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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099458/gender-differences-in-factors-related-to-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-north-east-india
#1
Bushra Sabri, Allison M McFall, Sunil S Solomon, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Canjeevaram K Vasudevan, Santhanam Anand, David D Celentano, Shruti H Mehta, Suresh Kumar, Gregory M Lucas
People who inject drugs (PWID) in India are at high risk for HIV, with women being at elevated risk. Using a socio-ecological framework, this study assessed whether factors associated with HIV transmission risk behaviors differed across men and women PWID. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 6449 PWID in 7 cities in Northeast India. Men (n = 5653) and women (n = 796) PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We assessed sex differences in two recent HIV transmission risk behaviors: multiple sex partners and needle/syringe sharing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088551/individual-and-sex-differences-in-high-and-low-responder-phenotypes
#2
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#3
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056616/adolescents-transitioning-to-high-school
#4
Susan G Williams, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Cory Wornell, Heather Finnegan
Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042661/associations-between-early-maternal-depressive-symptom-trajectories-and-toddlers-felt-security-at-18-months-are-boys-and-girls-at-differential-risk
#5
Marjorie Beeghly, Ty Partridge, Ed Tronick, Maria Muzik, Mahya Rahimian Mashhadi, Jordan L Boeve, Jessica L Irwin
The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there are sex differences in children's vulnerability to caregiving risk, as indexed by trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms assessed from 2 to 18 months' postpartum, and children's rated attachment security in toddlerhood, adjusting for maternal social support and demographic risk. Analyses utilized longitudinal data collected for 182 African American mother-child dyads from economically diverse backgrounds. Participants were recruited at the time of the child's birth and followed to 18 months' postpartum...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025364/-managing-the-placebo-effect-the-single-blind-placebo-lead-in-response-in-two-pain-models
#6
R Norman Harden, Meryem Saracoglu, Sara Connolly, Amy Kirsling, Kelly Comstock, Katherine Khazey, Trevor Gerson, John Burns
OBJECTIVE: "Placebo effects" in analgesic medication trials for chronic pain are pervasive; however, little is known regarding mechanisms or factors that may influence the presence or magnitude of these effects. Our objective is to consider elements of the placebo response in the context of two pain models using a "single-blind placebo lead-in" design (SBPLI). METHODS: As part of two pilot drug trials using knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and non-radicular low back pain (LBP) subjects, SBPLI protocols were conducted...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025041/effect-of-lps-treatment-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-parkinson-like-behaviors
#7
Olivier Girard-Joyal, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment...
December 24, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009630/sex-differences-in-the-efficacy-of-psychological-therapies-for-the-management-of-chronic-and-recurrent-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Katelynn E Boerner, Christopher Eccleston, Christine T Chambers, Edmund Keogh
Sex differences in chronic pain are reported to emerge during adolescence, although it is unclear if this includes responses to treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether sex differences were present on outcome variables at pre-treatment, and whether the efficacy of psychological therapies for pediatric chronic pain differs between boys and girls at post-treatment and follow-up time points. Searches were conducted, extending two existing Cochrane reviews of randomized-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychological therapies for chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents...
December 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004244/gender-differences-after-lumbar-sequestrectomy-a-prospective-clinical-trial-using-quantitative-sensory-testing
#9
Anja Tschugg, Wolfgang N Löscher, Sara Lener, Matthias Wildauer, Sebastian Hartmann, Sabrina Neururer, Claudius Thomé
BACKGROUND: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) gained popularity to evaluate the time course of recovery in sensory dysfunction and the results of different treatment options. Concerning sex differences in lumbar spine surgery, female gender seems to play a major role as a negative prognostic factor in different spinal disorders. For this purpose, we hypothesised that there are also comparable differences in pain patterns in men and women after lumbar sequestrectomy using QST. METHODS: We applied the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain in 53 patients (21 women and 32 men) with a single lumbar disc herniation confirmed on MRI treated by a lumbar sequestrectomy...
December 21, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998005/sex-differences-in-ischaemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-depends-on-the-degradation-of-noradrenaline-by-monoamine-oxidase
#10
Ryosuke Tanaka, Maki Yazawa, Yuri Morikawa, Hidenobu Tsutsui, Mamoru Ohkita, Tokihito Yukimura, Yasuo Matsumura
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading killer of both sexes; however, resistance to this injury is higher among women than men. We found that renal venous noradrenaline (NAd) overflow after reperfusion played important roles in the development of ischaemic AKI, and that the attenuation of AKI observed in female rats may be dependent on depressing the renal sympathetic nervous system with endogenous oestrogen. In the present study, we used male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate whether sex differences in the pathogenesis of ischaemic AKI are related to the degradation of NAd by monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the kidney...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986237/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-depressive-symptoms-and-risk-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Erin E Sundermann, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between depressive symptoms and subsequent cognitive impairment in older adults is controversial. Sex differences and the differences in the method of categorizing depressive symptoms may contribute to the inconsistencies. The authors examined the effect of severity of baseline depressive symptoms on risk of incident amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) separately in men and women. METHODS: Community-dwelling and cognitively healthy older adults (aged ≥ 70 years) from the Einstein Aging Study completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) at their baseline visit...
