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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325896/gut-flora-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-accelerates-endothelial-cell-senescence-and-vascular-aging-through-oxidative-stress
#1
Yilang Ke, Dang Li, Mingming Zhao, Changjie Liu, Jia Liu, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma levels of TMAO in young adults (18-44 years old), older adults (≥65 years old), and 1-month-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 10-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistance 1 (SAMR1) models...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288512/pretreatment-of-probiotic-bifico-ameliorates-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice-transcriptome-and-gut-flora-profiling
#2
Huan Song, Weiyi Wang, Bo Shen, Hao Jia, Zhaoyuan Hou, Ping Chen, Yunwei Sun
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a high risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Strategies to block the process from IBD to CAC should be considered. In the experiment, we aim to explore the chemopreventive efficacy of the probiotic cocktail Bifico and its potential mechanism in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Oral pretreatment of Bifico was adopted to evaluate its protective effect. The colorectums of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were collected and examined for degree of inflammation and tumorigenesis...
December 30, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#3
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280091/the-gut-microbiome-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#4
REVIEW
Scott S Zamvil, Collin M Spencer, Sergio E Baranzini, Bruce A C Cree
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare, disabling, sometimes fatal central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease that is associated with antibodies ("NMO IgG") that target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressed on astrocytes. There is considerable interest in identifying environmental triggers that may elicit production of NMO IgG by AQP4-reactive B cells. Although NMO is considered principally a humoral autoimmune disease, antibodies of NMO IgG are IgG1, a T-cell-dependent immunoglobulin subclass, indicating that AQP4-reactive T cells have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis...
December 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279259/change-in-gut-microbiota-for-eczema-implications-for-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai, W Pan
Eczema is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, often constituting a lifelong burden for afflicted individuals. The complex interaction of host genetic and multiple environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. A relationship between maladjustment of gut microbiota and eczema has been brought into the light of day in most previous studies. In eczema preclinical models, specific intestinal microbial species have been demonstrated to prohibit or dwindle immune responsiveness, indicating that these strains among commensal gut bacteria may exert either a morbific or phylactic function in eczema progression...
December 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229019/clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-pathogenicity-and-an-update-on-the-limitations-of-and-challenges-in-its-diagnosis
#7
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216329/characterization-of-fusobacterium-varium-fv113-g1-isolated-from-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-complete-genome-sequence-and-transcriptome-analysis
#8
Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Yumiko Ogasawara, Toshifumi Ohkusa, Makoto Kuroda
Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb) isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212730/hierarchical-social-networks-shape-gut-microbial-composition-in-wild-verreaux-s-sifaka
#9
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209124/composition-and-immuno-stimulatory-properties-of-extracellular-dna-from-mouse-gut-flora
#10
Ce Qi, Ya Li, Ren-Qiang Yu, Sheng-Li Zhou, Xing-Guo Wang, Guo-Wei Le, Qing-Zhe Jin, Hang Xiao, Jin Sun
AIM: To demonstrate that specific bacteria might release bacterial extracellular DNA (eDNA) to exert immunomodulatory functions in the mouse small intestine. METHODS: Extracellular DNA was extracted using phosphate buffered saline with 0.5 mmol/L dithiothreitol combined with two phenol extractions. TOTO-1 iodide, a cell-impermeant and high-affinity nucleic acid stain, was used to confirm the existence of eDNA in the mucus layers of the small intestine and colon in healthy Male C57BL/6 mice...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207701/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-hospitalized-patients-and-role-of-gut-colonization
#11
Geetarani Purohit, Rajni Gaind, Reetika Dawar, P K Verma, K C Aggarwal, Raman Sardana, Monorama Deb
Introduction: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora and have been recognized as important human pathogens. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are global threat as this resistance is transmissible and also poses a challenge for infection control. Aim: This study was undertaken to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE from clinically significant infections among hospitalized patients and their association with gut colonization. Materials and Methods: Clinically significant isolates of enterococci (n=250) were studied...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202875/postoperative-changes-of-the-microbiome-are-surgical-complications-related-to-the-gut-flora-a-systematic-review
#12
Ann-Kathrin Lederer, Przemyslaw Pisarski, Lampros Kousoulas, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Carolin Hess, Roman Huber
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to identify the relationship between the gut microbiome and the development of postoperative complications like anastomotic leakage or a wound infection. Recent reviews focusing on underlying molecular biology suggested that postoperative complications might be influenced by the patients' gut flora. Therefore, a review focusing on the available clinical data is needed. METHODS: In January 2017 a systematic search was carried out in Medline and WebOfScience to identify all clinical studies, which investigated postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery in relation to the microbiome of the gut...
