There is a lack of information and consensus regarding the optimal treatment for recurrent disc herniation previously treated by posterior discectomy, and no reports have described an anterior approach for recurrent disc herniation causing cauda equina syndrome (CES). Revision posterior decompression, irrespective of the presence of CES, has been reported to be associated with significantly higher rates of dural tears, hematomas, and iatrogenic nerve root damage. The authors describe treatment and outcomes in 3 consecutive cases of patients who underwent anterior lumbar discectomy and fusion (ALDF) for CES caused by recurrent disc herniations that had been previously treated with posterior discectomy...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707358/suppressed-oligodendrocyte-steroidogenesis-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-regulation-of-neuroinflammation
#6
Roobina Boghozian, Brienne A McKenzie, Leina B Saito, Ninad Mehta, William G Branton, JianQiang Lu, Glen B Baker, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neurosteroids are reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in several neurological disorders. We investigated the expression and actions of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and its more stable 3β-sulphated ester, DHEA-S, in MS and associated experimental models. CNS tissues from patients with MS and animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) displayed reduced DHEA concentrations, accompanied by diminished expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme CYP17A1 in oligodendrocytes (ODCs), in association with increased expression of inflammatory genes including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β...
July 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701544/modulation-of-corticospinal-input-to-the-legs-by-arm-and-leg-cycling-in-people-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Rui Zhou, Laura Alvarado, Seoyoung Kim, Su Ling Chong, Vivian K Mushahwar
The spinal cervico-lumbar interaction during rhythmic movements in humans has recently been studied; however, the role of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs is not well understood. The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of active rhythmic arm movements on the corticospinal drive to the legs (study 1); and assess the effect of simultaneous arm and leg training on the corticospinal pathway after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) (study 2). In study 1, neurologically intact (NI) participants or participants with iSCI performed combinations of stationary and rhythmic cycling of the arms and legs, while motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699506/natural-or-plant-products-for-the-treatment-of-neurological-disorders-current-knowledge
#8
Mohammad Khalid Parvez
In recent decades, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become very popular in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Natural products as one of the CAM modalities offer potential opportunities to discover lead compounds for novel drug development. The use of CAM or natural products in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is comparatively a newer area. Natural therapeutics with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory salutations evidently plays a crucial role in protecting neurons. Of these, the most promising are caffeine, trigonelline, shogaol, curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, wogonin, ginsenosides, tanshinones, withanolides, picrosides, parthenolide, cannabinoids, Devil's claw and white willow bark, including Chinese formulations Renshen Shouwu and Shengmai San...
July 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696288/inhibition-of-the-integrated-stress-response-reverses-cognitive-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Timothy Jopson, Ping Jun Zhu, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Peter Walter, Susanna Rosi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term neurological disability, yet the mechanisms underlying the chronic cognitive deficits associated with TBI remain unknown. Consequently, there are no effective treatments for patients suffering from the long-lasting symptoms of TBI. Here, we show that TBI persistently activates the integrated stress response (ISR), a universal intracellular signaling pathway that responds to a variety of cellular conditions and regulates protein translation via phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694593/experimental-study-on-pressure-response-to-graded-spinal-canal-compromise-in-an-in-vitro-burst-fracture-mode
#10
Jonathan Bourget-Murray, Mahdi Bassi, Ariana Frederick, Jerod Hines, Peter F Jarzem
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord compression is a known cause of spinal cord injury. The purpose of this study is to measure pressure response during graded spinal cord compression. This information will be important in evaluating the amount of canal compromise that can be tolerated before risking neurological injury secondary to cord compression. To date, there is no published study that has evaluated pressure response to graded canal compromise in the thoracic and lumbar spine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative biomechanical investigation using an in vitro burst fracture model of graded spinal canal compromise was performed...
April 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692648/zebrafish-slc30a10-deficiency-revealed-a-novel-compensatory-mechanism-of-atp2c1-in-maintaining-manganese-homeostasis
#11
Zhidan Xia, Jiayu Wei, Yingniang Li, Jia Wang, Wenwen Li, Kai Wang, Xiaoli Hong, Lu Zhao, Caiyong Chen, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
Recent studies found that mutations in the human SLC30A10 gene, which encodes a manganese (Mn) efflux transporter, are associated with hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis (HMDPC). However, the relationship between Mn metabolism and HMDPC is poorly understood, and no specific treatments are available for this disorder. Here, we generated two zebrafish slc30a10 mutant lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Compared to wild-type animals, mutant adult animals developed significantly higher systemic Mn levels, and Mn accumulated in the brain and liver of mutant embryos in response to exogenous Mn...
