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Qing Cao, Richard R Rediske, Lei Yao, Liqiang Xie
A 30 days indoor hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of microcystins (MCs) on rice root morphology and exudation, as well as bioaccumulation of MCs in rice. MCs were bioaccumulated in rice with the greatest concentrations being observed in the leaves (113.68μgg(-1) Fresh weight (FW)) when exposed to 500μgL(-1) MCs. Root activity at 500μgL(-1) decreased 37%, compared to the control. MCs also induced disruption of the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in rice roots. Root growth was significantly inhibited by MCs...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Karina Heck, Danillo O Alvarenga, Tania K Shishido, Alessandro M Varani, Felipe A Dörr, Ernani Pinto, Leo Rouhiainen, Jouni Jokela, Kaarina Sivonen, Marli F Fiore
Microcystins (MCs) are serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors synthesized by several members of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Mining the draft genome sequence of the nostocalean MC-producing Fischerella sp. strain CENA161 led to the identification of three contigs containing mcy genes. Subsequent PCR and Sanger sequencing allowed the assembling of its complete biosynthetic mcy gene cluster with 55,016 bases in length. The cluster encoding ten genes (mcyA-J) with a central bidirectional promoter was organized in a similar manner as found in other genera of nostocalean cyanobacteria...
November 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Zhiguang Niu, Lei Du, Jiafu Li, Ying Zhang, Zhiwei Lv
The eutrophication of surface water has been the main problem of water quality management in recent decades, and the ecological risk of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which is the by-product of eutrophication, has drawn more attention worldwide. The aims of our study were to determine the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of MC-LR and to assess the ecological risk of MC-LR in the upstream section of the Haihe River. HC5 (hazardous concentration for 5% of biological species) and PNEC were obtained from a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model, which was constructed with the acute toxicity data of MC-LR on aquatic organisms...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Irina Tikhonova, Anton Kuzmin, Diana Deeva, Ekaterina Sorokovikova, Sergey Potapov, Anna Lomakina, Olga Belykh
A strain of Nostoc punctiforme was isolated from the bottom sediments of the oil seep at Gorevoy Utes (Central Baikal) at a depth of 890 m. The Baikal strain is highly similar (98-99%) to the N. punctiforme CCAP 1453/9 strain and the typical N. punctiforme PCC 73103 strain isolated from soil ecotopes. Based on the analysis of functional genes and mass spectrometry data, we determined that the strain can produce bioactive peptides and polyketides, but does not produce known cyanobacterial toxins, saxitoxin or its analogs, or microcystins...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Jiajia Fan, Bo-Hung Lin, Che-Wei Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) is an effective oxidant that may be used as a pre- or post-oxidant in the purification of source water with cyanobacterial issues. To provide a better basis for the application of this oxidant during water treatment processes, the impacts of K2FeO4 on the cell viability of Microcystis aeruginosa and the fate of associated microcystins (MCs) were investigated in various water matrices. The results showed that a water matrix can significantly affect the effectiveness of K2FeO4 on cyanobacteria inactivation...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
Antonella Lugliè, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Riccardi, Milena Bruno, Silvia Pigozzi, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Daniela Stacca, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Tiziana Caddeo, Pasqualina Farina, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Silvia Pulina, Nicola Sechi, Anna Milandri
Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
November 16, 2017: Microorganisms
Spencer R Saraf, Amy Frenkel, Matthew J Harke, Jennifer G Jankowiak, Christopher J Gobler, Anne E McElroy
Freshwater cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) caused by algae in the genus Microcystis have been increasing in frequency and severity in recent decades. Microcystis blooms threaten aquatic organisms through effects associated with the rapid increase of biomass and the production of the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC) by toxic strains. Among fish, effects of blooms are likely to be more severe for early life stages, and physiological impacts on this life stage could significantly impact recruitment and fish populations...
November 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Jie Wei, Aori Qileng, Yun Yan, Hongtao Lei, Shengsen Zhang, Weipeng Liu, Yingju Liu
An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on multiple signal amplification strategy was fabricated for the detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The CdS/TiO2 nanorod arrays (CdS/TiO2 NRAs) modified FTO electrode, which can weaken the self-oxidation by photogenerated holes of CdS nanoparticles, and limit the recombination of electron-hole pairs and broaden optical absorption of TiO2 NRAs, was used as a visible-light driven material to immobilize antigens. Then, Fe3O4 nanoparticles/polydopamine (Fe3O4@PDA) was used as the carrier to load secondary antibody (Ab2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), where Fe3O4 nanoparticles and HRP can synergistically accelerate the oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) by H2O2 to produce biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) on the surface of modified electrode...
