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Sex differences, antidepressant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921741/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-c-reactive-protein-level-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-before-and-after-pharmacotherapy
#1
A Adhikari, R Dikshit, S Karia, S Sonavane, N Shah, A De Sousa
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level are useful biomarkers of inflammation. This study aimed to assess NLR and CRP level in patients with major depressive disorder before and after pharmacotherapy to determine whether NLR or CRP could be used as biomarkers of severity of major depression and whether there was any sex difference. METHODOLOGY: Patients with major depression who received no pharmacotherapy 1 month prior to the study were included...
June 2018: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920978/effects-of-intrinsic-factors-on-the-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-vortioxetine
#2
Grace Chen, George G Nomikos, John Affinito, William Jacobson, Zhen Zhao, Shining Wang, Jinhui Xie
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant agent with multimodal activity that is approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder at doses of 5 to 20 mg once daily. Vortioxetine is a medium-clearance drug that undergoes extensive metabolism via several cytochrome P450 isozymes. A series of single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic studies were performed to evaluate the impact of intrinsic (ie, subject-related) factors, such as age, sex, race, and renal and hepatic function, on the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920564/fall-risk-increasing-drugs-and-falls-requiring-health-care-among-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-in-comparison-with-the-general-population-a-register-study
#3
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström, Patrik Midlöv
BACKGROUND: Falls are the most common cause of injury for older people in the general population as well as among those with intellectual disability. There are many risk factors for falls, including a range of drugs which are considered to be fall-risk-increasing (FRIDs). The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns of FRIDs in itself as well as in relation to falls requiring health care among older people with intellectual disability and their age-peers in the general population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912848/identify-abnormalities-in-resting-state-brain-function-between-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder-and-remitted-individuals-a-3-year-retrospective-study
#4
Chunxia Yang, Aixia Zhang, Aixiang Jia, Jack X Ma, Ning Sun, Yanfang Wang, Xinrong Li, Zhifen Liu, Sha Liu, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
This study aims to identify and characterize neurobiological markers for major depressive disorder (MDD) from resting-state brain functional MRI. We examined the abnormality in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder (fMDD), and remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and correlated these fluctuations with clinical markers of MDD. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the medical records of 43 patients with fMDD...
June 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908483/sex-differences-in-nicotine-dependency-and-depressive-tendency-among-smokers
#5
Maki Komiyama, Hajime Yamakage, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Yuka Ozaki, Tatsuya Morimoto, Akira Shimatsu, Yuko Takahashi, Koji Hasegawa
Depressive tendency and nicotine dependency are factors related to the failure of smoking cessation. Women generally have a higher depressive tendency and difficulty in smoking cessation than men. However, the impact of sex differences on the relationship between nicotine dependency and depressive tendency remains unclear. We evaluated 727 patients (496 men and 231 women) who visited our outpatient clinic for smoking cessation therapy and compared various parameters measured between sexes during consultation...
June 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893929/no-sex-specific-differences-in-the-acute-antidepressant-actions-of-r-ketamine-in-an-inflammation-model
#6
Lijia Chang, Hidetoh Toki, Youge Qu, Yuko Fujita, Akiko Mizuno-Yasuhira, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
Background: Although previous reports suggest sex-specific differences in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine, these differences in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, are unknown. Methods: Saline or (R)-ketamine was administered 23 hours post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to adult male or female mice. Subsequently, antidepressant effects were assessed using a forced swimming test (FST). Furthermore, the concentration of (R)-ketamine and its two major metabolites, (R)-norketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), was measured in the plasma and brain after the administration of (R)-ketamine in the mice...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859882/the-impact-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-search-for-novel-antidepressants
#7
REVIEW
Alexia V Williams, Brian C Trainor
A roadblock to successful treatment for anxiety and depression is the high proportion of individuals that do not respond to existing treatments. Different underlying neurobiological mechanisms may drive similar symptoms, so a more personalized approach to treatment could be more successful. There is increasing evidence that sex is an important biological variable modulating efficacy of antidepressants and anxiolytics. We review evidence for sex-specific effects of traditional monoamine based antidepressants and newer pharmaceuticals targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR), oxytocin receptors (OTR), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (ketamine)...
