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gut flora

Raphaël Enaud, Louise-Eva Vandenborght, Noémie Coron, Thomas Bazin, Renaud Prevel, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Berger, Michael Fayon, Thierry Lamireau, Laurence Delhaes
In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut-brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
A Tranberg, H R Thorarinsdottir, A Holmberg, U Schött, B Klarin
BACKGROUND: The normal body exists in mutualistic balance with a large range of microbiota. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is an imbalance in the oropharyngeal flora early after hospital or ICU admittance, and whether flora differs between control, ward and critically ill patients. The secondary goal was to explore whether there are patient characteristics that can be associated with a disturbed oropharyngeal flora. METHODS: Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from three different study groups: (1) controls from the community, (2) ward patients and (3) critically ill patients, the two latter within 24 h after admittance...
March 8, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
I M Markusse, S P van Mens, P J de Vries
A 40-year-old woman with a history of liver cirrhosis presented with septic shock caused by an Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteraemia after a cat bite. A. succiniciproducens sepsis can develop after a cat or dog bite, especially in immunocompromised hosts, or might occur after translocation from the gut flora. It is a potentially lethal infection.
March 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Nar S Chauhan, Rajesh Pandey, Anupam K Mondal, Shashank Gupta, Manoj K Verma, Sweta Jain, Vasim Ahmed, Rutuja Patil, Dhiraj Agarwal, Bhushan Girase, Ankita Shrivastava, Fauzul Mobeen, Vikas Sharma, Tulika P Srivastava, Sanjay K Juvekar, Bhavana Prasher, Mitali Mukerji, Debasis Dash
Heterogeneity amidst healthy individuals at genomic level is being widely acknowledged. This, in turn, is modulated by differential response to environmental cues and treatment regimens, necessitating the need for stratified/personalized therapy. We intend to understand the molecular determinants of Ayurvedic way (ancient Indian system of medicine) of endo-phenotyping individuals into distinct constitution types termed " Prakriti," which forms the basis of personalized treatment. In this study, we explored and analyzed the healthy human gut microbiome structure within three predominant Prakriti groups from a genetically homogenous cohort to discover differentially abundant taxa, using 16S rRNA gene based microbial community profiling...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
István Barna, Dóra Nyúl, Tamás Szentes, Richárd Schwab
Gut flora has personal characteristics for each individual, similar to the fingerprints, consisting of a special mixture of bacterial species living in the intestines, now referred to as the gut microbiome. There is a strong correlation between the loss of microbial diversity and the functional bowel disorders, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as many autoimmune disorders. With genetic testing of stool diversity of the gut microbiome and exact analysis of the species and phylogenetic classification of the gut flora, the changes of diversity can be identified and the overgrowth of some bacteria can be revealed...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Sergej M Ostojic
Dysbiosis of the gut flora accompanies Parkinson disease (PD), yet no specific cause-effect link has been identified so far. The gut microbiota produce molecular hydrogen (H2 ), a ubiquitous molecule recently recognized as a biologically active gas with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and signaling properties. Here, we discuss an idea that an impaired production of endogenous H2 by intestinal microbiota might play a role in PD pathogenesis, with supplemental H2 debated as a possible therapy for this progressive neurodegenerative disease...
February 22, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muhammad Aurongzeb, Junaid Kori, M Kamran Azim, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Li Bin
Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees ( Apis mellifera ). Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (26%) and Actinobacteria (14%)...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
M T Fountain, J Bennett, M Cobo-Medina, R Conde Ruiz, G Deakin, A Delgado, R Harrison, N Harrison
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a damaging pest of fruit. Reproductively diapausing adults overwinter in woodlands and remain active on warmer winter days. It is unknown if this adult phase of the lifecycle feeds during the winter period, and what the food source may be. This study characterized the flora in the digestive tract of D. suzukii using a metagenomics approach. Live D. suzukii were trapped in four woodlands in the south of England and their guts dissected for DNA extraction and amplicon-based metagenomics sequencing (internal transcribed spacer and 16S rRNA)...
