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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728821/the-kinetics-and-the-permeation-properties-of-piezo-channels
#1
R Gnanasambandam, P A Gottlieb, F Sachs
Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728819/regulation-of-piezo-channels-by-cellular-signaling-pathways
#2
I Borbiro, T Rohacs
The recently identified mechanically activated Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels play major roles in various aspects of mechanosensation in mammals, and their mutations are associated with human diseases. Recent reports show that activation of cell surface receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gq proteins increase the sensitivity of Piezo2 channels to mechanical stimuli. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway was also shown to potentiate Piezo2 channel activity. This phenomenon may play a role in mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia during inflammation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728817/piezo2-in-cutaneous-and-proprioceptive-mechanotransduction-in-vertebrates
#4
E O Anderson, E R Schneider, S N Bagriantsev
Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719577/physical-limits-to-biomechanical-sensing-in-disordered-fibre-networks
#5
Farzan Beroz, Louise M Jawerth, Stefan Münster, David A Weitz, Chase P Broedersz, Ned S Wingreen
Cells actively probe and respond to the stiffness of their surroundings. Since mechanosensory cells in connective tissue are surrounded by a disordered network of biopolymers, their in vivo mechanical environment can be extremely heterogeneous. Here we investigate how this heterogeneity impacts mechanosensing by modelling the cell as an idealized local stiffness sensor inside a disordered fibre network. For all types of networks we study, including experimentally-imaged collagen and fibrin architectures, we find that measurements applied at different points yield a strikingly broad range of local stiffnesses, spanning roughly two decades...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717163/titin-mediated-thick-filament-activation-through-a-mechanosensing-mechanism-introduces-sarcomere-length-dependencies-in-mathematical-models-of-rat-trabecula-and-whole-ventricle
#6
Lorenzo Marcucci, Takumi Washio, Toshio Yanagida
Recent experimental evidence in skeletal muscle demonstrated the existence of a thick-filament mechanosensing mechanism, acting as a second regulatory system for muscle contraction, in addition to calcium-mediated thin filament regulation. These two systems cooperate to generate force, but the extent to which their interaction is relevant in physiologically contracting muscle was not yet assessed experimentally. Therefore, we included both regulatory mechanisms in a mathematical model of rat trabecula and whole ventricle...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716465/fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-mechanosensitivity-to-fluid-shear-is-modulated-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#7
Eben G Estell, Lance A Murphy, Amy M Silverstein, Andrea R Tan, Roshan P Shah, Gerard A Ateshian, Clark T Hung
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) reside in the synovial membrane of diarthrodial joints and are exposed to a dynamic fluid environment that presents both physical and chemical stimuli. The ability of FLS to sense and respond to these stimuli plays a key role in their normal function, and is implicated in the alterations to function that occur in osteoarthritis (OA). The present work characterizes the response of FLS to fluid flow-induced shear stress via real-time calcium imaging, and tests the hypothesis that this response is modulated by interleukin-1α (IL-1α), a cytokine elevated in OA...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715714/actomyosin-contractility-and-collective-migration-may-the-force-be-with-you
#8
REVIEW
Pahini Pandya, Jose L Orgaz, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
Collective cell migration is essential during physiological processes such as development or wound healing and in pathological conditions such as cancer dissemination. Cells migrating within multicellular tissues experiment different forces which play an intricate role during tissue formation, development and maintenance. How cells are able to respond to these forces depends largely on how they interact with the extracellular matrix. In this review, we focus on mechanics and mechanotransduction in collective migration...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708445/evaluation-of-yap-signaling-in-a-rat-tympanic-membrane-under-a-continuous-negative-pressure-load-and-in-human-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#9
Naotaro Akiyama, Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Mamoru Yoshikawa, Hiromi Kojima
OBJECTIVES: Mechanotransduction plays an important role in cell-proliferative activities. Negative pressure in the middle ear is thought to be an important factor related to the etiology of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma. However, the correlation between negative pressure in the middle ear and the mechanism of middle ear cholesteatoma formation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of key molecules for mechanotransduction immunohistochemically. METHODS: An immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-Wnt5a (a marker of alternative Wnt signaling), -Yes-associated protein (YAP) (a marker of mechanosensing) and -pYAP (phosphorylated YAP at Ser 127: inactivated YAP) antibody in the tympanic membrane (TM) under a negative pressure load and in human middle ear cholesteatoma tissues...
