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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938156/removal-of-intra-and-extracellular-microcystin-by-submerged-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-combined-with-coagulation-flocculation-and-powdered-activated-carbon-pac-adsorption
#1
Ayşe Büşra Şengül, Gamze Ersan, Neşe Tüfekçi
In this study, we investigated the performance of conventional (coagulation/flocculation→powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) and advanced treatment (coagulation/flocculation→PAC adsorption→submerged ultrafiltration [UF] membrane) processes separately and sequentially for the removal of total (intra- and extracellular) microcystin. Results of the conventional treatment process demonstrated that coagulation/flocculation alone was not effective (up to 70%) for the removal of total microcystin, while the uptake of total microcystin was achieved up to 84% by PAC adsorption (PAC dose of 20mg/L)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937880/detection-of-free-microcystins-in-the-liver-and-muscle-of-freshwater-fish-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Xiaobin Hu, Jinyun Ye, Rongfei Zhang, Xiang Wu, Yixiang Zhang, Chenglong Wu
MC analysis of biological tissue is considered to be very difficult due to the lack of validated methods. This is the primary limiting factor for monitoring potential risks in both the flesh of aquatic organisms and the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, an effective method to determine free MCs (MC-LR and MC-RR) in the muscle and liver tissues of freshwater cultured fish was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The extraction solvent, time of extraction, eluent and purification of the extract were optimized...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934643/combined-effects-of-microcystin-and-nitrite-on-the-growth-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-responses-of-the-freshwater-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#3
Ye Liang, Xinglan Chen, Xuxin Lu, Sichen Jin, Yuanqi Min, Jiaxin Yang
Toxicants released during the degradation of cyanobacterial blooms, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nitrite (NO2-N), affect the growth of aquatic organisms. The freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of MC-LR (0, 10, 50, 100, and 200μgL(-1)) and NO2-N (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8mgL(-1)) to assess the combined effects of MC-LR and NO2-N on life cycle parameters and oxidative stress. Single solutions of MC-LR 200μgL(-1) and NO2-N 8mgL(-1) were toxic to rotifers...
September 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919690/subchronic-toxicity-of-nile-tilapia-with-different-exposure-routes-to-microcystis-aeruginosa-histopathology-liver-functions-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#4
H M R Abdel-Latif, A M Abou Khashaba
BACKGROUND: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs]) have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. AIM: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899665/toxin-composition-of-the-2016-microcystis-aeruginosa-bloom-in-the-st-lucie-estuary-florida
#5
Stuart Oehrle, Marliette Rodriguez-Matos, Michael Cartamil, Cristian Zavala, Kathleen S Rein
A bloom of the cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa occurred in the St. Lucie Estuary during the summer of 2016, stimulated by the release of waters from Lake Okeechobee. This cyanobacterium produces the microcystins, a suite of heptapeptide hepatotoxins. The toxin composition of the bloom was analyzed and was compared to an archived bloom sample from 2005. Microcystin-LR was the most abundant toxin with lesser amounts of microcystin variants. Nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a were not detected.
September 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895936/rapid-and-highly-sensitive-non-competitive-immunoassay-for-specific-detection-of-nodularin
#6
Sultana Akter, Markus Vehniäinen, Harri T Kankaanpää, Urpo Lamminmäki
Nodularin (NOD) is a cyclic penta-peptide hepatotoxin mainly produced by Nodularia spumigena, reported from the brackish water bodies of various parts of the world. It can accumulate in the food chain and, for safety reasons, levels of NOD not only in water bodies but also in food matrices are of interest. Here, we report on a non-competitive immunoassay for the specific detection of NOD. A phage display technique was utilized to interrogate a synthetic antibody phage library for binders recognizing NOD bound to an anti-ADDA (3-Amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4(E),6(E)-dienoic acid) monoclonal antibody (Mab)...
September 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893598/microcystins-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-studies-toward-pp1-and-pp2a
#7
REVIEW
Miriam Fontanillo, Maja Köhn
Microcystins are highly toxic cyanotoxins responsible for plant, animal and human poisoning. Exposure to microcystins, mainly through drinkable water and contaminated food, is a current world health concern. Although it is quite challenging, the synthesis of these potent cyanotoxins, analogs and derivatives helps to evaluate their toxicological properties and to elucidate their binding mechanisms to their main targets Protein Phosphatase-1 (PP1) and -2A (PP2A). This review focuses on synthetic approaches to prepare microcystins and analogs and compiles structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies that describe the unique features of microcystins that make them so potent...
