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Jun Hou, Zijun Yang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Yangyang Yang, Xun Wang
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Tanfloc on Microcystis aeruginosa cell integrity, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and proteins during flocculation and floc storage. The effects of Tanfloc addition, stirring, and floc storage time were considered to minimize cell damage and the release of MC-LR and proteins. Optimal flocculation conditions (Tanfloc dosage 10.42 mg L-1, rapid agitation for 0.36 min at 568.88 rpm and slow agitation for 14.14 min at 12.1 rpm) were obtained using the response surface methodology...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chongxin Xu, Ying Yang, Liwen Liu, Jianhong Li, Xiaoqin Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Xianjin Liu
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a type of biotoxin that pollutes the ecological environment and food. The study aimed to obtain new nanobodies from phage nanobody library for determination of MC-LR. The toxin was conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, then the conjugates were used as coated antigens for enrichment (coated MC-LR-KLH) and screening (coated MC-LR-BSA) of MC-LR phage nanobodies from an alpaca phage display nanobody library. The antigen-specific phage particles were enriched effectively with four rounds of biopanning...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jia Wang, Zunwei Chen, Hui Chen, Yuezhong Wen
Cyanobacterial bloom has been rising as a worldwide issue owing to its adverse effects to water quality and ecological health. To solve this problem, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been considered as a potential algaecide because no by-products are generated after treatment and because it kills cyanobacteria selectively. In addition, cytochromes P450 (CYPs) was reported to be related with H2O2, but the roles of CYPs in the regulation of H2O2 in cyanobacteria have yet to be investigated. In this study, the CYPs suicide inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) was added to the representative cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa (M...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hongmin Li, Haiyan Pei, Hangzhou Xu, Yan Jin, Jiongming Sun
Owing to the global warming and its strong adaptability, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has spread world-wide. However, as one of toxic cyanobacteria in many drinking water sources, it has not been drawn proper consideration in drinking water treatment plants so far. The investigation aimed at unveiling the fate of C. raciborskii during polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulation and sludge storage, revealing its differences from Microcystis aeruginosa. Results showed that C. raciborskii cells were effectively removed intactly under optimum coagulation conditions, but PAFC at higher dosages (>10 mg/L) triggered additional cylindrospermopsins release...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Alison O'Neill, Lewis Coates, Adam Lewis, Katy Lewis
Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater bodies in England are currently monitored reactively, with samples containing more than 20,000 cells/mL of potentially toxin-producing species by light microscopy resulting in action by the water body owner. Whilst significantly reducing the risk of microcystin exposure, there is little data describing the levels of these toxins present in cyanobacterial blooms. This study focused on the quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples, collected across England during 2016 and found to contain potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria...
January 11, 2018: Toxins
Fei Shen, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Algal blooms threaten human health and aquatic ecosystem through the production of microcystins (MCs) by toxic strains. The accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs) in water affects the growth and physiological activities of algae. However, whether or how REEs affect cellular microcystins (MCs) is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of lanthanum ion [La(III)], a type of REE, on the MCs in Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated, and the mechanism of the effect was analyzed using ecological stoichiometry...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jie Xu, Yanxia Zhao, Baoyu Gao, Songlin Han, Qian Zhao, Xiaoli Liu
Cyanobacterial bloom causes the release of algal organic matter (AOM), which inevitably affects the treatment processes of natural organic matter (NOM). This study works on treating micro-polluted surface water (SW) by emerging coagulant, namely titanium sulfate (Ti(SO4)2), followed by Low Pressure Ultrafiltration (LPUF) technology. In particular, we explored the respective influence of extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) on synergetic EOM-NOM/IOM-NOM removal, functional mechanisms and subsequent filtration performance...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Fei Yang, Isaac Yaw Massey, Jian Guo, Shu Yang, Yuepu Pu, Weiming Zeng, Hongzhuan Tan
Microcystins (MC) produced by species of cyanobacteria including Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon are a group of monocyclic hepatotoxins posing serious threat to public health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and frequently encountered microcystin variant in the environment, and thus removal of this toxin using bacteria was shown to be a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective method that avoids utilization of chemicals that may produce potentially harmful by-products. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel indigenous bacterial community designated YFMCD1 was effective in destroying MC...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Qiang He, Li Kang, Xingfu Sun, Ruxue Jia, Ying Zhang, Jiangsen Ma, Hong Li, Hainan Ai
Microcystins (MCs) pose potential threat for both aquatic organisms and humans, whereas their occurrence in response to hydrodynamic alterations are not clearly understood. Here, spatiotemporal variations of dissolved MC-RR and MC-LR were evaluated monthly in 2016 in the Yulin River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The environmental factors that linked to MCs concentration were discussed. The results revealed that MC-RR maximumly reached 3.55 μg/L, and the maximum MC-LR concentration exceeded the threshold value of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xin Wang, Xuejiang Wang, Jianfu Zhao, Jingke Song, Chenliang Su, Zhongchang Wang
Microcystis aeruginosa, as the most common cyanobacteria, often grows uncontrollably in eutrophic lakes with the accumulation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water, which heavily pollutes water and hence imposes tremendous threat to aquatic animals and human beings. To remediate the harmful algae polluted water, here we synthesize a series of poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) modified TiO2 floating photocatalysts, PDDA@NPT-EGC, and apply them as a visible light driven multifunctional material. The fabricated PDDA@NPT-EGC composites have a worm-like structure with PDDA particles distributed on their surfaces, and the concentration of PDDA can affect the agglomerative condition and distribution of PDDA particles and the photoelectric properties of catalysts...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