July 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685010/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-autophagic-neuronal-cell-death-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-in-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Lei Xie, Sifei Yu, Kai Yang, Changwei Li, Yu Liang
Autophagy is upregulated in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (SCIR) injury; however, its expression mechanism is largely unknown; moreover, whether autophagy plays a neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role in SCIR injury remains controversial. To explore these issues, we created an SCIR injury rat model via aortic arch occlusion. Compared with normal controls, autophagic cell death was upregulated in neurons after SCIR injury. We found that autophagy promoted neuronal cell death during SCIR, shown by a significant number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling- (TUNEL-) positive cells colabeled with the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and restored neurological and motor function...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682906/one-stage-surgical-treatment-of-cervical-spine-fracture-dislocation-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-via-the-combined-anterior-posterior-approach
#13
Axiang He, Dong Xie, Xiaomin Cai, Bo Qu, Qin Kong, Chenhui Xu, Lili Yang, Xiongsheng Chen, Lianshun Jia
The aim of the article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of 1-stage surgical therapy via combined anterior-posterior approach on cervical spine fracture in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).We retrospectively analyzed profiles of 12 AS patients with severe fracture-dislocation of cervical spine received 1-stage combined anterior-posterior surgery in our hospital from October, 2013, to October, 2015, including clinical characteristics, follow-up data, and imaging records. We compared the parameters before and after surgery on the basis of neurological function, bone fusion, Cobb angles of operation segment, Barthel index (BI) score, and incidence rate of complications...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679388/atm-splicing-variants-as-biomarkers-for-low-dose-dexamethasone-treatment-of-a-t
#14
Michele Menotta, Sara Biagiotti, Chiara Spapperi, Sara Orazi, Luigia Rossi, Luciana Chessa, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Daniela D'Agnano, Annarosa Soresina, Roberto Micheli, Mauro Magnani
BACKGROUND: Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) is a rare incurable genetic disease, caused by biallelic mutations in the Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) gene. Treatment with glucocorticoid analogues has been shown to improve the neurological symptoms that characterize this syndrome. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the glucocorticoid action in AT patients is not yet understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that Dexamethasone treatment may partly restore ATM activity in AT lymphoblastoid cells by a new ATM transcript, namely ATMdexa1...
July 5, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673612/central-and-systemic-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-are-both-reduced-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Zoe Woodward, Timothy C R Prickett, Eric A Espiner, Timothy J Anderson
INTRODUCTION: C-type Natriuretic Peptide is a neuropeptide widely expressed in the central nervous system including dopaminergic neurons projecting to basal ganglia. Previous work shows that concentrations of the peptide in cerebrospinal fluid are depressed in drug naïve PD subjects, decline over time and can be restored by doses of monoamine oxidase inhibitors that delay the need for levodopa. Whether plasma levels are similarly depressed in drug naïve subjects, or affected by dopaminergic drugs, is unknown...
June 27, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673417/neurologic-injuries-in-noncontact-sports
#16
REVIEW
Robert J Marquardt, Andrew Blake Buletko, Andrew Neil Russman
Noncontact sports are associated with a variety of neurologic injuries. Concussion, vascular injury (arterial dissection), and spinal cord trauma may be less common in noncontact sports, but require special attention from the sports neurologist. Complex regional pain disorders, muscle injury from repetitive use, dystonia, heat exposure, and vascular disorders (patent foramen ovale), occur with similar frequency in noncontact and contact sports. Management of athletes with these conditions requires an understanding of the neurologic consequences of these disorders, the risk of injury with return to play, and consideration for the benefits of exercise in health restoration and disease prevention...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671722/restoring-eeaqualibrium-rebalancing-excitation-and-inhibition-in-rett-mouse-model-neurons-with-early-endosome-antigen-1
#17
Kerry R Delaney
Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from loss of function of MECP2, an X-linked transcription factor, which controls expression of hundreds of genes involved in synapse formation and development by binding primarily to methylated DNA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669296/a-neurophysiological-approach-to-nerve-transfer-to-restore-upper-limb-function-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Ross M Mandeville, Justin M Brown, Geoffrey L Sheean
A successful nerve transfer surgery can provide a wealth of benefits to a patient with cervical spinal cord injury. The process of surgical decision making ideally uses all pertinent information to produce the best functional outcome. Reliance on clinical examination and imaging studies alone can miss valuable information on the state of spinal cord health. In this regard, neurophysiological evaluation has the potential to effectively gauge the neurological status of even select pools of anterior horn cells and their axons to small nerve branches in question to determine the potential efficacy of their use in a transfer...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669149/current-treatment-options-for-bilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis-a-state-of-the-art-review
#19
Yike Li, Gaelyn Garrett, David Zealear
Vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) refers to neurological causes of reduced or absent movement of one or both vocal folds. Bilateral BVFP is characterized by inspiratory dyspnea due to narrowing of the airway at the glottic level with both vocal folds assuming a paramedian position. The primary objective of intervention for BVFP is to relieve patients' dyspnea. Common clinical options for management include tracheostomy, arytenoidectomy and cordotomy. Other options that have been used with varying success include reinnervation techniques and botulinum toxin (Botox) injections into the vocal fold adductors...
July 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668949/naringin-reverses-neurobehavioral-and-biochemical-alterations-in-intracerebroventricular-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#20
Navdeep Singh, Yashika Bansal, Ranjana Bhandari, Lovish Marwaha, Raghunath Singh, Kanwaljit Chopra, Anurag Kuhad
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes to 10-15% of all strokes and is a high risk factor for morbidity and mortality as compared to other subtypes of stroke, that is, cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Oxidative stress (OS)-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death contribute towards the hallmarks of ICH. Spared antioxidant levels, increased inflammatory cytokines and free radicals in ICH lead to neuronal death and exaggerate the hallmarks of ICH. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) collagenase (COL-induced neuronal cell damage and cognitive deficits form a widely recognized experimental model for ICH...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacology
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