July 14, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705989/emergent-cellular-self-organization-and-mechanosensation-initiate-follicle-pattern-in-the-avian-skin
#10
Amy E Shyer, Alan R Rodrigues, Grant G Schroeder, Elena Kassianidou, Sanjay Kumar, Richard M Harland
The spacing of hair in mammals and feathers in birds is one of the most apparent morphological features of the skin. This pattern arises when uniform fields of progenitor cells diversify their molecular fate while adopting higher-order structure. Using the nascent skin of the developing chicken embryo as a model system, we find that morphological and molecular symmetries are simultaneously broken by an emergent process of cellular self-organization. The key initiators of heterogeneity are dermal progenitors, which spontaneously aggregate through contractility-driven cellular pulling...
July 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698526/altered-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-mechanosensation-in-the-failing-heart-focus-on-intracellular-calcium-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Aderville Cabassi, Michele Miragoli
The heart consists of millions of cells, namely cardiomyocytes, which are highly organized in terms of structure and function, at both macroscale and microscale levels. Such meticulous organization is imperative for assuring the physiological pump-function of the heart. One of the key players for the electrical and mechanical synchronization and contraction is the calcium ion via the well-known calcium-induced calcium release process. In cardiovascular diseases, the structural organization is lost, resulting in morphological, electrical, and metabolic remodeling owing the imbalance of the calcium handling and promoting heart failure and arrhythmias...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698382/phosphatidylserine-dictates-the-assembly-and-dynamics-of-caveolae-in-the-plasma-membrane
#12
Takashi Hirama, Raibatak Das, Yanbo Yang, Charles Ferguson, Amy Won, Christopher M Yip, Jason G Kay, Sergio Grinstein, Robert G Parton, Gregory D Fairn
Caveolae are bulb-shaped nanodomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. They have many physiological functions, including endocytic transport, mechanosensing, and regulation of membrane and lipid transport. Caveola formation relies on integral membrane proteins termed caveolins (CAVs) and the cavin family of peripheral proteins. Both protein families bind anionic phospholipids, but the precise roles of these lipids are unknown. Here, we studied the effects of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) on caveolar formation and dynamics...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688729/cellular-mechanosensing-of-the-biophysical-microenvironment-a-review-of-mathematical-models-of-biophysical-regulation-of-cell-responses
#13
REVIEW
Bo Cheng, Min Lin, Guoyou Huang, Yuhui Li, Baohua Ji, Guy M Genin, Vikram S Deshpande, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
Cells in vivo reside within complex microenvironments composed of both biochemical and biophysical cues. The dynamic feedback between cells and their microenvironments hinges upon biophysical cues that regulate critical cellular behaviors. Understanding this regulation from sensing to reaction to feedback is therefore critical, and a large effort is afoot to identify and mathematically model the fundamental mechanobiological mechanisms underlying this regulation. This review provides a critical perspective on recent progress in mathematical models for the responses of cells to the biophysical cues in their microenvironments, including dynamic strain, osmotic shock, fluid shear stress, mechanical force, matrix rigidity, porosity, and matrix shape...
