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area decontamination

Isao Komiya, Yoshiyuki Umezu, Toshioh Fujibuchi, Kazumasa Nakamura, Shingo Baba, Hiroshi Honda
The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Lucía López-Rodríguez, Miguel A de la Cal, Paloma García-Hierro, Raquel Herrero, Judith Martins, Hendrick K F van Saene, José A Lorente
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) attenuates organ dysfunction in critically ill burn patients. BACKGROUND: The effect of SDD on the development and progression of organ dysfunction, as an important determinant of mortality in burned patients, is still unknown. We asked whether organ dysfunction is mitigated by treatment with SDD. METHODS: Patients with burns >20% of total body surface or suspected inhalation injury from a randomized placebo-controlled trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between treatment received (placebo or SDD) and the severity of organ dysfunction as measured by the area under the curve of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (and its individual components) from day 1 to day 7 of admission...
November 2016: Shock
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
Zhipan Wen, Yalei Zhang, Sheng Guo, Rong Chen
Iron manganese bimetal oxides (IMBO) nanospheres were synthesized via a facile and environmentally friendly template-free approach. The obtained IMBO with large surface area and abundant surface functional groups exhibited excellent performance for heavy metals removal from aqueous solution, with the maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) and Cr(VI) were 132.77mg/g and 105.96mg/g, respectively. The adsorption mechanism study confirmed that except for electrostatic attraction, both surface hydroxyl group (OH(-)) and carbonate group (CO3(2-)) simultaneously played a key role in the ion-exchange process with As(V) and Cr(VI) species, which finally formed inner-sphere surface complexes on the interface of IMBO...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nejla Hechmi, Luciano Bosso, Leila El-Bassi, Rosalia Scelza, Antonino Testa, Naceur Jedidi, Maria A Rao
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a toxic compound which is widely used as a wood preservative product and general biocide. It is persistent in the environment and has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant to be reclaimed in many countries. Fungal bioremediation is an emerging approach to rehabilitating areas fouled by recalcitrant xenobiotics. In the present study, we isolated two fungal strains from an artificially PCP-contaminated soil during a long-term bioremediation study and evaluated their potential as bioremediation agents in depletion and detoxification of PCP in soil microcosms...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Parviz Mohajeri, Laya Yazdani, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Amirhoshang Alvandi, Sara Atashi, Abbas Farahani, Ali Almasi, Mansour Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are habitants of environment, especially in aquatic systems. Some of them cause problems in immunodeficient patients. Over the last decade, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was established in 45 novel species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Experiences revealed that this method underestimates the diversity, but does not distinguish between some of mycobacterium subsp. To recognize emerging rapidly growing mycobacteria and identify their subsp, rpoB gene sequencing has been developed...
September 26, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
S Katsumi
On 19 April 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology designated 13 elementary schools, including Tominari Elementary School in Date city, as high-dose schools that needed to restrict outdoor activities due to the effects of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Approximately 1 week later, the municipal government took action to remove the topsoil from the school grounds, and the prohibition of outdoor activities at Tominari Elementary School was lifted. The school staff continued to work on decontaminating the surrounding areas using high-pressure washers and brushes...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Ahmed G El-Deen, Remko M Boom, Hak Yong Kim, Hongwei Duan, Mary B Chan-Park, Jae-Hwan Choi
Nanoporous graphene based materials are a promising nanostructured carbon for energy storage and electrosorption applications. We present a novel and facile strategy for fabrication of asymmetrically functionalized microporous activated graphene electrodes for high performance capacitive desalination and disinfection of brackish water. Briefly, thiocarbohydrazide coated silica nanoparticles intercalated graphene sheets are used as a sacrificial material for creating mesoporous graphene followed by alkaline activation process...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
João P Vareda, Artur J M Valente, Luisa Durães
Heavy metals are dangerous pollutants that in spite of occurring naturally are released in major amounts to the environment due to anthropogenic activities. After being released in the environment, the heavy metals end up in the soils where they accumulate as they do not degrade, adversely affecting the biota. Because of the dynamic equilibria between soil constituents, the heavy metals may be present in different phases such as the solid phase (immobilized contaminants) or dissolved in soil solution. The latter form is the most dangerous because the ions are mobile, can leach and be absorbed by living organisms...
