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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210795/observational-comparisons-of-intestinal-microbiota-characterizations-immune-enzyme-activities-and-muscle-amino-acid-compositions-of-loach-in-paddy-fields-and-ponds-in-sichuan-province
#1
Song Yang, Yuanliang Duan, Jie Zhang, Jian Zhou, Ya Liu, Jun Du, Liulan Zhao, Zongjun Du, Shuaishuai Han
A balanced intestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the growth and health of animals because it can influence the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Different culture conditions may change the ecology of microbial in intestine and thus affect the overall growth performance of an animal. In this study, we compared intestinal morphologies, microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach cultured in paddy fields and ponds. The fish were fed with the same diets from May 5 to November 5 (2015) in three paddy or ponds...
February 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188734/mixing-and-pumping-functions-of-the-intestine-of-zebrafish-larvae
#2
Jinyou Yang, Yuji Shimogonya, Takuji Ishikawa
Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165395/the-fungal-mycobiome-and-its-interaction-with-gut-bacteria-in-the-host
#3
REVIEW
Qi Hui Sam, Matthew Wook Chang, Louis Yi Ann Chai
The advent of sequencing technology has endowed us with the capacity to study microbes constituting the human commensal community that were previously non-culturable. Much of the initial works have concentrated on the bacterial flora constituting the gut microbiome, since specimens are readily accessible in health and disease. Less, however, is understood of the "silent population"-the fungal species, also known as the mycobiome. Living in symbiosis with bacteria as commensals in our body, it is perceivable that the mycobiome exerts an inadvertent influence on the microbiome...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163824/draft-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-e2c2-and-e2c5-isolated-from-human-stool-culture
#4
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Dhiraj Paul, Swapnil P Doijad, Shrikant S Bhute, Tejashri B Hingamire, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Probiotic Lactobacillus species offer various health benefits, thus have been employed in treatment and prevention of various diseases. Due to the differences in the isolation source and the site of action, most of the lactobacilli tested in-vitro for probiotics properties fail to extend similar effects in-vivo. Consequently, the search of autochthonous, efficacious and probably population specific probiotics is a high priority in the probiotics research. In this regards, whole genome sequencing of as many Lactobacillus as possible will help to deepen our understanding of biology and their health effects...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#5
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150479/the-intestinal-mycobiota-a-year-of-observation-about-the-incidence-of-yeast-s-isolation-in-fecal-samples
#6
Lucia Barcella, Santa B Rogolino, Angelo P Barbaro
BACKGROUND: Yeast's presence, especially Candida's species, in the intestinal tract is now considered as part of the normal microbial human flora; however, fungal colonization of the colon may induce to fungal infections, becoming a risk not only in immunocompromised patients but also in normalcompetent subjects. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the real incidence of yeasts into the fecal samples both from healthy outpatients and from inpatients, except those from wards concerning immunosuppressive and pediatrics pathologies...
February 1, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141547/efficacy-of-and-potential-morbidities-associated-with-the-use-of-antacid-medications-in-preterm-neonates
#7
Uday P Patil, Sean M Bailey, Elena V Wachtel, Evan Orosz, Rebecca Zarchin, Pradeep V Mally
OBJECTIVES: Antacid medications are frequently administered to preterm infants. These medications can change gastric pH levels and can affect regular gastrointestinal function and gut micro-bacterial flora. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to antacid medications are at a greater risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis, and set out to determine any association, as well as to assess the clinical efficacy of these medications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of preterm infants ≤30 weeks' gestational age or birth weight ≤1250 g over a 2-year period at New York University Langone Medical Center...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139139/roseburia-spp-a-marker-of-health
#8
Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Imen Smida, Latifa Bousarghin, Olivier Loreal, Vincent Meuric, Shao Bing Fong, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
The genus Roseburia consists of obligate Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that are slightly curved, rod-shaped and motile by means of multiple subterminal flagella. It includes five species: Roseburia intestinalis, R. hominis, R. inulinivorans, R. faecis and R. cecicola. Gut Roseburia spp. metabolize dietary components that stimulate their proliferation and metabolic activities. They are part of commensal bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, affecting colonic motility, immunity maintenance and anti-inflammatory properties...
February 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130329/bacteriophages-targeting-adherent-invasive-escherichia-coli-strains-as-a-promising-new-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#9
Matthieu Galtier, Luisa De Sordi, Adeline Sivignon, Amélie de Vallée, Damien Maura, Christel Neut, Oumaira Rahmouni, Kristin Wannerberger, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Pierre Desreumaux, Nicolas Barnich, Laurent Debarbieux
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are abnormally predominant on the ileal mucosa of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. They bind to the CEACAM6 receptor expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. We aimed to assess the potential of bacteriophages, viruses infecting bacteria, to decrease the levels of AIEC bacteria associated with the intestinal mucosa. METHODS: We combined ex vivo and in vivo experiments with murine and human intestinal samples to quantify the ability of virulent bacteriophages to target the prototype AIEC strain LF82...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124783/diversity-of-culturable-bacterial-communities-in-the-intestinal-tracts-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-and-their-ability-to-produce-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone
#10
Haruo Sugita, Shun Kitao, Satoshi Narisawa, Ryosuke Minamishima, Shiro Itoi
Intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (QS) system. The 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera Aeromonas (184 isolates), Citrobacter (11), Enterobacter (2), Shewanella (28), Vagococcus (1), and Vibrio (4). Among these genera, the two most abundant species were Aeromonas veronii (163 isolates) and Shewanella xiamenensis (27)...
