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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534820/antioxidant-properties-of-probiotic-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Yanping Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Han Xu, Xiaoqiang Mei, Dongyou Yu, Yibing Wang, Weifen Li
Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527509/impact-of-qi-invigorating-traditional-chinese-medicines-on-intestinal-flora-a-basis-for-rational-choice-of-prebiotics
#2
REVIEW
Xiao-Meng Wang, Xiao-Bo Li, Ying Peng
According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qi (vital energy) is regarded as a driving force of biological activities in human body, including both nutrient substances and organ functions. Qi-invigorating TCMs are widely used to treat various symptoms and disorders, such as fatigue, obesity, immunosuppression, intestinal flora imbalance, and gastrointestinal diseases, in which Qi is considered to be reduced or depleted. Interestingly, abundant clinical evidences suggest that these disorders are associated with the alternation of intestinal flora, which directly affects disease status...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#3
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507927/immune-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis
#4
REVIEW
Mohd Talha Noor, Piyush Manoria
Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. It also plays an important role in acute as well as chronic decompensation. Immune paralysis can accompany it, which is characterized by increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506251/diversity-in-vitro-virulence-traits-and-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-of-gastrointestinal-yeast-flora-of-healthy-poultry-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#5
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Nawal Kishor Sharan, Bharat Prasad Baral, Deependra Hamal, Niranjan Nayak, Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash, Brijesh Sathian, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
BACKGROUND: Poultry farming and consumption of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) meat and eggs are common gastronomical practices worldwide. Till now, a detailed understanding about the gut colonisation of Gallus gallus domesticus by yeasts and their virulence properties and drug resistance patterns in available literature remain sparse. This study was undertaken to explore this prevalent issue. RESULTS: A total of 103 specimens of fresh droppings of broiler chickens (commercial G domesticus) and domesticated chickens (domesticated G domesticus) were collected from the breeding sites...
May 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502769/tracing-the-enterococci-from-paleozoic-origins-to-the-hospital
#7
François Lebreton, Abigail L Manson, Jose T Saavedra, Timothy J Straub, Ashlee M Earl, Michael S Gilmore
We examined the evolutionary history of leading multidrug resistant hospital pathogens, the enterococci, to their origin hundreds of millions of years ago. Our goal was to understand why, among the vast diversity of gut flora, enterococci are so well adapted to the modern hospital environment. Molecular clock estimation, together with analysis of their environmental distribution, phenotypic diversity, and concordance with host fossil records, place the origins of the enterococci around the time of animal terrestrialization, 425-500 mya...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502237/investigation-of-the-effective-components-of-the-flowers-of-trollius-chinensis-from-the-perspectives-of-intestinal-bacterial-transformation-and-intestinal-absorption
#8
Lina Guo, Shanshan Qiao, Junhong Hu, Deli Li, Shiqi Zheng, Duozhi Shi, Junxiu Liu, Rufeng Wang
CONTEXT: The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae), used for respiratory tract infections, mainly contain flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids; however, the effective components are debatable because of their unclear in vivo activities. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effective components from the perspectives of biotransformation and absorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both single person derived- and multiple people-derived intestinal florae were used to investigate the biotransformation of aqueous extract of the flowers of T...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497047/association-study-of-gut-flora-in-coronary-heart-disease-through-high-throughput-sequencing
#9
Li Cui, Tingting Zhao, Haibing Hu, Wen Zhang, Xiuguo Hua
Objectives. We aimed to explore the impact of gut microbiota in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients through high-throughput sequencing. Methods. A total of 29 CHD in-hospital patients and 35 healthy volunteers as controls were included. Nucleic acids were extracted from fecal samples, followed by α diversity and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Based on unweighted UniFrac distance matrices, unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) trees were created. Results. After data optimization, an average of 121312 ± 19293 reads in CHD patients and 234372 ± 108725 reads in controls was obtained...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490333/micronutrient-powders-to-combat-anemia-in-young-children-does-it-work
#10
Frank T Wieringa
In developing countries, anemia and iron deficiency in early childhood are two highly prevalent public health problems. Providing caregivers with a powder containing multiple vitamins and minerals (also known as micronutrient powder or MNP) as a food supplement is a widely used strategy to combat these problems. However, concerns exist around MNP programs with regards to effectiveness and potential negative impact on diarrheal disease prevalence and gut flora. Teshome et al. (BMC Medicine 15:89, 2017) recently tested a MNP with a new iron formulation, iron-EDTA, which has a potentially higher bioavailability and thus requires a lower iron content...