August 21, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Andrew Gostine, David Gostine, Cristina Donohue, Luke Carlstrom
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum light for decontamination of patient care areas is an effective way to reduce transmission of infectious pathogens. Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of an automated UV-C device to eliminate bioburden on hospital computer keyboards. METHODS: The study took place at an academic hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Baseline cultures were obtained from keyboards in intensive care units. Automated UV-C lamps were installed over keyboards and mice of those computers...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Ut Dong Thach, Peter Hesemann, Guangze Yang, Amine Geneste, Sophie Le Caër, Benedicte Prelot
Ammonium based hybrid ionosilicas were prepared from tetrasilylated ammonium precursors. The formed material exhibited high specific surface area together with mesoporosity. Our results indicate that ionosilicas display high exchange capacity for iodide. They were submitted to 10MeV electron irradiation at a total dose of 1.7MGy. Irradiation was shown not to alter the properties of ionosilica: the morphological, textural and surface properties of the material are hardly modified. The sorption properties (sorption capacity and cumulative displacement enthalpy) are similar before and after electron irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Panagiotis A Karas, Chiara Perruchon, Evangelos Karanasios, Evangelia S Papadopoulou, Elena Manthou, Stefania Sitra, Constantinos Ehaliotis, Dimitrios G Karpouzas
Wastewaters from fruit-packaging plants contain high loads of toxic and persistent pesticides and should be treated on site. We evaluated the depuration performance of five pilot biobeds against those effluents. In addition we tested bioaugmentation with bacterial inocula as a strategy for optimization of their depuration capacity. Finally we determined the composition and functional dynamics of the microbial community via q-PCR. Practical issues were also addressed including the risk associated with the direct environmental disposal of biobed-treated effluents and decontamination methods for the spent packing material...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Wataru Naito, Motoki Uesaka, Chie Yamada, Tadahiro Kurosawa, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Hideki Ishii
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas...
2016: PloS One
Alan J Cresswell, Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Kenji Nanba
An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the additional dose reduction by clear felling contaminated forestry in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, and using the timber to cover the areas with wood chips. A portable gamma spectrometry system, comprising a backpack containing a 3 × 3″ NaI(Tl) detector with digital spectrometer and GPS receiver, has been used to map dose rate and radionuclide activity concentrations before, after and at stages during this experiment. The data show the effect of the different stages of the experiment on dose rate at different locations around the site...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Vitor Hugo Panhóca, Fernando Luis Esteban Florez, Thaila Quatrini Corrêa, Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using the association of curcumin with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for oral decontamination in orthodontic patients. BACKGROUND DATA: The installation of the orthodontic appliances promotes an increase in the retentive area that is available for microbial aggregation and makes difficult the oral health promotion. However, aPDT is one possible approach that is used for the reduction of oral microbial load...
September 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Hiromitsu Saegusa, Takuya Ohyama, Kazuki Iijima, Hironori Onoe, Ryuji Takeuchi, Hiroki Hagiwara
The environment in the area around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been contaminated by widely deposited significant amount of radioactive materials, which were released to the atmosphere caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011. The radiocesium released in the accident mainly affects radiation dose in the environment. Decontamination work in the contaminated area except a mountain forests has been conducted to decrease the radiation dose...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Airi Mori, Shogo Takahara, Azusa Ishizaki, Masashi Iijima, Yukihisa Sanada, Masahiro Munakata
Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Many inhabitants residing in the affected areas are now exposed to radiation in their daily lives. In an attempt to manage this radiation dose, an additional radiation dose of 1 mSv/y was adopted as a long-term dosimetric target. An activity level reading of 0.23 μSv/h was then determined as a guidance value to achieve the target by implementing decontamination measures...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
P G Martin, O D Payton, Y Yamashiki, D A Richards, T B Scott
As of March 2016, five years will have passed since the earthquake and ensuing tsunami that crippled the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on Japan's eastern coast, resulting in the explosive release of significant quantities of radioactive material. Over this period, significant time and resource has been expended on both the study of the contamination as well as its remediation from the affected environments. Presented in this work is a high-spatial resolution foot-based radiation mapping study using gamma-spectrometry at a site in the contaminated Iitate Village; conducted at different times, seventeen months apart...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ahmed Mosa, Ayman El-Ghamry, Peter Trüby, Mahmoud Omar, Bin Gao, Abdelhamid Elnaggar, Yuncong Li
Using biomass (e.g. crop residues) and its derivatives as biosorbents have been recognized as an eco-friendly technique for wastewater decontamination. In this study, mechanically modified cottonwood was further activated with KOH to improve its sorption of Pb(2+). In addition, its potential as a biofilter to safeguard radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) against Pb-stress was evaluated in a gravity-fed drip irrigation system. Physiochemical properties of the chemo-mechanically activated cottonwood (CMACW) and the mechanically activated cottonwood (MACW) before and after sorption process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), digital selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Philippe Guillaume Poliquin, Florian Vogt, Miriam Kasztura, Anders Leung, Yvon Deschambault, Rafael Van den Bergh, Claire Dorion, Peter Maes, Abdul Kamara, Gary Kobinger, Armand Sprecher, James E Strong
BACKGROUND:  Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are primarily transmitted by contact with infected body fluids. Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) contain areas that are exposed to body fluids through the care of patients suspected or confirmed to have EBOV disease. There are limited data documenting which areas/fomites within ETCs pose a risk for potential transmission. This study conducted environmental surveillance in 2 ETCs in Freetown, Sierra Leone, during the 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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