María Ángeles Lezcano, Antonio Quesada, Rehab El-Shehawy
Massive proliferations of cyanobacteria coexist and have different interactions with other microorganisms, including microcystin (MC)-degrading bacteria. Despite their relevance in the environment for the removal of MCs, this bacterial community has been scarcely studied. The influence of physicochemical factors and the seasonal dynamics of toxic cyanobacteria on the relative abundance and seasonal dynamics of the MC-degrading bacterial community with mlr genes (mlr+) were investigated during a two-year study at a water reservoir in central Spain...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
Juliana Dos Santos Severiano, Viviane Lúcia Dos Santos Almeida-Melo, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Mathias Ahii Chia, Ariadne do Nascimento Moura
Zooplankton are important biocontrol agents for algal blooms in temperate lakes, while their potential in tropical and subtropical environments is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increased zooplankton biomass on phytoplankton community and cyanotoxins (microcystins and saxitoxin) content of a tropical reservoir (Ipojuca reservoir, Brazil) using in situ mesocosms. Mesocosms consisted of 50L transparent polyethylene bags suspended in the reservoir for twelve days...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
Eun-Hee Lee, Beelee Chua, Ahjeong Son
We have demonstrated the detection of cyanobacteria in eutrophic water samples using a portable electrocoagulator and NanoGene assay. The electrocoagulator is designed to pre-concentrate cyanobacteria from water samples prior to analysis via NanoGene assay. Using Microcystis aeruginosa laboratory culture and environmental samples (cell densities ranging from 1.7 × 105 to 4.1 × 106 and 6.5 × 103 to 6.6 × 107 cells·mL-1, respectively), the electrocoagulator was evaluated and compared with a conventional centrifuge...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jinchuan Liu, Xiaohong Zhou, Hanchang Shi
Monitoring and controlling of toxic cyanobacterial strains, which can produce microcystins, is critical to protect human and ecological health. We herein reported an optical biosensor-based quantification of microcystin synthetase A (mcyA) gene so as to discriminate microcystins-producing from non-producing strains. In this assay, the mcyA-specific ssDNA probes were designed in silico with an online tool and then synthesized to be covalently immobilized on an optical fiber surface. Production of fluorescently modified target DNA fragment amplicons was accomplished through the use of Cy5-tagged deoxycytidine triphosphates (dCTPs) in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which resulted in copies with internally labelled multiple sites per DNA molecule and delivered the great sensitivity...
January 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lixia Shang, Muhua Feng, Xiangen Xu, Feifei Liu, Fan Ke, Wenchao Li
The co-occurrence of cyanotoxins and taste-and-odor compounds are a growing concern for drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) suffering cyanobacteria in water resources. The dissolved and cell-bound forms of three microcystin (MC) congeners (MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR) and four taste-and-odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methyl isoborneol, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone) were investigated monthly from August 2011 to July 2012 in the eastern drinking water source of Lake Chaohu. The total concentrations of microcystins and taste-and-odor compounds reached 8...
January 2, 2018: Toxins
Wang Lin, Jie Hou, Honghui Guo, Li Li, Lingkai Wang, Dandan Zhang, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Hazardous materials from decaying cyanobacterial blooms, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nitrite pose serious challenges to aquatic organisms. To assess combined toxic effects of MC-LR and nitrite on hepatic pathology, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant responses of fish, adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3, 30 μg/L) and nitrite (0, 2, 20 mg/L) for 30 d. The results showed that hepatic pathological lesions progressed in severity and extent with increasing concentration of single factor MC-LR or nitrite and became more severe in co-exposure groups...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Peili Jia, Yanping Zhou, Xufeng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Ruihua Dai
Harmful algal blooms in source water are a worldwide issue for drinking water production and safety. UV/H2O2, a pre-oxidation process, was firstly applied to enhance Fe(II) coagulation for the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa [M. aeruginosa, 2.0 (±0.5) × 106 cell/mL] in bench scale. It significantly improved both algae cells removal and algal organic matter (AOM) control, compared with UV irradiation alone (254 nm UVC, 5.4 mJ/cm2). About 94.7% of algae cells were removed after 5 min UV/H2O2 pre-treatment with H2O2 dose 375 μmol/L, FeSO4 coagulation (dose 125 μmol/L)...
December 11, 2017: Water Research
Junguo Ma, Yuanyuan Li, Mengli Wu, Xiaoyu Li
A previous study showed that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exerted cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we investigated whether oxidative stress-mediated p53/p21WAF1/CIP1 is involved in this process to further elucidate the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by MC-LR. Morphological evaluation showed that MC-LR induced time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Biochemical assays revealed that MC-LR exposure altered the protein levels of HSP70 and HSP90, generally inhibited superoxide dismutase and catalase, reduced glutathione content, and increased the cellular malondialdehyde level of HepG2 cells, suggesting that MC-LR may induce biochemical disturbance and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells...
December 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Shiqing Zhou, Lingjun Bu, Zhou Shi, Lin Deng, Shumin Zhu, Naiyun Gao
Electrochemical inactivation of cyanobacteria using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode were comprehensively investigated in this study. The pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry, flow cytometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize the photosynthetic capacity and cell integrity of Microcystis aeruginosa. Persulfate is in-situ generated and activated during the process and responsible for the inactivation of M. aeruginosa. The inactivation efficiency increases along with the increase of applied currents...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
T Papadimitriou, M Katsiapi, K Vlachopoulos, A Christopoulos, C Laspidou, M Moustaka-Gouni, K Kormas
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have been implicated for their negative consequences on many terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Water birds belong to the most common members of the freshwater food chains and are most likely to be affected by the consumption of toxic cyanobacteria as food. However, the contribution of cyanotoxins in bird mortalities is under-studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the likely role of cyanotoxins in a mass mortality event of the Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) in the Karla Reservoir, in Greece...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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