August 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889015/functional-characterization-of-a-reactive-oxygen-species-modulator-1-gene-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#8
Hong-Hui He, Yi-Miao Chi, Kai Yuan, Xiao-Yun Li, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) imparts a dual effect on multicellular organisms, wherein high levels are usually harmful, and low levels could facilitate in combating pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the regulation of ROS production is critical. Previous studies have suggested that ROS contributes to resistance to the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei. However, the regulation of ROS metabolism in L. vannamei remains elusive. In the present study, we proved that the overexpression of L...
September 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888125/interactive-effects-of-microcystin-and-ammonia-on-the-reproductive-performance-and-phenotypic-traits-of-the-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#9
Ye Liang, Xuxin Lu, Yuanqi Min, Lulu Liu, Jiaxin Yang
Elevated microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations co-occur during the degradation of Microcystis blooms, and are toxic to aquatic organisms. The freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, was exposed to mixtures of MC-LR (0, 10, 30, and 100µgL(-1)) and NH3-N (0, 270, and 540µgL(-1)) to assess the combined effects of the two toxicants on reproductive performance and phenotype traits. Single solutions of MC-LR (100µgL(-1)) and NH3-N (540µgL(-1)) had negative effects on rotifer reproductive timing and fecundity...
September 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875357/combined-effects-of-temperature-and-the-microcystin-mc-lr-on-the-feeding-behavior-of-the-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#10
Xian-Ling Xiang, Ying-Ying Chen, Qiu-Lei Xu, Ling-Yun Zhu, Xin-Li Wen, Yi-Long Xi
The aim of this study was to investigate the responses in filtration and grazing rates of five rotifer strains of the species Brachionus calyciflorus under different temperatures and MC-LR concentrations. The results showed that strain identity, MC-LR concentration, temperature, and the interactions of these factors significantly affected both response variables, with the exception of the interaction of strain and MC-LR on the grazing rates. At low MC-LR concentrations and for the control group, the filtration and grazing rates increased with increasing temperature...
September 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874710/effects-of-toxic-microcystis-aeruginosa-on-the-silver-carp-hypophthalmichtys-molitrix-revealed-by-hepatic-rna-seq-and-mirna-seq
#11
Menghong Hu, Xiancheng Qu, Lisha Pan, Chunxue Fu, Peixuan Jia, Qigen Liu, Youji Wang
High-throughput sequencing was applied to analyze the effects of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa on the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Silver carps were exposed to two cyanobacteria species (toxic and non-toxic) for RNA-seq and miRNA-seq analysis. RNA-seq revealed that the liver tissue contained 105,379 unigenes. Of these genes, 143 were significantly differentiated, 82 were markedly up-regulated, and 61 were remarkably down-regulated. GO term enrichment analysis indicated that 35 of the 154 enriched GO terms were significantly enriched...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873456/molecular-prediction-of-lytic-vs-lysogenic-states-for-microcystis-phage-metatranscriptomic-evidence-of-lysogeny-during-large-bloom-events
#12
Joshua M A Stough, Xiangming Tang, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Morgan M Steffen, Guang Gao, Gregory L Boyer, Steven W Wilhelm
Microcystis aeruginosa is a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium capable of producing the potent hepatotoxin, microcystin. Despite increased interest in this organism, little is known about the viruses that infect it and drive nutrient mobilization and transfer of genetic material between organisms. The genomic complement of sequenced phage suggests these viruses are capable of integrating into the host genome, though this activity has not been observed in the laboratory. While analyzing RNA-sequence data obtained from Microcystis blooms in Lake Tai (Taihu, China), we observed that a series of lysogeny-associated genes were highly expressed when genes involved in lytic infection were down-regulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869578/benthic-archives-reveal-recurrence-and-dominance-of-toxigenic-cyanobacteria-in-a-eutrophic-lake-over-the-last-220-years
#13
Benjamin Legrand, Amélie Lamarque, Marion Sabart, Delphine Latour
Akinetes are resistant cells which have the ability to persist in sediment for several decades. We have investigated the temporal distribution of akinetes of two species, Dolichospermum macrosporum and Dolichospermum flos-aquae, in a sediment core sampled in Lake Aydat (France), which covers 220 years. The upper part, from 1907 to 2016, the number of akinetes fluctuated but stayed at high concentrations, especially for D. macrosporum in surface sediment (with the maximal value close to 6.10⁵ akinetes g DW(-1) of sediment), suggesting a recurrence of blooms of this species which was probably closely related to anthropic eutrophication since the 1960s...
