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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074652/trends-in-methyl-tert-butyl-ether-concentrations-in-private-wells-in-southeast-new-hampshire-2005-to-2015
#1
Sarah M Flanagan, Joseph P Levitt, Joseph D Ayotte
In southeast New Hampshire, where reformulated gasoline was used from the 1990s to 2007, methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations ≥0.2 μg/L were found in water from 26.7% of 195 domestic wells sampled in 2005. Ten years later in 2015, and eight years after MtBE was banned, 10.3% continue to have MtBE. Most wells (140 of 195) had no MtBE detections (concentrations <0.2 μg/L) in 2005 and 2015. Of the remaining wells, MtBE concentrations increased in 4 wells, decreased in 47 wells, and did not change in 4 wells...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046816/su-f-p-24-radiological-disperse-device
#2
R Alam
PURPOSE: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. METHODS: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043561/identification-of-different-subtypes-of-rapid-growing-atypical-mycobacterium-from-water-and-soil-sources-using-pcr-rflp-using-hsp65-and-rrna-16s-23s-genes
#3
Mohammad Varahram, Parissa Farnia, Shima Saif, Mehran Marashian, Poopak Farnia, Jaladein Ghanavi, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (<7days) and slow growing (>7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043549/effect-of-time-duration-of-digestion-decontamination-technique-on-yield-of-mycobacteria-and-contamination-rates-from-sterile-body-fluids-pleural-and-ascitic-fluid-and-pus-specimens
#4
Samreen Shafiq, Faryal Saleem, Kauser Jabeen, Joveria Farooqi, Warda Alam, Sadia Hanif, Shazia Ali, Sadia Shakoor, Rumina Hasan
BACKGROUND: Duration of digestion/decontamination has a considerable impact on yield of mycobacteria especially from sterile body fluids and pus specimens. Additionally, duration of digestion/decontamination affects the contamination rates. This study evaluates the effect of digestion/decontamination protocol for 15 and 20min versus inoculation of media directly from the sample on contamination rates as well as the yield of mycobacteria from pus and sterile fluids other than cerebrospinal fluids...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040848/new-proof-of-concept-in-viral-inactivation-virucidal-efficacy-of-405%C3%A2-nm-light-against-feline-calicivirus-as-a-model-for-norovirus-decontamination
#5
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Elizabeth Graham, Michael McDonald, Chintamani D Atreya, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS-generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting, and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV)...
December 31, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039835/toxicokinetics-of-chlordecone-in-goats-implications-for-risk-management-in-french-west-indies
#6
Agnès Fournier, Cyril Feidt, Marie-Laure Lastel, Harry Archimede, Jean-Pierre Thome, Maurice Mahieu, Guido Rychen
The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. CLD is known to be potentially transferred towards animal products of animals reared outdoors, mainly through accidental soil ingestion. Several studies indicate that soil bound CLD is bioavailable when administered to farm animals. Currently there is a need to quantify the level of CLD absorption and its toxicokinetic characteristics in the ruminant and particularly in the goat. These are considered as important farm species in the French West Indies...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029612/what-are-the-most-common-domains-of-the-core-competencies-of-disaster-nursing-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Abdullelah Al Thobaity, Virginia Plummer, Brett Williams
AIM: Scoping review was conducted to identify the most common domains of the core competencies of disaster nursing. BACKGROUND: Nurses play an essential role in all phases of disaster management. For nurses to respond competently, they must be equipped with the skills to provide comprehensive and holistic care to the populations affected by or at risk of disasters. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology...
October 28, 2016: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974372/non-communicable-diseases-in-decontamination-workers-in-areas-affected-by-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster-a-retrospective-observational-study
#8
Toyoaki Sawano, Masaharu Tsubokura, Akihiko Ozaki, Claire Leppold, Shuhei Nomura, Yuki Shimada, Sae Ochi, Manabu Tsukada, Tsuyoshi Nemoto, Shigeaki Kato, Yukio Kanazawa, Hiromichi Ohira
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and whether NCDs were treated or not, among hospitalised decontamination workers who moved to radio-contaminated areas after Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. METHODS: We retrospectively extracted records of decontamination workers admitted to Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital between 1 June 2012 and 31 August 2015, from hospital records. We investigated the incidence of underlying NCDs such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes among the decontamination workers, and their treatment status, in addition to the reasons for their hospital admission...
December 14, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964768/evaluation-of-hospitals-disaster-preparedness-plans-in-the-holy-city-of-makkah-mecca-a-cross-sectional-observation-study
#9
Ali S Al-Shareef, Loui K Alsulimani, Hattan M Bojan, Taha M Masri, Jennifer O Grimes, Michael S Molloy, Gregory R Ciottone
BACKGROUND: Makkah (Mecca) is a holy city located in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each year, millions of pilgrims visit Makkah. These numbers impact both routine health care delivery and disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate hospitals' disaster plans in the city of Makkah. METHODS: Study investigators administered a questionnaire survey to 17 hospitals in the city of Makkah. Data on hospital characteristics and three key domains of disaster plans (general evaluation of disaster planning, structural feasibility of the hospitals, and health care worker knowledge and training) were collated and analyzed...
