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Carmen Nacarino-Meneses, Xavier Jordana, Meike Köhler
The study of bone growth marks (BGMs) and other histological traits of bone tissue provides insights into the life history of present and past organisms. Important life history traits like longevity or age at maturity, which could be inferred from the analysis of these features, form the basis for estimations of demographic parameters that are essential in ecological and evolutionary studies of vertebrates. Here, we study the intraskeletal histological variability in an ontogenetic series of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in order to assess the suitability of several skeletal elements to reconstruct the life history strategy of the species...
2016: PeerJ
Zahra Polat, Erdoğan Bulut, Ahmet Ataş
BACKGROUND: Spoken word recognition and speech perception tests in quiet are being used as a routine in assessment of the benefit which children and adult cochlear implant users receive from their devices. Cochlear implant users generally demonstrate high level performances in these test materials as they are able to achieve high level speech perception ability in quiet situations. Although these test materials provide valuable information regarding Cochlear Implant (CI) users' performances in optimal listening conditions, they do not give realistic information regarding performances in adverse listening conditions, which is the case in the everyday environment...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Ivo Roca, Nuria Rivas, Jaume Francisco, Jordi Perez, Gabriel Acosta, Gerard Oristrell, Maria Terricabres, David Garcia-Dorado, Angel Moya
BACKGROUND: Ablation in aortic cusps could be necessary in up to 15% of the patients, especially in para-Hisian atrial tachycardia and ventricular arrhythmias arising from outflow tracts. Risk of coronary damage has led to recommendation of systematic coronary angiography (CA) during the procedure. Other image tests as intravascular (ICE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) have been proposed. Both methods have limitations: additional vascular access for ICE and needing for additional CA in some patients in case of TEE...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Nivan Weerakkody, Trevor Allen
The impact that muscle fatigue and taping have on proprioception in an applied sporting context remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate disturbances in position sense at the shoulder joint, and asses the effectiveness of adhesive tape in preventing injury and improving performance, after a bout of cricket fast bowling. Among amateur cricket players (N = 14), shoulder position sense, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force and bowling accuracy was assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing exercise bout of fast bowling...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Floriana Pinto, Gianni Biancofiore
BACKGROUND: The ABCDE (Awakening and Breathing coordination of daily sedation and ventilator removal trials; Choice of sedative or analgesic exposure; Delirium monitoring and management; and Early mobility and exercise) bundle is a multidisciplinary set of evidence-based practices for improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit. Nurses are critical to all the bundle's requirements. Therefore, understanding their knowledge, attitudes, and perception of the different bundle's components might help for an easier implementation into everyday clinical practice...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Jesus A Barea-Mendoza, Alba M Antequera, Maria N Plana, Mario Chico-Fernández, Alfonso Muriel, Ignacio Sáez, José M Estrada-Lorenzo, Juan Carlos Montejo-González
Fluid resuscitation is one of the most prevalent treatment in critical care. There is not definitive evidence about the best fluid for resuscitation. The aim of this review will be to asses the efficacy and safety of buffered solution versus saline. We will perform an electronic search in Medline, Embase, and Central. Studies will be eligible if they are clinical trials who including critical ill patients. Primary outcomes are mortality and renal failure. All findings will be tabulated and synthesized. We will perform a meta-analysis according to Cochrane Review standards...
October 4, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Fabianne Furtado, Bruno da Silva B Gonçalves, Isabela Lopes Laguardia Abranches, Ana Flávia Abrantes, Arturo Forner-Cordero
The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests...
2016: PloS One
Martina Scharitzer, Peter Pokieser, Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Ferdinand Otto, Olle Ekberg
PURPOSE: Clinical assessment of swallowing disorders (dysphagia) requires accurate and comprehensive medical history-taking to further tailor the diagnostic work-up, but functional health care questionnaires show a large variability and various limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the way in which international swallowing experts from various disciplines asses swallowing problems in order to improve the radiologist´s ability to take a thorough medical history in this specific patient group...
October 11, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Ilhem Rjeibi, Anouar Ben Saad, Najla Hfaiedh
OBJECTIVE: The liver plays a major role in detoxification and metabolism of toxic compound and xenobiotics like pesticides. Thereby, any type of modification in its function causes hepatotoxicity. So, the aim of this study was designed to assess the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract Amaranthus spinosus seed (ASS) on liver injury induced by deltamethrin (DLM), a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASS was subjected to different phytochemical analyses including total phenolic and flavonoid content...