September 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866755/effect-of-microcystins-on-proto-and-metazooplankton-is-more-evident-in-artificial-than-in-natural-waterbodies
#14
J Kosiba, W Krztoń, E Wilk-Woźniak
The increasing proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms prolongs the impact of cyanobacteria on aquatic fauna, potentially altering trophic relationships. We hypothesized that any effect of dissolved microcystins (toxins produced by cyanobacteria) on plankton assemblages would be more evident in artificial reservoirs and ponds than in natural ones. The concentrations of dissolved microcystins in the waters we studied ranged widely from 0.07 to 0.81 μg/L. We showed that the artificial ponds were subjected to more frequent and longer-lasting harmful algal blooms...
September 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866331/microcystin-lr-exposure-induces-oxidative-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-protective-effect-of-lutein-extracted-from-marigold-flowers
#15
Paula Rossini Augusti, Allana Von Sulzback Brasil, Caroline Souto, Gabriela Göethel, Alessandro de Oliveira Rios, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise Escobar Bürger, Solange Cristina Garcia
Microcystin-LR (MIC-LR) is a hepatotoxin, with toxicity mechanisms linked to oxidative stress. Besides, neurotoxic effects of MIC-LR have recently been described. Herein, we evaluated the effects of environmentally important concentrations of MIC-LR (1, 10, 100, 250, and 500 μg/L) on oxidative stress markers and the survival rate of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In addition, a possible protective effect of the carotenoid lutein (LUT) extracted from marigold flowers against MIC-LR toxicity was investigated...
August 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860036/effect-of-chlorination-by-products-on-the-quantitation-of-microcystins-in-finished-drinking-water
#16
Laura Rosenblum, Alan Zaffiro, William A Adams, Steven C Wendelken
Microcystins are toxic peptides that can be produced by cyanobacteria in harmful algal blooms (HABs). Various analytical techniques have been developed to quantify microcystins in drinking water, including liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and oxidative cleavage to produce 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) with detection by LC/MS/MS, the "MMPB method". Both the ELISA and MMPB methods quantify microcystins by detecting a portion of the molecule common to most microcystins...
August 30, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858213/recreational-exposure-during-algal-bloom-in-carrasco-beach-uruguay-a-liver-failure-case-report
#17
Flavia Vidal, Daniela Sedan, Daniel D'Agostino, María Lorena Cavalieri, Eduardo Mullen, María Macarena Parot Varela, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Dario Andrinolo
In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child's case, who was admitted to hospital in Uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. The patient had increased serum levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin and five days later presented acute liver failure...
August 31, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846860/biometric-and-physiological-responses-of-egeria-densa-planch-cultivated-with-toxic-and-non-toxic-strains-of-microcystis
#18
Cihelio A Amorim, Cláudia Ulisses, Ariadne Nascimento Moura
Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming increasingly common in aquatic environments around the world, mainly due to eutrophication and climate change. Cyanotoxin-producing strains (e.g., microcystins (MC) producers) may be present in these blooms, affecting the growth of other aquatic organisms, such as aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we evaluated the morphometric and physiological responses of the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa to the exposure to a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (MCs producer) and a non-toxic Microcystis panniformis (non-MC producer)...
August 25, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842006/microcystin-lr-label-free-immunosensor-based-on-exfoliated-graphite-nanoplatelets-and-silver-nanoparticles
#19
Nicole Zanato, Lucas Talamini, Tânia Regina Silva, Iolanda Cruz Vieira
This paper describes a simple, rapid and accurate label-free immunosensor for the determination of MC-LR in water samples. The anti-MC-LR was immobilized in a hybrid nanocomposite, comprised of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets dispersed in a suspension of silver nanoparticles (AgNP-Nafion-xGnP), by adsorption. The nanomaterial obtained was then employed to prepare an immunosensor using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in one-step. Under optimized conditions, using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and an incubation time of 10min, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between the oxidation current and MC-LR concentration in the range of 0...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837927/parental-transfer-of-microcystin-lr-induced-transgenerational-effects-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish-offspring
#20
Qin Wu, Wei Yan, Houcheng Cheng, Chunsheng Liu, Tien-Chieh Hung, Xiaochun Guo, Guangyu Li
Microcystin-LR (MCLR) has been reported to cause developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish, but there are few studies on the mechanisms of MCLR-induced transgenerational effects of developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L MCLR for 60 days. The F1 zebrafish embryos from the above-mentioned parents were collected and incubated in clean water for 120 h for hatching. After examining the parental zebrafish and F1 embryos, MCLR was detected in the gonad of adults and F1 embryos, indicating MCLR could potentially be transferred from parents to offspring...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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