February 22, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Tomohiko Ichikawa, Tetsuhiro Yamada, Alexander Treiber, Carmela Gnerre, Jérôme Segrestaa, Swen Seeland, Kiyoko Nonaka
1. The metabolism of the prostacyclin receptor agonist selexipag (NS-304; ACT-293987) and its active metabolite MRE-269 (ACT-333679) has been investigated in liver microsomes and hepatocytes of rats, dogs, and monkeys. MRE-269 formation is the main pathway of selexipag metabolism, irrespective of species. Some interspecies differences were evident for both compounds in terms of both metabolic turnover and metabolic profiles. The metabolism of MRE-269 was slower than that of selexipag in all three species. 2...
February 22, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
W Cheng, J Lu, W Lin, X Wei, H Li, X Zhao, A Jiang, J Yuan
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics that positively affect the host's gut microbiota, which is important for the health of the host. Most previous studies focused on specific flora components (e.g. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus); very few have investigated the relationship between flora and metabolites. Here, we used 16S rRNA analysis and metabolomics to analyze the effect of GOS on microbiota and metabolites. Results show that the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Oscillibacter decreased significantly in GOS-fed mice...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Yang Zhou, Cheng Hu, Xinjie Zhao, Ping Luo, Jingyi Lu, Qing Li, Miao Chen, Dandan Yan, Xin Lu, Hongwei Kong, Weiping Jia, Guowang Xu
Sulfonylureas are one of the commonly used drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but with considerable incidence of monotherapy failure. However, the mechanism of patients' drug response is unclear, and suitability evaluation biomarkers are in urgent need for precision medicine. In this study, a pseudotargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed to investigate the serum metabolic profiling of 66 significant responders and 24 nonsignificant responders at baseline and 16 weeks after gliclazide modified-release (MR) monotherapy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Rushika Saksena, Rajni Gaind, Anju Sinha, Charu Kothari, Harish Chellani, Manorama Deb
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance amongst commensal flora is a serious threat to the community. However, there is paucity of data regarding antibiotic resistance in commensals in the absence of antibiotic pressure. METHODS: Altogether, 100 vaginally delivered antibiotic naïve exclusively breastfed neonates were selected. Stool samples collected on day (D)1, D21 and D60 of birth were cultured. Enterobacteriaceae isolates were screened for nalidixic acid (NA) and ciprofloxacin susceptibility as per CLSI guidelines...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Noor Akbar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Mazhar Iqbal, K Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii...
February 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yusuke Shono, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Jesus Cosin-Roger, Marianne R Spalinger, Pedro A Ruiz, Claudia Stanzel, Anne Terhalle, Lutz Wolfram, Hassan Melhem, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Michael Fried, Michael Scharl, Martin Hausmann, Gerhard Rogler
Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for multiple protein substrates. Its lack in intestinal macrophages of Crohn's disease (CD) patients is correlated with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora. Gp96 has been stablished to be an essential chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We studied the impact of gp96-knockdown on TLR-function in macrophages. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was only decreased but not abolished when gp96 was knocked-down in cell lines, whereas in a monocyte/macrophage specific knock-out mouse model (LysMCre) TLR4 was abolished, while TLR2 was still present...
2018: PloS One
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
J Torres, C Palmela, H Brito, X Bao, H Ruiqi, P Moura-Santos, J Pereira da Silva, A Oliveira, C Vieira, K Perez, S H Itzkowitz, J F Colombel, L Humbert, D Rainteau, M Cravo, C M Rodrigues, J Hu
Background: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) have a very high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Alterations in the gut microbiota and/or gut bile acids could account for the increase in this risk. However, no studies have yet investigated the net result of cholestasis and a potentially altered bile acid pool interacting with a dysbiotic gut flora in the inflamed colon of PSC-IBD. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota and stool bile acid profiles, as well as and their correlation in patients with PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease alone...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
L E Peachey, R A Molena, T P Jenkins, A Di Cesare, D Traversa, J E Hodgkinson, C Cantacessi
A growing body of evidence, particularly in humans and rodents, supports the existence of a complex network of interactions occurring between gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites and the gut commensal bacteria, with substantial effects on both host immunity and metabolic potential. However, little is known of the fundamental biology of such interactions in other animal species. Nonetheless, given the considerable economic losses associated with GI parasites, particularly in livestock and equines, as well as the global threat of emerging anthelmintic resistance, further explorations of the complexities of host-helminth-microbiota interactions in these species are needed...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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