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Kun Zhang, Yanbin Zhao
Transcriptomic approaches monitoring gene responses at genome-scale are increasingly used in toxicological research and help to clarify the molecular mechanisms of adverse effects caused by environmental toxicants. However, their applications for chemical assessment are hampered due to high expenses required and more importantly the lack of in-depth data mining and mechanistic perspectives. Here, we described a Reduced Transcriptome Atlas (RTA) approach which integrates transcriptomic datasets and a comprehensive panel of genes generated to represent neurogenesis and the early neuronal development of zebrafish, to determine the potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of environmental chemicals...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Timothy J Tse, Lorne E Doig, Song Tang, Xiaohui Zhang, Weimin Sun, Steve B Wiseman, Cindy Xin Feng, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy, Markus Hecker, Paul D Jones
Freshwaters worldwide are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic activities and changing climate. Unfortunately, many inland waters lack sufficient long-term monitoring to assess environmental trends. Analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is emerging as a means to reconstruct the past occurrence of microbial communities of inland waters. The purpose of this study was to assess a combination of high-throughput sequencing (16S rRNA) of sedaDNA and traditional palaeolimnological analyses to explore multidecadal relationships among cyanobacterial community composition, the potential for cyanotoxin production and palaeoenvironmental proxies...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Qiong Zhang, Wendi Qin, Liuyan Yang, Jing An, Xuxiang Zhang, Hao Hong, Lizhi Xu, Yaping Wang
Epidemiological data from Lake Taihu showed significantly higher incidences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in other areas of China. This may be related to the occurrence of a Microcystis bloom in Lake Taihu in the summer and autumn every year. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the contaminated water from the Microcystis bloom and the derivative pollutant microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can explain the higher incidences of T2DM. Healthy male mice were fed with water from different regions of Lake Taihu, and were either acutely or chronically exposed to MC-LR through oral administration or intraperitoneal injection...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Sainan Sun, Yanan Chen, Yujin Lin, Dong An
The long-term low concentrations of trace "contaminants of emerging concern" (CECs) can have potential toxic effects on human health and serious risks to the ecological environment. This study investigated the occurrence, spatial distributions, and seasonal variations of 65 target CECs, including 35 pesticides, 17 antibiotics, 7 microcystins, 5 estrogens, and 1 plasticizers in Shanghai's source water. The detected pesticides and antibiotics of sulfonamides and macrolides were relatively ubiquitous in source water of Shanghai, with levels decreasing in the following order: pesticides (average (avg...
May 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qing Cao, Alan D Steinman, Xiang Wan, Liqiang Xie
Microcystins and copper commonly co-exist in the natural environment, but their combined toxicity remains unclear, especially in terrestrial plants. The present study investigated the toxicity effects of microcystin-LR (0, 5, 50, 500, 1000 μg L-1 ) and copper (0, 50, 500, 1000, 2000 μg L-1 ), both individually and in mixture, on the germination, growth and oxidative response of lettuce. The bioaccumulation of microcystin-LR and copper was also evaluated. Results showed that the decrease in lettuce germination induced by copper alone was not significantly different from that induced by the mixture, and the combined toxicity assessment showed a simple additive effect...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Naiyu Wang, Can Wang
The release of cyanobacterial toxins during algal bloom has adverse effects on aquatic plants and animals. This study aimed to understand the toxic effects and mechanism of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the seedling growth and physiological responses of Iris pseudacorus L. (calamus). After a one-month exposure experiment, the growth and development of the calamus leaves were significantly inhibited, and this inhibitory effect was verified to be concentration dependent. Furthermore, the cell membrane system was damaged, and the photosynthesis was also adversely affected by MC-LR...
April 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Keith Bouma-Gregson, Raphael M Kudela, Mary E Power
Benthic algae fuel summer food webs in many sunlit rivers, and are hotspots for primary and secondary production and biogeochemical cycling. Concerningly, riverine benthic algal assemblages can become dominated by toxic cyanobacteria, threatening water quality and public health. In the Eel River in Northern California, over a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin poisonings since 2000. During the summers of 2013-2015, we documented spatial and temporal patterns of cyanotoxin concentrations in the watershed, showing widespread distribution of anatoxin-a in benthic cyanobacterial mats...