June 21, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684609/single-and-collective-cell-migration-the-mechanics-of-adhesions
#14
Chiara De Pascalis, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Chemical and physical properties of the environment control cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis in the long term. However, to be able to move and migrate through a complex three-dimensional environment, cells must quickly adapt in the short term to the physical properties of their surroundings. Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) occur through focal adhesions or hemidesmosomes via the engagement of integrins with fibrillar ECM proteins. Cells also interact with their neighbors, and this involves various types of intercellular adhesive structures such as tight junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions, and desmosomes...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676425/functional-proteomics-of-cellular-mechanosensing-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Anita A Wasik, Herbert B Schiller
Mechanosensing enables cells to coordinate their phenotype with the mechanical properties of their tissue microenvironment. In this process, cells probe their surroundings by applying contractile forces, which produces different amounts of mechanical strain within the cells as a function of the stiffness of their extracellular substrates. Tension within cells can then affect the structure and composition of most cellular organelles, including cell adhesions, the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane and the nucleus...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673990/correction-for-rodesney-et-al-mechanosensing-of-shear-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-leads-to-increased-levels-of-the-cyclic-di-gmp-signal-initiating-biofilm-development
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660945/automated-and-controlled-mechanical-stimulation-and-functional-imaging-in-vivo-in-c-elegans
#17
Yongmin Cho, Daniel A Porto, Hyundoo Hwang, Laura J Grundy, William R Schafer, Hang Lu
C. elegans is a useful genetic model system for investigating mechanisms involved in sensory behavior which are potentially relevant to human diseases. While utilities of advanced techniques such as microfluidics have accelerated some areas of C. elegans sensory biology such as chemosensation, studies of mechanosensation conventionally require immobilization by glue and manual delivery of stimuli, leading to low experimental throughput and high variability. Here we present a microfluidic platform that precisely and robustly delivers a wide range of mechanical stimuli and can also be used in conjunction with functional imaging and optical interrogation techniques...
July 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658579/connecting-protein-conformation-and-dynamics-with-ligand-receptor-binding-using-three-color-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-tracking
#18
Mark Kastantin, David Faulón Marruecos, Navdeep Grover, Sean Yu McLoughlin, Daniel K Schwartz, Joel L Kaar
Specific binding between biomolecules, i.e., molecular recognition, controls virtually all biological processes including the interactions between cells and biointerfaces, both natural and synthetic. Such binding often relies on the conformation of biomacromolecules, which can be highly heterogeneous and sensitive to environmental perturbations, and therefore difficult to characterize and control. An approach is demonstrated here that directly connects the binding kinetics and stability of the protein receptor integrin αvβ3 to the conformation of the ligand fibronectin (FN), which are believed to control cellular mechanosensing...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658211/electron-cryo-microscopy-structure-of-the-mechanotransduction-channel-nompc
#19
Peng Jin, David Bulkley, Yanmeng Guo, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Walter Huynh, Shenping Wu, Shan Meltzer, Tong Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan, Yifan Cheng
Mechanosensory transduction for senses such as proprioception, touch, balance, acceleration, hearing and pain relies on mechanotransduction channels, which convert mechanical stimuli into electrical signals in specialized sensory cells. How force gates mechanotransduction channels is a central question in the field, for which there are two major models. One is the membrane-tension model: force applied to the membrane generates a change in membrane tension that is sufficient to gate the channel, as in the bacterial MscL channel and certain eukaryotic potassium channels...
June 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652603/skeletal-dysplasia-mutations-effect-on-human-filamins-structure-and-mechanosensing
#20
Jonne Seppälä, Rafael C Bernardi, Tatu J K Haataja, Maarit Hellman, Olli T Pentikäinen, Klaus Schulten, Perttu Permi, Jari Ylänne, Ulla Pentikäinen
Cells' ability to sense mechanical cues in their environment is crucial for fundamental cellular processes, leading defects in mechanosensing to be linked to many diseases. The actin cross-linking protein Filamin has an important role in the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals. Here, we reveal how mutations in Filamin genes known to cause Larsen syndrome and Frontometaphyseal dysplasia can affect the structure and therefore function of Filamin domains 16 and 17. Employing X-ray crystallography, the structure of these domains was first solved for the human Filamin B...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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