May 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485708/molecular-study-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-resistant-to-carbapenems-and-determining-their-clonal-relationship-using-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#11
Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Hassan Mahmoudi, Zahra Karimitabar, Hamid Solgi, Abbas Bahador, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
PURPOSE: Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria that are considered as normal gut flora. They are the most common human pathogens. The main objective of this study was to investigate the carbapenemase genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and determine their clonal relationship using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). METHODOLOGY: In the present study, bacteria were isolated and identified via conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484457/type-i-and-type-iii-interferons-display-different-dependency-on-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-to-mount-an-antiviral-state-in-the-human-gut
#12
Kalliopi Pervolaraki, Megan L Stanifer, Stephanie Münchau, Lynnsey A Renn, Dorothee Albrecht, Stefan Kurzhals, Elena Senís, Dirk Grimm, Jutta Schröder-Braunstein, Ronald L Rabin, Steeve Boulant
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are constantly exposed to commensal flora and pathogen challenges. How IECs regulate their innate immune response to maintain gut homeostasis remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines produced during infections. While type I IFN receptors are ubiquitously expressed, type III IFN receptors are expressed only on epithelial cells. This epithelium specificity strongly suggests exclusive functions at epithelial surfaces, but the relative roles of type I and III IFNs in the establishment of an antiviral innate immune response in human IECs are not clearly defined...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484429/protective-effect-of-carvacrol-against-gut-dysbiosis-and-clostridium-difficile-associated-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Shankumar Mooyottu, Genevieve Flock, Abhinav Upadhyay, Indu Upadhyaya, Kendra Maas, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
This study investigated the effect of carvacrol (CR), a phytophenolic compound on antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and C. difficile infection in a mouse model. Five to six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (challenge and control) of eight mice each. Mice were fed with irradiated feed supplemented with CR (0, 0.05, and 0.1%); the challenge groups were made susceptible to C. difficile by orally administering an antibiotic cocktail in water and an intra-peritoneal injection of clindamycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482341/indigo-naturalis-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-dermatitis-but-aggravates-colitis-by-changing-the-composition-of-gut-microflora
#14
Soichiro Adachi, Namiko Hoshi, Jun Inoue, Eiichiro Yasutomi, Takafumi Otsuka, Ramesh Dhakhwa, Zi Wang, Yuna Koo, Toshihiro Takamatsu, Yuriko Matsumura, Haruka Yamairi, Daisuke Watanabe, Makoto Ooi, Toshihito Tanahashi, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: Indigo naturalis (IND) is an herbal medicine that has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat diseases including dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease in China. However, the mechanism by which IND exerts its immunomodulatory effect is not well understood. METHODS: A murine model of dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease, both induced by oxazolone (OXA), was treated with IND. The severity of dermatitis was evaluated based on ear thickness measurements and histological scoring...
May 9, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476717/review-ulcerative-colitis-and-probiotics-an-overview
#15
Irfan Ahmad Rather, Rajib Majumder, Fanar Hamad Alshammari, Jae Gyu Park, Vivek Kumar Bajpai
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine whose effects are bloody diarrhea, cramping and bloating. The disease is usually relapsing and remitting. However, the cause of ulcerative colitis is not yet known. Due to this reason, finding an effective treatment has been a great challenge. The suggested medical treatment is usually composed of two portions; keeping the flare up from happening and treating the flare up when it has happened. Active flare ups are treated with corticosteroids...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474815/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-a-reduction-in-t-cell-activation-an-increase-in-th17-frequencies-and-a-recovery-of-intestinal-epithelium-integrity-and-mitochondrial-morphology-in-art-treated-hiv-1-positive-patients
#16
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giacomo Rossi, Carolina Scagnolari, Mauro Andreotti, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Vito Trinchieri, Paola Mastromarino, Carla Selvaggi, Silvia Scarpona, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6)...
April 20, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473812/a-metagenomics-investigation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-saudi-sheep
#17
Saad Al-Masaudi, Abdessamad El Kaoutari, Elodie Drula, Hussein Al-Mehdar, Elrashdy M Redwan, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat
The digestive microbiota of humans and of a wide range of animals has recently become amenable to in-depth studies due to the emergence of DNA-based metagenomic techniques that do not require cultivation of gut microbes. These techniques are now commonly used to explore the feces of humans and animals under the assumption that such samples are faithful proxies for the intestinal microbiota. Sheep (Ovis aries) are ruminant animals particularly adapted to life in arid regions and in particular Najdi, Noaimi (Awassi), and Harrei (Harri) breeds that are raised in Saudi Arabia for milk and/or meat production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453589/-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-tract-lymphoid-tissue-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Manuel G Feria, Natalia A Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, María T Rugeles
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#19
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435840/microbial-flora-probiotics-bacillus-subtilis-and-the-search-for-a-long-and-healthy-human-longevity
#20
COMMENT
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Sebastián Cogliati, Cecilia Leñini, Marco Bartolini, Roberto Grau
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on host health, including extended lifespan, when they are administered or present in adequate quantities. However, the mechanisms by which probiotics stimulate host longevity remain unclear and very poorly understood. In a recent study (Nat. Commun. 8, 14332 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332), we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanism by which a probiotic bacterium affects host longevity...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Cell
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