January 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984491/sex-differences-in-the-efficacy-of-psychological-therapies-for-the-management-of-chronic-and-recurrent-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Katelynn E Boerner, Christopher Eccleston, Christine T Chambers, Edmund Keogh
Sex differences in chronic pain are reported to emerge during adolescence, although it is unclear if this includes responses to treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether sex differences were present on outcome variables at pre-treatment, and whether the efficacy of psychological therapies for pediatric chronic pain differs between boys and girls at post-treatment and follow-up time points. Searches were conducted, extending two existing Cochrane reviews of randomized-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychological therapies for chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents...
December 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981183/sex-differences-in-sleep-anhedonia-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-social-defeat
#13
Gayle G Page, Mark R Opp, Sharon L Kozachik
Repeated bouts of a major stressor such as social defeat are well known to induce a depression phenotype in male rats. Despite strong evidence and acknowledgement that women have a two-fold lifetime greater risk of developing major depression compared to men, the inclusion of female rats in studies employing social defeat are very rare; their absence is attributed to less aggressive interactions. This study sought to compare in male and female rats the impact of repeated social defeat, three times per week for four weeks, on the development of changes in sleep architecture and continuity, sucrose preference as a measure of anhedonia, changes in body weight, and basal plasma corticosterone levels...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956753/the-serotonin-transporter-promoter-variant-stress-and-attentional-biases-in-middle-childhood
#14
Yuliya Kotelnikova, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah V M Mackrell, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Jutta Joormann, Ian H Gotlib, Elizabeth P Hayden
Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. This association was qualified by an interaction with stress in one sample, such that links between the S allele and decreased positive attentional bias was significant only when life stress was elevated...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955897/orexins-mediate-sex-differences-in-the-stress-response-and-in-cognitive-flexibility
#15
Laura A Grafe, Amanda Cornfeld, Sandra Luz, Rita Valentino, Seema Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Women are twice as likely as men to experience stress-related psychiatric disorders. The biological basis of these sex differences is poorly understood. Orexins are altered in anxious and depressed patients. Using a rat model of repeated stress, we examined whether orexins contribute to sex differences in outcomes relevant to stress-related psychiatric diseases. METHODS: Behavioral, neural, and endocrine habituation to repeated restraint stress and subsequent cognitive flexibility was examined in adult male and female rats...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940386/could-panss-be-a-useful-tool-in-the-determining-of-the-stages-of-schizophrenia-a-clinically-operational-approach
#16
Elena Dragioti, Tobias Wiklund, Melina Siamouli, Katerina Moutou, Konstantinos N Fountoulakis
Staging in schizophrenia might be an important approach for the better treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The purpose of this study was to empirically devise a staging approach in a sample of stabilized patients with schizophrenia. One hundred and seventy patients aged ≥18 years (mean = 40.7, SD = 11.6) diagnosed by DSM-5 criteria were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used. The model was examined in the total sample and separately across a hypothesized stage of illness based on three age groups and between the two sexes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922568/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-depressive-symptoms-and-actigraphic-assessments-of-sleep-and-rest-activity-rhythms-in-a-population-based-sample
#17
Kaitlin Hanley White, Meredith E Rumble, Ruth M Benca
OBJECTIVE: Depression is often associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms. We aimed to confirm these relationships via actigraphic assessment in a large, population-based sample, and test whether sex moderates these relationships. METHODS: 418 participants (age 35-85, mean 57.04, SD = 11.47) completed questionnaires and one week of actigraphy, used to calculate sleep and rest-activity statistics including mesor (mean activity level), amplitude (height of rhythm), and acrophase (time of day that rhythm peaks)...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901518/life-events-substance-use-psychological-distress-and-quality-of-life-in-male-and-female-french-gamblers
#18
Ce Line Bonnaire, Vivianne Kovess, Romain Guignard, Jean-Baptiste Richard, Enguerrand Du-Roscoat, Franc Ois Beck
BACKGROUND: Most studies on substance use, psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), and life events among gamblers are carried out on pathological gamblers seeking treatment, and sex differences are rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the potential male-female differences in the relationship between these variables in a nationally representative French sample. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-two problem gamblers (PGs) and 25,314 non-problem gamblers or non-gamblers (NPGs) were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, substance use, QoL, and life events...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900526/the-prospective-associations-between-self-efficacy-and-depressive-symptoms-from-early-to-middle-adolescence-a-cross-lagged-model
#19
Yuli R Tak, Steven M Brunwasser, Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Rutger C M E Engels
Over the course of adolescence, an increasing number of adolescents experience depression. In order to effectively target depression, identifying risk factors for depressive symptoms is pivotal. Since low levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in previous studies, the current study investigated the bidirectional and prospective associations between depressive symptoms and academic, social and emotional self-efficacy from early to mid adolescence in a cross-lagged path model...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898709/individual-differences-in-emotion-regulation-childhood-trauma-and-proneness-to-shame-and-guilt-in-adolescence
#20
Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years...
2016: PloS One
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