2018: PloS One
Jie Hou, Yujing Su, Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Li Li, Donald M Anderson, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang, Wei Chi, Xi Zhang
Waterborne microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been reported to disrupt sex hormones, while its estrogenic potency remains controversial. We hypothesized that MC-LR could induce estrogenic effects via disrupting sex hormone synthesis, and verified this hypothesis by in vitro and in vivo assays. Effects of MC-LR (1, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 μg/L) on steroidogenesis were assessed in the H295R cells after 48 h. The contents of 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) increased in a non-dose-dependent manner, which showed positive correlations with the expression of steroidogenic genes...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Andreja Kust, Petra Urajová, Pavel Hrouzek, Dai Long Vu, Kateřina Čapková, Lenka Štenclová, Klára Řeháková, Eliška Kozlíková-Zapomělová, Olga Lepšová-Skácelová, Alena Lukešová, Jan Mareš
Benthic cyanobacteria recognized as producers of natural products, including cyanotoxins, have been neglected for systematic toxicological studies. Thus, we have performed a broad study investigating cyanotoxin potential of 311 non-planktic nostocacean representatives combining molecular and chemical analyses. Out of these, a single strain Nostoc sp. Treb K1/5, was identified as a new microcystin producer. Microcystins [Asp3 ]MC-YR, [Asp3 ]MC-FR, [Asp3 ]MC-HtyR and Ala-Leu/Ile-Asp-Arg-Adda-Glu-Mdha are reported for the first time from the genus Nostoc...
May 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Zhen Yang, Riley P Buley, Edna G Fernandez-Figueroa, Mario U G Barros, Soorya Rajendran, Alan E Wilson
Controlling blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton, including cyanobacteria, is a high priority for managers of aquatic systems that are used for drinking water, recreation, and aquaculture production. Although a variety of treatment approaches exist, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has the potential to be an effective and ecofriendly algaecide given that this compound may select against cyanobacteria while not producing harmful residues. To broadly evaluate the effectiveness of H2 O2 on toxigenic phytoplankton, we tested multiple concentrations of H2 O2 on (1) four cyanobacterial cultures, including filamentous Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Planktothrix, and unicellular Microcystis, in a 5-day laboratory experiment and (2) a dense cyanobacterial bloom in a 7-day field experiment conducted in a nutrient-rich aquaculture pond...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keke Zhang, Huiying Ma, Ping Yan, Wenjun Tong, Xiaohua Huang, David D Y Chen
This work reveals the deleterious effect of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the conformation of DNA and develops an electrochemical biosensor for detection of MC-LR. The biosensor is prepared by physically immobilizing calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) on gold electrode. In the presence of MC-LR, the conformation change of immobilized ctDNA decreases the electron transfer impedance, thus enhances the amperometric response. The proposed method shows a linear range of 4-512 ng/L and a detection limit of 1.4 ng/L, which is 700-fold lower than the guideline level suggested by the World Health Organization...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Amit Kumar Sinha, Michael A Eggleton, Rebecca T Lochmann
Cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins are growing issues for many aquatic resources, and pose a major threat to human health and ecological welfare. To control cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins, the efficacy of a newly developed granular compound (sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate 'SCP', trade name 'PAK® 27' algaecide) containing hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) as the active ingredient was investigated. First, the dose efficacy of the SCP that corresponded to 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0 and 8...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Jin, Daping Hao, Shuhua Chen, Hangzhou Xu, Wenrong Hu, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li, Haiyan Pei
This study aimed to explore the application potential of an eco-friendly waste-shrimp shell in Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) control-for the first time. Four treatments with different doses (0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/L) were built to investigate the effects of shrimp shell on the growth, cell viability, physiological changes, and microcystins (MCs) release of M. aeruginosa cells. The water quality after shrimp shell treatment was also detected. Results showed that the growth of M. aeruginosa was effectively inhibited by shrimp shell, and the inhibition rates were dose-dependent within 7 days...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xun Wang, Ping Xiang, Yaqing Zhang, Yihui Wan, Huilan Lian