December 14, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927920/validation-of-autoclave-protocols-for-the-successful-decontamination-of-category-a-medical-waste-generated-from-the-care-of-patients-with-serious-communicable-diseases
#10
Brian T Garibaldi, Mallory Reimers, Neysa Ernst, Gregory Bova, Elaine Nowakowski, James Bukowski, Brandon C Ellis, Chris Smith, Lauren Sauer, Kim Dionne, Karen C Carroll, Lisa L Maragakis, Nicole M Parrish
In response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, many hospitals designated specific areas to care for patients with Ebola and other highly infectious diseases. The safe handling of Category A infectious substances is a unique challenge in this environment. One solution is onsite waste treatment with a steam sterilizer or autoclave. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) installed two pass-through autoclaves in its Biocontainment Unit (BCU). The JHH BCU and The Johns Hopkins Biosafety Level 3 Clinical Microbiology Laboratory designed and validated waste handling protocols with simulated patient trash to ensure adequate sterilization...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914287/an-assessment-of-the-environmental-fate-of-mercury-species-in-highly-polluted-brownfields-by-means-of-thermal-desorption
#11
M Rumayor, J R Gallego, E Rodríguez-Valdés, M Díaz-Somoano
High contents of mercury (Hg) have been found in old mining-metallurgy sites occurring a widespread contamination and degradation of the land. The ability to identify the Hg species present in these areas is essential to clarify fate of Hg and its bioavailability and additionally, to be able to parameterize remediation techniques based on thermal desorption in order to carry out a full-scale decontamination of the land. This study has proven the usefulness of a thermal programmed desorption procedure (Hg-TPD) for identifying Hg species in contaminated samples related to mining-metallurgy activities...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912317/production-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-og-and-its-metabolites-in-renewable-media-valorisation-for-biodiesel-production-and-p-xylene-decontamination
#12
Augusto Etchegaray, François Coutte, Gabrielle Chataigné, Max Béchet, Ramon H Z Dos Santos, Valérie Leclère, Philippe Jacques
Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910909/the-disinfection-characteristics-of-ebola-virus-outbreak-variants
#13
Bradley W M Cook, Todd A Cutts, Aidan M Nikiforuk, Anders Leung, Darwyn Kobasa, Steven S Theriault
The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has forced experts to re-evaluate their understanding of how to best disinfect areas contaminated with infectious bodily fluids. Recent research has found that Ebola virus remains viable in blood for 7-10 days making appropriate disinfection crucial to infection control. We sought to determine if the three most important outbreak variants of Zaire ebolavirus (Mayinga, Kikwit and Makona) exhibit separate phenotypes when challenged with a range of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentrations or 70% ethanol (EtOH) at average West African temperature...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889181/brazilian-cerrado-soil-reveals-an-untapped-microbial-potential-for-unpretreated-polyethylene-biodegradation
#14
Julianna Peixoto, Luciano P Silva, Ricardo H Krüger
Discarded PE-based products pose a social and environmental threat because of their recalcitrance to degradation, a consequence of the unique set of PE's physicochemical properties. In this study we isolated nine novel PE-degrading bacteria from plastic debris found in soil of the savanna-like Brazilian Cerrado. These bacterial strains from the genera Comamonas, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas showed metabolic activity and cellular viability after a 90-day incubation with PE as the sole carbon source. ATR/FTIR indicated that biodegraded PE undergone oxidation, vinylene formation, chain scission, among other chemical changes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886986/decontamination-and-recovery-of-a-nuclear-facility-to-allow-continued-operation
#15
Josh Cavaghan
A power supply failure caused a loss of power to key ventilation systems in an operating nuclear facility. The in-cell depression was lost, which led to an egress of activity through prepared areas and into the normal operating areas. After an initial programme of radiological monitoring to quantify and categorise the activity in the operating areas, a plan was developed for the decontamination and remediation of the plant. The scope of the recovery plan was substantial and featured several key stages. The contamination was almost entirely (137)Cs, reflecting the α:β/γ ratio for the facility...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884531/using-groundwater-age-distributions-to-understand-changes-in-methyl-tert-butyl-ether-mtbe-concentrations-in-ambient-groundwater-northeastern-united-states
#16
Bruce D Lindsey, Joseph D Ayotte, Bryant C Jurgens, Leslie A Desimone
Temporal changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MtBE based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions. MtBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10year intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878901/radioactive-cesium-and-potassium-in-cattle-living-in-the-zone-in-preparation-for-the-lifting-of-the-evacuation-order-of-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#17
Itaru Sato, Jun Sasaki, Hiroshi Satoh, Takahisa Murata, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada
To contribute to the reconstruction of livestock industry in Fukushima, radioactive cesium ((134) Cs, (137) Cs) and potassium ((4) °K) were measured in various tissues of beef cattle living in an area where the evacuation order will be lifted in the near future. Radioactive cesium concentration was less than 100 Bq/kg in most of the samples. Skeletal muscles and kidney had the highest concentrations of radioactive cesium, whereas the liver was lowest among samples, excepting blood. Radioactive cesium concentration in the sirloin, tenderloin and top round was significantly higher than that in the neck muscle...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845748/validation-of-contamination-control-in-rapid-transfer-port-chambers-for-pharmaceutical-manufacturing-processes
#18
Shih-Cheng Hu, Angus Shiue, Han-Yang Liu, Rong-Ben Chiu
There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835846/soil-amendments-effects-on-radiocesium-translocation-in-forest-soils
#19
Yuki Sugiura, Hajime Ozawa, Mitsutoshi Umemura, Chisato Takenaka
We conducted an experiment to investigate the potential of phytoremediation by soil amendments in a forest area. To desorb radiocesium ((137)Cs) from variable charges in the soil, ammonium sulfate (NH4(+)) and elemental sulfur (S) (which decrease soil pH) were applied to forest soil collected from contaminated area at a rate of 40 and 80 g/m(2), respectively. A control condition with no soil treatment was also considered. We defined four groups of aboveground conditions: planted with Quercus serrata, planted with Houttuynia cordata, covered with rice straw as litter, and unplanted/uncovered (control)...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790383/mass-casualty-decontamination-guidance-and-psychosocial-aspects-of-cbrn-incident-management-a-review-and-synthesis
#20
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt
INTRODUCTION: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents...
September 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
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