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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023806/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-vx-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#1
Helen Lydon, Charlotte Hall, Hazem Matar, Christopher Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for the decontamination of superficial, nerve agent-contaminated wounds. Anaesthetized animals were randomly assigned to either control (n = 7), no decontamination (n = 12) or WoundStat™ (n = 12) treatment groups. Pigs were exposed to a 5× LD50 dose of neat, radiolabelled S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methyl-phosphonothioate (VX; or equivalent volume of sterile saline for the control group) via an area of superficially damaged skin on the ear...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022219/photoreduction-of-cr-vi-in-water-using-bivo4-fe3o4-nano-photocatalyst-under-visible-light-irradiation
#2
Tingling Ke, Hongguang Guo, Yongli Zhang, Yang Liu
The residuals of hexavalent chromium in the aquatic environment have raised much concern for water decontamination. In this study, BiVO4-Fe3O4 was synthesized using a solvothermal method and adopted as a photoreduction catalyst to removal of Cr(VI) in water under visible light irradiation. The physical and chemical properties of BiVO4-Fe3O4 were characterized by UV-vis-DRS, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and BET. The results demonstrated that the band gap for the obtained material is 1.74 eV with an average size of 15 nm and a specific surface area of 55...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980459/incorporating-germination-induction-into-decontamination-strategies-for-bacterial-spores
#3
REVIEW
Lara J Kohler, Avery V Quirk, Susan L Welkos, Christopher K Cote
Bacterial spores resist environmental extremes and protect key spore macromolecules until more supportive conditions arise. Spores germinate upon sensing specific molecules, such as nutrients. Germination is regulated by specialized mechanisms, such as structural features of the spore that limit contact with germinants and enzymes that regulate germination. Importantly, germination renders spores more susceptible to inactivating processes such as heat, desiccation, and ultraviolet radiation, to which they are normally refractory...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970226/the-potentiating-effect-of-mandelate-and-lactate-on-chemically-induced-germination-in-members-of-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato
#4
Alistair H Bishop
Endospores of the genus Bacillus can be triggered to germinate by a limited number of chemicals. Mandelate had a powerful, additive effect on the level and rate of germination produced in non-heat shocked spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis when combined with L-alanine and inosine. Mandelate had no germinant effect on its own but was active with these germinants in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 0.5 mM. The maximum rate and extent of germination was produced in B...
September 29, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953347/highly-potent-antibacterial-organometallic-peptide-conjugates
#5
Bauke Albada, Nils Metzler-Nolte
Resistance of pathogenic bacteria against currently marketed antibiotics is again increasing. To meet the societal need for effective cures, scientists are faced with the challenge of developing more potent but equally bacteria-specific drugs. Currently, most efforts are directed toward the modification of existing antibiotics, but ideally, compounds with a new mode of action are required. In this Account, we detail our findings in the area of novel metal-based antibiotics. Our strategy is based on the modification of simple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with organometallic agents, resulting in organometallic AMPs (OM-AMPs)...
September 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939316/controlling-a-possible-outbreak-of-candida-auris-infection-lessons-learnt-from-multiple-interventions
#6
Manisha Biswal, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Neha Jain, A S Shamanth, Dipti Sharma, Kajal Jain, L N Yaddanapudi, A Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant Candida auris infection has been reported from five continents in recent years. The prevalence of C. auris invasive infection has been estimated at 5.3% for intensive care acquired candidaemia, in India. The transmission of the organism between the patients and from environment to patients is rapid. AIM: To understand the intra-hospital dynamics of C. auris transmission and determine the possible interventions to prevent its spread...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938866/the-interpretation-of-hair-analysis-for-drugs-and-drug-metabolites
#7
Eva Cuypers, Robert J Flanagan
INTRODUCTION: Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932363/cadmium-toxicity-and-treatment-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Mehrdad Rafati Rahimzadeh, Mehravar Rafati Rahimzadeh, Sohrab Kazemi, Ali-Akbar Moghadamnia
Cadmium poisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. It is one of the global health problems that affect many organs and in some cases it can cause deaths annually. Long-term exposure to cadmium through air, water, soil, and food leads to cancer and organ system toxicity such as skeletal, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous, and respiratory systems. Cadmium levels can be measured in the blood, urine, hair, nail and saliva samples. Patients with cadmium toxicity need gastrointestinal tract irrigation, supportive care, and chemical decontamination traditional-based chelation therapy with appropriate new chelating agents and nanoparticle-based antidotes...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923588/development-of-silver-nanoparticle-doped-adsorbents-for-the-separation-and-recovery-of-radioactive-iodine-from-alkaline-solutions
#9
Taewoon Kim, Seung-Kon Lee, Suseung Lee, Jun Sig Lee, Sang Wook Kim
Removing radioactive iodine from solutions containing fission products is essential for nuclear facility decontamination, radioactive waste treatment, and medical isotope production. For example, the production of high-purity fission (99)Mo by irradiation of (235)U with neutrons involves the removal of iodine from an alkaline solution of the irradiated target (which contains numerous fission products and a large quantity of aluminate ions) using silver-based materials or anion-exchange resins. To be practically applicable, the utilized iodine adsorbent should exhibit a decontamination factor of at least 200...