Electrooxidation is used to study the inhibition behavior of Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant algae species during water blooms mainly caused by non-point source pollution. The inhibitory effect of current density, A/V ratio, initial algae concentration, and algae growth phase on the growth of algae by electrochemical oxidation was investigated, respectively. Further, the effect of electrolysis on the photosynthesis of algae cells and the degradation of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in solution were also studied...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Mark T Aubel
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lower levels. Microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) were also tested and found to be concomitant, with NOD-R confirmed present by LC-MS/MS.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lucas J Beversdorf, Kayla Rude, Chelsea A Weirich, Sarah L Bartlett, Mary Seaman, Christine Kozik, Peter Biese, Timothy Gosz, Michael Suha, Christopher Stempa, Christopher Shaw, Curtis Hedman, Joseph J Piatt, Todd R Miller
Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are becoming increasingly problematic in regions that rely on surface waters for drinking water production. Microcystins (MCs) are toxic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera with a global occurrence. Cyanobacteria also produce a variety of other toxic and/or otherwise bioactive peptides (TBPs) that have gained less attention including cyanopeptolins (Cpts), anabaenopeptins (Apts), and microginins (Mgn). In this study, we compared temporal and spatial trends of four MCs (MCLR, MCRR, MCYR, MCLA), three Cpts (Cpt1020, Cpt1041, Cpt1007), two Apts (AptF, AptB), and Mgn690 in raw drinking water and at six surface water locations above these drinking water intakes in a eutrophic lake...
April 16, 2018: Water Research
Fei Qiao, Kun Lei, Xuemei Han, Zhanliang Wei, Xingru Zhao, Lihui An, Gerald A LeBlanc
The preliminary investigation at shoreline along Taihu lake with different degrees of eutrophication status found no significant relationship between the microcystin-LR concentrations and the freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa fecundity or the abundance of wild freshwater snails. To further confirm the impact of eutrophication on the reproductive ability of snails, ecological mesocosm experiments were employed at four sites in Taihu lake during the algal blooming period, and no significant relationship was also found between MC-LR concentrations and snail fecundity...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xiaofen Wang, Lizhi Xu, Xinxiu Li, Jingwen Chen, Wei Zhou, Jiapeng Sun, Yaping Wang
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most abundant toxicant among microcystin variants produced by cyanobacteria. MC-induced toxicity is broadly reported to pose a threat to aquatic animals and humans and has been associated with the dysfunction of some organs such as liver and kidney. However, MC-induced neurotoxicity has not been well characterized after long-term exposure. This study was designed to investigate the neurotoxic effects after chronic oral administration of MC-LR. In our trial, C57/BL6 mice received MC-LR at 0, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/L in drinking water for twelve months...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qing Cao, Alan D Steinman, Xiang Wan, Liqiang Xie
A 120-day field study was carried out near Lake Taihu to evaluate the bioaccumulation of microcystin (MC) congeners in a soil-plant system, as well as to assess human health risk when consuming edible plants irrigated with MCs-contaminated water. Natural cyanobacteria bloom-containing lake water (lake water) and half-diluted natural cyanobacteria bloom-containing lake water with tap water (half-lake water) were used to irrigate lettuce and rice. An additional treatment involving fertilization with a cyanobacteria bloom was applied just to the lettuce experiment...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mathias A Chia, Jennifer G Jankowiak, Benjamin J Kramer, Jennifer A Goleski, I-Shuo Huang, Paul V Zimba, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Christopher J Gobler
Microcystis and Anabaena (Dolichospermum) are among the most toxic cyanobacterial genera and often succeed each other during harmful algal blooms. The role allelopathy plays in the succession of these genera is not fully understood. The allelopathic interactions of six strains of Microcystis and Anabaena under different nutrient conditions in co-culture and in culture-filtrate experiments were investigated. Microcystis strains significantly reduced the growth of Anabaena strains in mixed cultures with direct cell-to-cell contact and high nutrient levels...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
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