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gut flora

Kenneth Eng Ling Kwan, Vishalkumar G Shelat, Cher Heng Tan
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is an infective process involving the biliary tree typified by pigmented intraductal calculi with dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Previously endemic to South-east Asia, RPC can now be seen in Western countries with the increasing access to international travel and immigration. Affected patients are often plagued by recurrent bouts of cholangitis, and commonly suffer from complications such as abscess formation and biliary strictures. In severe cases, cirrhosis with portal hypertension may develop...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ping Lin, Bingyu Ding, Chunyan Feng, Shuwei Yin, Ting Zhang, Xin Qi, Huiying Lv, Xiaokui Guo, Ke Dong, Yongzhang Zhu, Qingtian Li
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of major depression disorder (MDD) and other mental disorders were depended on some subjective survey scales. There are confirmed relationship between the gut flora and the mental states of MDD patients. METHODS: The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was extracted from the fecal microbial communities in MDD patients, PCR amplified and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform. RESULTS: More phylum Firmicutes, less Bacteroidetes, and more genus Prevotella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Clostridium XI were found in MDD patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Łukasz Hołubiuk, Jacek Imiela
Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Courtney Waugh, Ray Austin, Adam Polkinghorne, Peter Timms
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. The causative agent is the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pecorum. While antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. Recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for Chlamydia in the koala. This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy...
October 2, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Hui-Lu Zhang, Wen-Shuai Li, Dian-Nan Xu, Wan-Wei Zheng, Yi Liu, Jian Chen, Zhi-Bing Qiu, Robert G Dorfman, Jun Zhang, Jie Liu
Gut microbiota composition of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is markedly altered compared with healthy individuals. There is mounting evidence that probiotic therapy alleviates disease severity in animal models and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bacillus subtilisis, as a probiotic, has also demonstrated a protective effect in IBD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of its action has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a dextrose sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model was used to investigate the role of B...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lintao Wang, Qian Chen, Haixia Qi, Chunming Wang, Cheng Wang, Junfeng Zhang, Lei Dong
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for cancer treatment, but it causes systemic inflammation and serious multi-organ side effects in many patients. In this study, we report that upregulation of the pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor TLR4 in macrophages by DOX is an important step in generating its toxic side effects. In patient serum, DOX treatment resulted in leakage of endotoxin (ET) and inflammatory cytokines into circulation. In mice, DOX damaged the intestinal epithelium, which also resulted in leakage of ET from the gut flora into circulation...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Research
T Marrs, C Flohr
Conventional culture-based studies have suggested that a reduction in microbial exposure in early life predisposes to atopic eczema and allergies. However, molecular microbiological methods have shown that conventional culture fails to grow around 80% of the bacterial flora. More recent work reviewed in this paper has employed next generation sequencing to study the influence of the gut and skin microbiota, both with regard to the risk of developing atopic eczema but also the role of pathogenic and commensal bacteria in established disease...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Michelle Beaumont, Julia K Goodrich, Matthew A Jackson, Idil Yet, Emily R Davenport, Sara Vieira-Silva, Justine Debelius, Tess Pallister, Massimo Mangino, Jeroen Raes, Rob Knight, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures...
2016: Genome Biology
Gavish K Awotar, Fuwen Luo, Zhengdong Zhao, Guoxin Guan, Shili Ning, Jinshuai Ren, Yaqing Liu, Guangzhi Wang, Pixu Liu
BACKGROUND: The cancer of the splenic flexure of the colon is a rare medical entity with severe morbidity because of its insidious onset. METHODS: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with dull left upper quadrant pain, leukocytosis, and anemia. A splenic abscess described as an air-fluid level with splenocolic fistula was found on CT scan imaging. Surgery was done for splenic pus drainage. He was again admitted 2 months later for intestinal obstruction...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yan Hua Kong, Qi Shi, Na Han, Ling Zhang, Yuan Yuan Zhang, Tong Xin Gao, Chen Chen, You Lin Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether recuperating lung decoction (RLD) can modulate the composition of gut microbiota in rats during asthma treatment. METHODS: Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly and equally into control group, model group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, RLD medium-dose group, and RLD high-dose group. The asthma model was established in all groups, except for the control group. The rats in the DEX and RLD groups were treated orally with DEX and RLD, respectively...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Hongjun Zhao, Lijuan Zhao, Wei Shi, Hui Luo, Liping Duan, Yunhui You, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
INTRODUCTION: Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome is rare systemic diseases characterized by a prodrome of fever, chills, and influenza-like symptoms with subsequent skin eruptions, myalgias, and polyarthralgias. It is reported to be occurred in Intestinal bypass surgery and inflammatory bowel disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein, we described a 29-years-old man with Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. He had no history of gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory bowel disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
Martina Goffredo, Kendra Mass, Elizabeth J Parks, David A Wagner, Emily Ann McClure, Joerg Graf, Mary Savoye, Bridget Pierpont, Gary Cline, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining the relationship of the gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids with obesity and fat partitioning and at testing potential differences in the ability of gut microbiota to ferment equal amounts of carbohydrates (CHO) between lean and obese youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the gut microbiota of 84 youth in whom body fat distribution was measured by fast-magnetic resonance imaging, de novo lipogenesis (DNL) quantitated using deuterated water, and the capability of gut flora to ferment CHO was assessed by (13)C-fructose treatment in vitro...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yong Hwan Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood. Genetic, immune, environmental, inflammatory, neurological and psychological factors contribute to the risk of this condition. Traditional research explored gastrointestinal motor abnormalities, central neural dysregulation, abnormal psychological features, and visceral hypersensitivity. More recent investigations consider bacterial overgrowth, abnormal serotonin pathways, altered gut flora, immune activation and mucosal inflammation...
September 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tawfik Khoury, Keren Tzukert, Roy Abel, Ayman Abu Rmeileh, Ronen Levi, Yaron Ilan
Evidence is accumulating to consider the gut microbiome as a central player in the gut-kidney axis. Microbiome products, such as advanced glycation end products, phenols, and indoles, are absorbed into the circulation but are cleared by normal-functioning kidneys. These products then become toxic and contribute to the uremic load and to the progression of chronic kidney failure. In this review, we discuss the gut-kidney interaction under the state of chronic kidney failure as well as the potential mechanisms by which a change in the gut flora (termed gut dysbiosis) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) exacerbates uremia and leads to further progression of CKD and inflammation...
September 16, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Qian Ba, Mian Li, Peizhan Chen, Chao Huang, Xiaohua Duan, Lijun Lu, Jingquan Li, Ruiai Chu, Dong Xie, Haiyun Song, Yongning Wu, Hao Ying, Xudong Jia, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Environmental cadmium, with a high average dietary intake, is a severe public health risk. However, the long-term health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium in different life stages remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of early exposure to cadmium, at an environmentally relevant dosage, on adult metabolism and the mechanism of action. METHODS: We established mouse models with low-dose cadmium (LDC) exposure in early life to examine the long-term metabolic consequences...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Javier Cabrera-Perez, Vladimir P Badovinac, Thomas S Griffith
Sepsis is a poorly understood syndrome of systemic inflammation responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. The integrity of the gut epithelium and competence of adaptive immune responses are notoriously compromised during sepsis, and the prevalent assumption in the scientific and medical community is that intestinal commensals have a detrimental role in the systemic inflammation and susceptibility to nosocomial infections seen in critically ill, septic patients. However, breakthroughs in the last decade provide strong credence to the idea that our mucosal microbiome plays an essential role in adaptive immunity, where a human host and its prokaryotic colonists seem to exist in a carefully negotiated armistice with compromises and benefits that go both ways...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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