December 4, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196049/chronic-glucocorticoid-treatment-induced-circadian-clock-disorder-leads-to-lipid-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-alterations-in-rats
#13
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Jianguo Jiang, Yinhua Ni, Jiawei Zhu, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Xin Lu, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: Glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones synthetized by the adrenal gland, are regulated by circadian cycles, and dysregulation of GC signaling can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. The effects and potential mechanism of GCs in physiology were investigated in the present study. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.01 and 0.05mg/kg body weight per day) for 7weeks. KEY FINDING: DEX treatment attenuated body weight gain and reduced food intake, whereas it induced the accumulation of fat...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186641/gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-insights-into-pathogenesis-for-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#14
Yongbo Kang, Wei Pan, Yue Cai
Colorectal cancer (CRC), as a leading cause of cancer-related death, is triggered by the complex interplay of host genetics and environmental factors. Mounting evidence has shed light on the association of the gut microbiota dysbiosis with CRC. In CRC experimental models, certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses, indicating that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of CRC. Oral intake of probiotics/prebiotics can therefore serve as a therapeutic approach for CRC treatment...
September 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166928/effects-of-long-term-weekly-iron-and-folic-acid-supplementation-on-lower-genital-tract-infection-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-in-burkina-faso
#15
Loretta Brabin, Stephen A Roberts, Sabine Gies, Andrew Nelson, Salou Diallo, Christopher J Stewart, Adama Kazienga, Julia Birtles, Sayouba Ouedraogo, Yves Claeys, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d'Alessandro, E Brian Faragher, Bernard Brabin
BACKGROUND: Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. METHODS: Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months...
November 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152585/total-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-human-gut-microbiome-silences-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#16
Eva d'Hennezel, Sahar Abubucker, Leon O Murphy, Thomas W Cullen
Cohabitation of microbial communities with the host enables the formation of a symbiotic relationship that maintains homeostasis in the gut and beyond. One prevailing model suggests that this relationship relies on the capacity of host cells and tissues to remain tolerant to the strong immune stimulation generated by the microbiota such as the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indeed, gut microbial LPS is thought to be one of the most potent activators of innate immune signaling and an important mediator of the microbiome's influence on host physiology...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151351/immucillins-in-infectious-diseases
#17
Gary B Evans, Peter C Tyler, Vern L Schramm
The Immucillins are chemically stable analogues that mimic the ribocation and leaving-group features of N-ribosyltransferase transition states. Infectious disease agents often rely on ribosyltransferase chemistry in pathways involving precursor synthesis for nucleic acids, salvage of nucleic acid precursors, or synthetic pathways with nucleoside intermediates. Here, we review three infectious agents and the use of the Immucillins to taget enzymes essential to the parasites. First, DADMe-Immucillin-G is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor that blocks purine salvage and shows clinical potential for treatment for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine for purine nucleotide synthesis...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144889/effect-of-dietary-fermented-mushroom-bed-on-egg-production-in-laying-hens
#18
Shu Yoshida, Hiroaki Mitani, Masato Kamata, Akira Ohtsuka, Konosuke Otomaru, Takeshi Obi, Hiroaki Kanouchi
Egg productivity is declined by stress. It has been reported that some food supplements can improve the egg productivity due to a reduction of environmental stress. We evaluated the effect of fermented waste mushroom bed (FWMB) as a dietary additive on egg productivity. Hens were fed control food (control group, n = 100) or 3% FWMB-added food (FWMB group, n = 100) for 16 months. The number of eggs, soft-shelled eggs, and broken eggs were recorded for 15 months. We also evaluated stress-related markers (ovotransferrin, lipid peroxide, and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio)...
November 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#19
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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