November 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Friedrich Recknagel, Philip T Orr, Michael Bartkow, Annelie Swanepoel, Hongqing Cao
An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs on a diel basis driven by in situ sonde water quality data. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control, e.g. intermittent mixing and ad hoc water treatment in water works, respectively...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
Junguo Ma, Yuanyuan Li, Hongying Duan, Rajeshkumar Sivakumar, Xiaoyu Li
Low dose but long-term exposure of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) could induce human hepatitis and promote liver cancer according to epidemiological investigation results, but the exact mechanism has not been completely elucidated. In the present study, a chronic toxicity test of MC-LR exposure on HepG2 cells at 0.1-30 nM for 83 d was conducted under laboratory conditions. The western blot assay result revealed that MC-LR entered HepG2 cells, even at the concentration of 0.1 nM, after 83 d of exposure, but no cytotoxicity was observed in the HepG2 cells, as determined by the CCK-8 and LDH tests...
October 31, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiaomeng Wang, Xin Wang, Zhongbo Wei, Shujuan Zhang
Cyanobacteria blooming is a serious environmental issue throughout the world. Removal of cyanobacterial cells from surface water with controlled release of cyanobacterial organic matter (COM), especially toxic microcystins (MCs), would potentially reduce the processing burden in follow-up water treatment. Coagulation is a key technique in water treatment. Herein, the potential application of a novel titanium xerogel coagulant (TXC) was evaluated for the treatment of cyanobacteria-laden water in terms of cyanobacteria removal efficiency, variation of cell viability, the release and evolution of COM in the floc accumulation and storage process...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
Susan A Elmore, Famke Aeffner, Dinesh S Bangari, Torrie A Crabbs, Stacey Fossey, Shayne C Gad, Wanda M Haschek, Jessica S Hoane, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Ramesh C Kovi, Gail Pearse, Lyn M Wancket, Erin M Quist
The 2017 annual National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 36th annual meeting. The goal of this symposium was to present and discuss challenging diagnostic pathology and/or nomenclature issues. This article presents summaries of the speakers' talks along with select images that were used by the audience for voting and discussion. Various lesions and other topics covered during the symposium included renal papillary degeneration in perinatally exposed animals, an atriocaval mesothelioma, an unusual presentation of an alveolar-bronchiolar carcinoma, a paraganglioma of the organ of Zuckerkandl (also called an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma), the use of human muscle samples to illustrate the challenges of manual scoring of fluorescent staining, intertubular spermatocytic seminomas, medical device pathology assessment and discussion of the approval process, collagen-induced arthritis, incisor denticles, ameloblast degeneration and poorly mineralized enamel matrix, connective tissue paragangliomas, microcystin-LR toxicity, perivascular mast cells in the forebrain thalamus unrelated to treatment, and 2 cases that provided a review of the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) bone nomenclature and recommended application of the terminology in routine nonclinical toxicity studies...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Guangfu Liu, Mingjing Ke, Xiaoji Fan, Meng Zhang, Youchao Zhu, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun, Haifeng Qian
Microcystis aeruginosa, a primary species in cyanobacterial blooms, is ubiquitously distributed in water. Microcystins (MCs) purified from M. aeruginosa can exert reproductive toxicity in fish. However, the effects of M. aeruginosa at environmentally relevant levels on the reproductive and endocrine systems of zebrafish are still unknown. The present study investigated the reproductive and endocrine-disrupting toxicity of M. aeruginosa on female zebrafish (Danio rerio) by short-term exposure (96 h). After exposure, marked histological lesions in the liver or gonads, such as nuclear pyknosis and deformation, were observed, and the fertilization rate and hatchability of eggs spawned from treated females were both significantly lower than they were in females in the control group, suggesting the possibility of transgenerational effects of M...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Sarah Fuller, Kamil Cieslik, Mark T Aubel, Tim Wertz
In 2013 and 2015, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a survey of lotic habitats within the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Ohio River basins in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) in algae communities and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Periphyton (68 from 41 sites), juvenile whole fish (153 from 19 sites) and adult fish liver (115 from 16 sites) samples were collected and screened using an Adda enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples that were positive for MCs/NODs were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS, including 14 variants of microcystin and NOD-R and the MMPB technique...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Wenyi Liu, Lingqiao Wang, Chuanfen Zheng, Lebin Liu, Jia Wang, Daibo Li, Yao Tan, Xilong Zhao, Lixiong He, Weiqun Shu