May 31, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847488/predictors-of-inadequate-bowel-preparation-for-colonoscopy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Sultan Mahmood, Samid M Farooqui, Mohammad F Madhoun
The aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to poor bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy procedures. We used a reproducible search strategy to identify studies, searching 10 medical databases, including PubMed, Ovid, Medline, and Cochrane Library Database for reports published between 2000 and 2016. Fully published studies, evaluating risk factors for inadequate bowel preparation, were included. Two reviewers independently scored the identified studies for methodology and abstracted pertinent data...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803894/impact-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-a-focus-on-short-and-long-term-vascular-effects
#9
REVIEW
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
May 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797618/constitutive-plasma-membrane-monoamine-transporter-pmat-slc29a4-deficiency-subtly-affects-anxiety-like-and-coping-behaviors
#10
T Lee Gilman, Christina M George, Melissa Vitela, Myrna Herrera-Rosales, Mohamed S Basiouny, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws
Originally, uptake-mediated termination of monoamine (e.g., serotonin, dopamine) signaling was believed to only occur via high-affinity, low-capacity, transporters ("uptake1 ″) such as the serotonin or dopamine transporters, respectively. Now the important contribution of a second low-affinity, high-capacity, class of biogenic amine transporters has been recognized, particularly in circumstances when uptake1 transporter function is reduced (e.g., antidepressant treatment). Pharmacologic or genetic reductions in uptake1 function can change locomotor, anxiety-like, or stress coping behaviors...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745454/effects-of-short-term-clomipramine-on-anxiety-like-behavior-cellular-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-in-primary-fibroblast-cells-of-male-and-female-rats
#11
Ana G Jimenez, Joshua D Winward, Dana M Smith, Christina M Ragan
Anxiety is the most prevalent mental disorder among adults in the United States and females tend to have significantly higher rates of anxiety compared with men. Common treatments for anxiety include usage of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants, however, sex differences in the efficacy of these drugs exist. In this study, we were interested in determining if acutely manipulating serotonin mechanisms at the whole-animal level affects cellular metabolism and oxidative stress in primary fibroblast cells from clomipramine-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695151/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-reduces-hypnotic-prescriptions
#12
Kyung Mee Park, Tae Ho Kim, Woo Jung Kim, Suk Kyoon An, Kee Namkoong, Eun Lee
Objective: This study determined whether cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) decreased the need for sleep medications and produced better treatment outcomes than pharmacotherapy alone. Methods: We reviewed data from patients with insomnia in the outpatient clinic of a general hospital between 2009 and 2015. We compared 41 patients who received five sessions of CBT-i with 100 age- and sex-matched patients who received pharmacotherapy only. We evaluated the change in prescription for sleep (i...
April 27, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675596/post-finasteride-syndrome-and-post-ssri-sexual-dysfunction-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#13
REVIEW
Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Giancarlo Panzica, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Sexual dysfunction is a clinical condition due to different causes including the iatrogenic origin. For instance, it is well known that sexual dysfunction may occur in patients treated with antidepressants like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). A similar side effect has been also reported during treatment with finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase, for androgenetic alopecia. Interestingly, sexual dysfunction persists in both cases after drug discontinuation. These conditions have been named post-SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD) and post-finasteride syndrome (PFS)...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621659/suicide-deaths-by-intentional-self-poisoning-in-people-with-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Michael Hawkins, Ayal Schaffer, Mark Sinyor, Yasunori Nishikawa, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Rima Styra, Maurizio Pompili, Jeffrey Huffman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize self-poisoning deaths in people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and compare to other suicide decedent groups. METHODS: Suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people with CVD (n = 151) were compared to suicide deaths by other methods in people with CVD (n = 260) and suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people without CVD (n = 509). Sub-analysis of the CVD self-poisoning group compared people with depression and without depression...