January 26, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115264/models-for-drug-absorption-from-the-small-intestine-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-going
#11
REVIEW
Pierre-André Billat, Emilie Roger, Sébastien Faure, Frédéric Lagarce
The small intestine is a complex organ with movements, flora, mucus and flows. Despite this, the most widely used absorption models consider the organ a cylindrical monoepithelial tube. This review presents the recent evolution of models to take into consideration the complex nature of gut physiology. The most commonly encountered issues are ethical (in vivo models) and differences in drug transport as a result of a modified expression of drug transporters or metabolic enzymes compared with human (in vitro and in vivo models)...
January 20, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102587/dietary-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-reduces-atherosclerosis-and-modifies-gut-flora-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#12
Toshihiro Sakurai, Akiko Sakurai, Ye Chen, Boris L Vaisman, Marcelo J Amar, Milton Pryor, Seth G Thacker, Xue Zhang, Xujing Wang, Yubo Zhang, Jun Zhu, Zhi-Hong Yang, Lita A Freeman, Alan T Remaley
SCOPE: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of glucose, has been shown to lower plasma cholesterol in animals and humans; however, its effect on atherosclerosis has not been previously described. METHODS AND RESULTS: apoE-knockout mice were fed either low-fat diet (LFD; 5.2% fat, w/w), or Western high fat diet (21.2% fat) containing either no additions (WD), 1.5% α-CD (WDA); 1.5% β-CD (WDB); or 1.5% oligofructose-enriched inulin (WDI). Although plasma lipids were similar after 11 weeks on the WD vs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#13
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093620/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-cancer-response-due-to-anti-ctla-4-is-it-in-the-flora
#14
REVIEW
Franck Carbonnel, Emilie Soularue, Clélia Coutzac, Nathalie Chaput, Christine Mateus, Patricia Lepage, Caroline Robert
Checkpoint inhibitors blocking CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) have transfigured our cancer treatment paradigm. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events that share clinical and pathological characteristics with immune-mediated diseases. One of the most severe immune-related adverse event observed with anti-CTLA-4 is an enterocolitis that mirrors naturally occurring inflammatory bowel disease. This paper reviews the clinical, immunological, and microbiota data associated with the immune-related enterocolitis induced by the cancer immunotherapy blocking CTLA-4, ipilimumab...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087253/what-is-an-ideal-antibiotic-discovery-challenges-and-path-forward
#15
REVIEW
Sheo B Singh, Katherine Young, Lynn L Silver
An ideal antibiotic is an antibacterial agent that kills or inhibits the growth of all harmful bacteria in a host, regardless of site of infection without affecting beneficial gut microbes (gut flora) or causing undue toxicity to the host. Sadly, no such antibiotics exist. What exist are many effective Gram-positive antibacterial agents as well as broad-spectrum agents that provide treatment of certain Gram-negative bacteria but not holistic treatment of all bacteria. However effectiveness of all antibacterial agents is being rapidly eroded due to resistance...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072925/impact-of-low-and-high-doses-of-marbofloxacin-on-the-selection-of-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-commensal-gut-flora-of-young-cattle-discussion-of-data-from-2-study-populations
#16
Guillaume Lhermie, Véronique Dupouy, Farid El Garch, Nadine Ravinet, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Mélou, Henri Seegers, Sébastien Assié
In the context of requested decrease of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine, our objective was to assess the impact of two doses of marbofloxacin administered on young bulls (YBs) and veal calves (VCs) treated for bovine respiratory disease, on the total population of Enterobacteriaceae in gut flora and on the emergence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In two independent experiments, 48 YBs from 6 commercial farms and 33 VCs previously colostrum deprived and exposed to cefquinome were randomly assigned to one of the three groups LOW, HIGH, and Control...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#17
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#18
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply, ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057020/rna-virus-receptor-rig-i-monitors-gut-microbiota-and-inhibits-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#19
Houbao Zhu, Wang-Yang Xu, Zhiqiang Hu, Hongxin Zhang, Yan Shen, Shunyuan Lu, Chaochun Wei, Zhu-Gang Wang
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (Rig-I) is an intracellular viral RNA receptor, which specifically recognizes double-stranded viral RNA initiating antiviral innate immunity. Increasing evidences showed that Rig-I had broader roles in antibacterial immunity and cancer protection. However, the potential roles and mechanisms of Rig-I in gut flora regulation and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remain unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect Rig-I protein in 38 pairs of CRC tissue and matched adjacent mucosa, and immunofluorescence and western blot were also used to detect Rig-I protein expression in AOM/DSS-induced mice CRC samples...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030622/effects-of-menthol-supplementation-in-feedlot-cattle-diets-on-the-fecal-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli
#20
C C Aperce, R Amachawadi, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, T G Nagaraja, H M Scott, J Vinasco-Torre, J S Drouillard
The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation...
2016: PloS One
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