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) simultaneously exist in polluted food and water in humid and warm areas, and each has been reported to be genotoxic to liver and associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the genotoxic effects of the two biotoxins in combination and potential mechanism remain unknown. We treated the human hepatic cell line HL7702 with AFB1 and MC-LR together at different ratios, examined their genotoxic effects using micronuclei and comet assays, and evaluated the possible mechanism by measuring oxidative stress markers and DNA base excision repair (BER) genes...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Fuhar Dixit, Benoit Barbeau, Madjid Mohseni
This study investigated the efficiency of a strongly basic macroporous anion exchange resin for the co-removal of Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and natural organic matter (NOM) in waters affected by toxic algal blooms. Environmental factors influencing the uptake behavior included MCLR and resin concentrations, NOM and anionic species, specifically nitrate, sulphate and bicarbonate. A860 resin exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity of 3800 μg/g; more than 60% of the MCLR removal was achieved within 10 min with a resin dosage of 200 mg/L (∼1 mL/L)...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Md Ashraful Islam, Jared Church, Changseok Han, Hee-Suk Chung, Eunji Ji, Jong Hun Kim, Nitin Choudhary, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Woo Hyoung Lee, Yeonwoong Jung
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D MoS2) presents extraordinary optical, electrical, and chemical properties which are highly tunable by engineering the orientation of constituent 2D layers. 2D MoS2 films with vertically-aligned layers exhibit numerous 2D edge sites which are predicted to offer superior chemical reactivity owing to their enriched dangling bonds. This enhanced chemical reactivity coupled with their tunable band gap energy can render the vertical 2D MoS2 unique opportunities for environmental applications that go beyond the conventional applications of horizontal 2D MoS2 in electronics/opto-electronics...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vinícius Rosa Oliveira, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho, Natália Vasconcelos Casquilho, Maria Diana Moreira-Gomes, Raquel Moraes Soares, Sandra Maria F O Azevedo, Lidia Moreira Lima, Eliezer Jesus Barreiro, Christina Maeda Takiya, Walter Araujo Zin
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can cause serious injuries upon short- and long-term exposures that can be prevented by LASSBio-596 (LB-596), an anti-inflammatory compound. We aimed to test LB-596 following subchronic exposure to MC-LR. Swiss mice received 10 intraperitoneal injections of distilled water (DW) or MC-LR (20 μg/kg bw) every 2 days. On the 10th injection animals receiving DW were gavaged with DW or 50 mg/kg bw of LB-596 for 1 or 7 days (C1D, C7D, CL1D and CL7D groups), whereas those exposed to MC-LR received either DW or 50 mg/kg of LB-596 for 1 or 7 days (T1D, T7D, TL1D and TL7D groups)...
October 31, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Shijia Wu, Jiajia Lv, Fang Wang, Nuo Duan, Qian Li, Zhouping Wang
In this work, we prepared advanced upconversion nanoparticle coated with TiO2 photocatalysts (NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2) to utilize not only UV energy but also the large portion of NIR energy in order to improve the utilization efficiency of solar lights. The MC-LR (10 μg/mL) degradation rate can be approached 100% within 30 min at the concentration of NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 0.4 mg/mL and initial pH value 4, while 61%, using pure TiO2 (P25) under simulated solar lights. The reaction processes were studied and fitted with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Abolfazl Zakersalehi, Hesam Zamankhan, Mallikarjuna Nadagouda, Hyeok Choi
  Nonselective oxidation of organic chemicals during TiO2 photocatalytic water treatment significantly prohibits decomposition of toxic target contaminants, particularly in the presence of naturally abundant less toxic natural organic matter (NOM). To minimize the adverse effect of NOM, the authors have investigated physical size exclusion of large NOM onto mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts, which allows small target contaminants to selectively access the porous structure for subsequent chemical reaction. Various treatment scenarios tested with different targets (ibuprofen, microcystin-LR) and competitors (humic acid, polyethylene glycol), and a series of mesoporous TiO2 materials proved the size exclusion mechanism...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
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