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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778427/genomics-driven-approach-for-identification-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-in-salmonella-enterica
#1
Priyanka Gawade, Payel Ghosh
Salmonella enterica is a causative agent of enteric and systemic salmonellosis that affects human and many other animal species. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, available drugs against S. enterica infection are no more effective as before. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. The current study aims at prioritizing therapeutic targets by an in-silico genomics driven method. The method involves searching proteins of each Salmonella strain for essentiality, virulence and antibiotic-resistance and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774212/alkaline-peptone-water-based-enrichment-method-for-mcr-3-from-acute-diarrheic-outpatient-gut-samples
#2
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#3
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765322/therapeutic-potential-of-ginsenosides-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#5
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754180/diversity-roles-and-biotechnological-applications-of-symbiotic-microorganisms-in-the-gut-of-termite
#6
REVIEW
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751077/procyanidin-b2-protects-against-d-galactose-induced-mimetic-aging-in-mice-metabolites-and-microbiome-analysis
#7
Ying Xiao, Jialin Dong, Zhiting Yin, Qiguo Wu, Yiming Zhou, Xiaoli Zhou
To elucidate the possible mechanisms for the preventive effect of procyanidin B2 on aging, a combined analysis of metabolic profile and gut microbiome was carried out in the present study. The mimetic aged mice induced by d-galactose injection (500 mg/kg, sc daily), and the preventive group was fed with the diet plus 0.2% procyanidin B2. After 7 weeks of treatment, the spatial memory was assayed using the Morris water maze test. Procyanidin B2 significantly ameliorated the impaired memory and antioxidant abilities induced by d-galactose...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749694/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-brain-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#8
Dang Li, Yilang Ke, Rui Zhan, Changjie Liu, Mingming Zhao, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Liang Ji, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Gut microbiota can influence the aging process and may modulate aging-related changes in cognitive function. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of intestinal flora, has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease and other diseases. However, the relationship between TMAO and aging, especially brain aging, has not been fully elucidated. To explore the relationship between TMAO and brain aging, we analysed the plasma levels of TMAO in both humans and mice and administered exogenous TMAO to 24-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice for 16 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744928/parasutterella-in-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-intestinal-chronic-inflammation
#9
Yan-Jie Chen, Hao Wu, Sheng-Di Wu, Nan Lu, Yi-Ting Wang, Hai-Ning Liu, Ling Dong, Tao-Tao Liu, Xi-Zhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder. Recent studies have showed increasing important role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiological changes of IBS. Our study aims to elaborate the association between intestinal flora with the genesis and the development of IBS. METHODS: Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate microbial communities of IBS patients and healthy donors...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741145/tandem-mass-spectrometric-cell-wall-proteome-profiling-of-a-candida-albicans-hwp2-mutant-strain
#10
Andy Awad, Pamela El Khoury, Brigitte Wex, Roy A Khalaf
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is present as part of the normal gut flora and detected in the oral cavities and GI tracts of around fifty percent of adults. Benign colonization can turn pathogenic causing a variety of mild to severe infections. In a pathogen, the cell wall and cell surface proteins are major antigenic determinants and drug targets as they are the primary structures that contact the host. Cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions necessary for virulence such as adhesion, host degradation, resistance to oxidative stress, and drug resistance...
May 9, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728993/the-crosstalk-of-gut-microbiota-and-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-inflammation-proteinuria-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
May 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727052/bacteria-in-the-ageing-gut-did-the-taming-of-fire-promote-a-long-human-lifespan
#12
EDITORIAL
Antoine Danchin
Unique among animals as they evolved towards Homo sapiens, hominins progressively cooked their food on a routine basis. Cooked products are characterised by singular chemical compounds, derived from the pervasive Maillard reaction. This same reaction is omnipresent in normal metabolism involving carbonyls and amines, and its products accumulate with age. The gut microbiota acts as a first line of defence against the toxicity of cooked Maillard compounds, that also selectively shape the microbial flora, letting specific metabolites to reach the blood stream...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724256/gut-kidney-crosstalk-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#13
REVIEW
Jingxiao Zhang, Ghada Ankawi, Jian Sun, Kumar Digvijay, Yongjie Yin, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Septic AKI is a complex and multifactorial process that is incompletely understood. During sepsis, the disruption of the mucus membrane barrier, a shift in intestinal microbial flora, and microbial translocation may lead to systemic inflammation, which further alters host immune and metabolic homeostasis. This altered homeostasis may promote and potentiate the development of AKI. As part of this vicious cycle, when AKI develops, the clearance of inflammatory mediators and metabolic products is decreased...
May 3, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#14
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705499/high-salt-intake-increases-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-concentration-and-produces-gut-dysbiosis-in-rats
#15
Klaudia Bielinska, Marek Radkowski, Marta Grochowska, Karol Perlejewski, Tomasz Huc, Kinga Jaworska, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Marcin Ufnal
OBJECTIVE: A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705422/influence-of-bactrian-camel-milk-on-the-gut-microbiota
#16
Zhaoxia Wang, Wenyi Zhang, Bini Wang, Fuxin Zhang, Yuyu Shao
Bactrian camel milk has become popular in the market as an important source of nutrients with diverse functional effects. In this study, the influence of Bactrian camel milk on the gut microbiota of mice was studied using metagenomic-based sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla, accounting for more than 80% of the bacteria present. At the genus level, Allobaculum, Akkermansia, Romboutsia, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus were most abundant in the gut microbiota; of these, Allobaculum and Akkermansia were the predominant genera, representing 40...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694952/dysbiosis-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#17
Paul Enck, Nazar Mazurak
Functional bowel disorders (FBD) resemble a group of diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are without a clear pathogenesis; the best known is probably the "irritable bowel syndrome" (IBS). Only recently we have been able to explore the role of the gut microbiota in FBD due to progress in microbiological analytic techniques. There are different ways to explore the role of the gut microbiota and its dysbiosis in FBD. Comparison of the microbial composition in a group of patients with FBD, for example, with IBS to a group of healthy volunteers is one way...
April 25, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686534/the-neurodevelopmental-perspective-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#18
REVIEW
Chariton Moschopoulos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Bhairav V Shah, Anja Mowes, Vineet Bhandari
This state-of-the-art review article aims to highlight the most recent evidence about the therapeutic options of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, focusing on the molecular basis of the gut-brain axis in relevance to the neurodevelopmental outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage and primary laparotomy. Current evidence favors primary laparotomy over primary peritoneal drainage as regards neurodevelopment in the surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. The added exposure to inhalational anesthesia in infants undergoing primary laparotomy is an additional confounding variable but requires further study...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682542/gut-microbial-changes-interactions-and-their-implications-on-human-lifecycle-an-ageing-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682169/draft-genome-sequence-of-fermentimonas-caenicola-strain-sit8-isolated-from-the-human-gut
#20
Mamadou Beye, Sofiane Bakour, Sory Ibrahima Traore, Jaishriram Rathored, Noémie Labas, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
We report the properties of a draft genome sequence of the bacterium Fermentimonas caenicola strain SIT8 (= CSUR P1560). This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy 28-month-old Senegalese boy. Strain SIT8 is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,824,451-bp long (1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 2354 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including four rRNA genes...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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