November 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914834/-plasma-management-in-complex-treatment-of-late-inflammatory-complications-after-injection-contour-plasty-with-polyacrylamide-gel
#10
A M Shulutko, E G Osmanov, I V Novikova, S L Chochiya, V P Seredin, A D Macharadze
AIM: To improve the results of treatment of late inflammatory complications after injection contour plasty with polyacrylamide gel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors analyze treatment of 21 patients with late septic complications of body contour plasty with polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) for the period 2010-2015. Mean age of women was 47.4 years. Time after primary intervention was 10-22 years. The depth of soft tissue lesion corresponded to II-III grade by D. Ahrenholz classification (1991), length - from 67 to 180 cm2...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894442/isolation-and-characterization-of-phenanthrene-degrading-bacteria-from-diesel-fuel-contaminated-antarctic-soils
#11
Alejandro Gran-Scheuch, Edwar Fuentes, Denisse M Bravo, Juan Cristobal Jiménez, José M Pérez-Donoso
Antarctica is an attractive target for human exploration and scientific investigation, however the negative effects of human activity on this continent are long lasting and can have serious consequences on the native ecosystem. Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Bioremediation of PAHs by the activity of microorganisms is an ecological, economical, and safe decontamination approach...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893449/successful-control-of-2-simultaneous-outbreaks-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#12
A Robustillo-Rodela, V Pérez-Blanco, M A Espinel Ruiz, G Ruiz Carrascoso, J C Figueira Iglesias, D Abad Martín
BACKGROUND: This report describes a double outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effectiveness of measures implemented, including decontamination with vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP). METHODS: Affected patients were isolated in a confined area and cared for by dedicated personnel. Four percent chlorhexidine soap was used for patient daily hygiene...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853336/the-percutaneous-absorption-of-soman-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#13
Christopher Dalton, Charlotte Hall, Helen Lydon, John Jenner, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a candidate haemostat (WoundStat™), down-selected from previous in vitro studies, for efficacy as a potential skin decontaminant against the chemical warfare agent pinacoyl methylfluorophosphonate (Soman, GD) using an in vivo pig model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An area of approximately 3 cm(2) was dermatomed from the dorsal ear skin to a nominal depth of 100 µm. A discrete droplet of (14)C-GD (300 µg kg(-1)) was applied directly onto the surface of the damaged skin at the centre of the dosing site...
August 30, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830223/defining-the-costs-of-reusable-flexible-ureteroscope-reprocessing-using-time-driven-activity-based-costing
#14
Dylan Isaacson, Tessnim Ahmad, Ian Metzler, David T Tzou, Kazumi Taguchi, Manint Usawachintachit, Samuel Zetumer, Benjamin Sherer, Marshall Stoller, Thomas Chi
PURPOSE: Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817098/estimation-of-the-vertical-distribution-of-radiocesium-in-soil-on-the-basis-of-the-characteristics-of-gamma-ray-spectra-obtained-via-aerial-radiation-monitoring-using-an-unmanned-helicopter
#15
Kotaro Ochi, Miyuki Sasaki, Mutsushi Ishida, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Taku Nishimura, Yukihisa Sanada
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804670/synthesis-and-characterization-of-mixed-iron-manganese-oxide-nanoparticles-and-their-application-for-efficient-nickel-ion-removal-from-aqueous-samples
#16
Alessandro Buccolieri, Antonio Serra, Giuseppe Maruccio, Anna Grazia Monteduro, Sanosh Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan, Antonio Licciulli, Valentina Bonfrate, Luca Salvatore, Daniela Manno, Lucio Calcagnile, Gabriele Giancane
Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, synthesized by a simple procedure, were used to remove nickel ion from aqueous solutions. Nanostructures, prepared by using different weight percents of manganese, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption/desorption isotherm curves demonstrated that manganese inclusions enhance the specific surface area three times and the pores volume ten times...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778008/distribution-of-137-cs-on-components-in-urban-area-four-years-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
K Yoshimura, K Saito, K Fujiwara
Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban areas such as roofs and roads is crucial for evaluating the behavior of radiocesium and ambient dose rates in the area. This study evaluated relative (137)Cs inventories, which are defined as the relative values of (137)Cs inventory on each component to that on a nearby permeable plane field, for 11 buildings in the evacuation zone about four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The average relative inventory of paved ground accounted for 0...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764137/modeling-the-aqueous-phase-reactivity-of-hydroxyl-radical-towards-diverse-organic-micropollutants-an-aid-to-water-decontamination-processes
#18
Shikha Gupta, Nikita Basant
The rate constants of the hydroxyl radical reactions (kOH) with organic micropollutants (OMPs) in aqueous medium are important in designing the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for their removal. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for the prediction of kOH of diverse and emerging OMPs was developed in accordance with the OECD guidelines. A large experimental data set (n = 995) comprised of compounds with kOH values ranging from 7.9 × 10(5) to 6.8 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) was considered and several molecular descriptors were calculated...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756961/efficacy-of-photon-induced-photoacoustic-streaming-in-the-reduction-of-enterococcus-faecalis-within-the-root-canal-different-settings-and-different-sodium-hypochlorite-concentrations
#19
Barbara Skrlj Golob, Giovanni Olivi, Mirijam Vrabec, Rita El Feghali, Steven Parker, Stefano Benedicenti
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laser-activated irrigation by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) in the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal disinfection, varying laser energy output, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentration. For effective removal of the smear layer, the sequence and resting time of the final irrigation steps were modified compared with the standard PIPS protocol. METHODS: Eighty-six extracted single-rooted teeth were mechanically prepared, sterilized, and inoculated with E...
October 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724453/decrease-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization-after-extensive-renovation-of-a-unit-dedicated-to-the-treatment-of-hematologic-malignancies-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Clyde D Ford, Michaela A Gazdik Stofer, Jana Coombs, Bert K Lopansri, Brandon J Webb, Gabriela Motyckova, Finn Bo Petersen
OBJECTIVE While a direct relation between hospital construction and concomitant infection rates has been clearly established, few data are available regarding the environmental decontamination effects of renovation in which surfaces are replaced and regarding subsequent infection incidence. DESIGN Retrospective clinical study with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) molecular strain typing and environmental cultures. SETTING A regional referral center for acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation...
September 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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