October 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim, Ifran Saleh, M Fajrin Armin, Tri Kurniawati, Ahmad Yanuar Safri
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) had important role related to the complications in spinal surgery. Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP), Transcranial electric Muscle Evoked Potentials (tceMEPs), and free run EMG are parameters used to asses functional integrity of the nervous system during surgical procedures. Once warning signal was recognized, surgeon have to make a precise decision to overcome that problem. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a 47-year old male with back pain due to compression fracture of thoracic vertebra T12 and lumbar vertebrae L1...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jaime Galindo, Pedro Amariles, Héctor F Mueses-Marín, Jaime A Hincapié, Sebastián González-Avendaño, Ximena Galindo-Orrego
BACKGROUND: Generic drug policies are often associated with concerns about the quality and effectiveness of these products. Phase IV clinical trials may be a suitable design to assess the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness and the safety of the generic abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A monocentric, nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz were recruited from a program that provides comprehensive outpatient consultation and continuing care...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
P C Moharana, D R Biswas
This study aimed to asses maturity indices of rock phosphate enriched composts using crop residues having variable C/N ratios. There were distinct differences in concentration of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K for composts generated from different crop residues, the highest being in rice straw. Water soluble P varied from 3.47-4.45% of total P, while citrate soluble P varied from 32.7-54.0% of total P. Rice straw composts showed lower C/N, WSC/Org-N and E4/E6 ratio and higher germination index indicating that they are well-matured and stabilized compost...
September 28, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Tao Liu, Rainer H Müller, Jan P Möschwitzer
Nanosizing is frequently used as formulation approach to increase the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, standard size reduction processes can be relatively time-consuming. It was found that the modification of the physical properties of a starting material by means of spray-drying can be used to improve the effectiveness of a subsequently performed high pressure homogenization. Such a process belongs to the combinative particle size reduction methods and is also referred to as H 42 process...
September 30, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Anuj Chaudhry, Namhee Kim, Ginu Unnikrishnan, Sanjay Nair, J N Reddy, Raffaella Righetti
Ultrasound elastography is an imaging modality that has been used to diagnose tumors of the breast, thyroid, and prostate. Both axial strain elastography and axial shear strain elastography (ASSE) have shown significant potentials to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is a characteristic of many malignant tumors and a major barrier in targeted drug delivery therapies. This parameter, however, has not received significant attention in ultrasound elastography and, in general, in most diagnostic imaging modalities yet...
September 29, 2016: Ultrasonic Imaging
F M Helaly, S M El-Sawy, A I Hashem, A A Khattab, R M Mourad
PURPOSE: Nanosilver-silicone hydrogel (NAgSiH) composites for contact lenses were synthesized to asses the antimicrobial effects. METHODS: Silicone hydrogel (SiH) films were synthesized followed by impregnation in silver nitrate solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80ppm) and in-situ chemical reduction of silver ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The silver nano particles (AgNPS) were identified by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) mapping and EDX spectrum...
September 29, 2016: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Omar Valero-Monroy, Gabriel Garcia-Cervantes, Luis F Marquez-Corrales, Ana G Leija-Montoya, Jorge Sandoval-Basilio, Gustavo Martinez-Coronilla, Mario A Isiordia-Espinoza, Nicolas Serafin-Higuera
Periodontal disease can be initiated by a shift from a symbiotic to a dysbiotic microbial community. An increase in the recruitment of leukocytes and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and oxidative stress are generated by this shift. In periodontitis, an exacerbated, poorly specific and effective inflammatory response is mounted. Moreover, failure in the inflammation resolving mechanism leads to establishment of a chronic inflammatory process, resulting in the progressive destruction of bone and soft tissue...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Qi Meng, Riho Kitagawa, Miho Imamura, Hiroshi Katayama, Akio Obata, Etsuko Sugawara
The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Lisa Kabelitz, Andrea Nonn, Kay W Nolte, Omid Nikoubashman, Ahmed Othman, Sarah Heringer, Martin Kramer, Martin Wiesmann, Marc A Brockmann
Minipigs are frequently used in (neuro-)interventional research. Longitudinal experiments may require repeated vessel access via the femoral artery. Anticoagulation and incompliance of the animals necessitates the use of a vascular closure device (VCD). The effects of the Angio-Seal VCD in minipigs were longitudinally assessed. Minipig (42±8.4 kg body weight) femoral arteries were sealed using the 8F (n = 6) or 6F (n = 7) Angio-Seal VCD. The pre-interventional femoral artery diameter was 5.1±0.4 mm (4.3-5...
2016: PloS One
Lucie Bielská, Ivana Hovorková, Jan Kuta, Jiří Machát, Jakub Hofman
Artificial soil (AS) is used in soil ecotoxicology as a test medium or reference matrix. AS is prepared according to standard OECD/ISO protocols and components of local sources are usually used by laboratories. This may result in significant inter-laboratory variations in AS properties and, consequently, in the fate and bioavailability of tested chemicals. In order to reveal the extent and sources of variations, the batch equilibrium method was applied to measure the sorption of 2 model compounds (phenanthrene and cadmium) to 21 artificial soils from different laboratories...
September 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ryan Morgan, Douglas F Kauffman, Gerard Doherty, Teviah Sachs
BACKGROUND: General surgery residents' (GSRs') operative experience likely improves with increased involvement. We explored GSRs and attending surgeons' (ASs') perceptions of GSRs' operative roles. METHODS: GSRs and ASs completed surveys postoperatively regarding responsibility for several operative tasks (incision opening, dissection of minor and major structures, major suturing, and incision closure). Analyses used chi-square test (P < .05) and Spearman's rank correlation (ρ)...
August 16, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
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