May 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621538/ketamine-and-ketamine-metabolites-as-novel-estrogen-receptor-ligands-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-and-ampa-glutamate-receptor-gene-expression
#15
Ming-Fen Ho, Cristina Correia, James N Ingle, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Liewei Wang, Scott H Kaufmann, Richard M Weinshilboum
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric illness worldwide, and it displays a striking sex-dependent difference in incidence, with two thirds of MDD patients being women. Ketamine treatment can produce rapid antidepressant effects in MDD patients, effects that are mediated-at least partially-through glutamatergic neurotransmission. Two active metabolites of ketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) and (2S,6S)-HNK, also appear to play a key role in ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects through the activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors...
June 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595539/repeated-forced-swimming-test-in-intact-female-rats-behaviour-oestrous-cycle-and-enriched-environment
#16
Karolina Domingues, Inaê Spezia, Lais C Theindl, Patrick R Suman, Fernanda B Lima, Cilene Lino de Oliveira
Psychopharmacology used animal models to study the effects of drugs on brain and behaviour. The repeated forced-swimming test (rFST), which is used to assess the gradual effects of antidepressants on rat behaviour, was standardized only in males. Because of the known sex differences in rats, experimental conditions standardized for males may not apply to female rats. Therefore, the present work aimed to standardize experimental and housing conditions for the rFST in female rats. Young or adult Wistar female rats were housed in standard or enriched environments for different experimental periods...
March 27, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579632/maternal-exercise-increases-but-concurrent-maternal-fluoxetine-prevents-the-increase-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-of-adult-offspring
#17
Aarthi R Gobinath, Sarah Wong, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E Lieblich, Alasdair M Barr, Liisa A M Galea
Treating postpartum depression (PPD) with pharmacological antidepressants like fluoxetine (FLX) is complicated because these drugs can remain active in breast milk and potentially affect infant development. Alternatively, non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise are associated with beneficial effects on infant development but its potential ability to counter the effects of PPD are largely unknown. To investigate this, we treated dams with corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle (sesame oil) from postpartum days 2-25 to model PPD...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546385/the-effect-of-profession-on-burnout-in-hospital-staff
#18
M M Marques, E Alves, C Queirós, P Norton, A Henriques
Background: A high level of burnout has been described in health professionals. However, literature regarding other hospital employees is scarce. Aims: To assess the prevalence of burnout in different professional groups of hospital staff and how the professional category is associated with levels of burnout. Methods: Employees of a University Hospital in Portugal completed a self-administered online questionnaire in 2014-2015. We used the Portuguese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and scored three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) as low, average or high...
May 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522940/secular-trends-in-excess-mortality-of-late-life-depression
#19
Hans W Jeuring, Hannie C Comijs, Dorly J H Deeg, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Aartjan T F Beekman, Max L Stek, Martijn Huisman
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression is associated with premature mortality, however, little is known whether excess mortality rates of depression have changed over time. This study aims to identify and explain secular trends in excess mortality of major depressive disorder (MDD) and subthreshold depression (SUBD). METHODS: Cohort-sequential-longitudinal study of 4084 community-dwelling older adults in the Netherlands based on data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)...
July 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489077/inflammation-and-improvement-of-depression-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#20
Jennifer L Kruse, Eliza Congdon, Richard Olmstead, Stephanie Njau, Elizabeth C Breen, Katherine L Narr, Randall Espinoza, Michael R Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most robust acute treatment for severe major depressive disorder, yet clinical response is variable. Inflammation is associated with depression, especially in women, and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 predict response to antidepressant medications. This study evaluated whether markers of inflammation predicted response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with treatment-resistant depression and to what extent this association differed between men and women...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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