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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622352/volunteer-trials-of-a-novel-improvised-dry-decontamination-protocol-for-use-during-mass-casualty-incidents-as-part-of-the-uk-s-initial-operational-response-ior
#1
Richard Amlôt, Holly Carter, Lorna Riddle, Joanne Larner, Robert P Chilcott
Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1) identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2) providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618392/radiocesium-decontamination-of-a-riverside-in-fukushima-japan
#2
Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Satoshi Suzuki
Extensive decontamination measures have been implemented in the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster. Typical decontamination measures, such as removing topsoil of several centimeters in depth, are not suitable for rivers where contaminated sediments have been deposited. A decontamination measure was tested that considered the spatial distribution of radiocesium at the lower part of a tributary of the Abukuma River in Fukushima. The radiocesium distribution in the flood channel was vertically and horizontally highly heterogeneous...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582971/degradation-of-aflatoxin-b1-from-naturally-contaminated-maize-using-the-edible-fungus-pleurotus-ostreatus
#3
Lauren W Jackson, Barry M Pryor
Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551564/effects-of-local-scale-decontamination-in-a-secondary-forest-contaminated-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#4
Yoshiko Ayabe, Naoki Hijii, Chisato Takenaka
We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced (137)Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured (137)Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine (137)Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total (137)Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m(-2)) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514981/essential-lessons-in-a-potential-sarin-attack-disaster-plan-for-a-resource-constrained-environment
#5
Matthew John Watermeyer, Nicole Dippenaar, Nelly Clotildea Tchouambou Simo, Sean Buchanan, Abdullah Ebrahim Laher
Sarin is a potent nerve agent chemical weapon that was originally designed for military purposes as a fast-acting anti-personnel weapon that would kill or disable large numbers of enemy troops. Its potent toxicity, ease of deployment, and rapid degradation allow for rapid deployment by an attacking force, who can safely enter the area of deployment a short while after its release. Sarin has been produced and stockpiled by a number of countries, and large quantities of it still exist despite collective agreements to cease manufacture and destroy stockpiles...
May 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493114/-management-of-multiresistant-bacteria-in-urology
#6
REVIEW
W Vahlensieck, R Rudolph, H-J Knopf, U Dahl, W Fabry
Contamination and infection with extensive drug resistant (XDR) bacteria are increasing in urology with the exception of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (stabilization). They often lead to logistic and therapeutical problems. Only 30-50% of XDR cases are of exogenous origin. To slow this trend, screening, hygiene programs, isolation, decontamination, targeted therapy of symptomatic infections, education programs, and success controls should be applied. Furthermore, all regulatory and legal instructions should be followed...
June 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453321/hand-decontamination-in-clinical-practice-a-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Ruth Rigby, Anne Pegram, Sue Woodward
Hand decontamination is known to significantly reduce the spread of hospital-acquired infections but, despite a wealth of guidelines and education campaigns, evidence suggests that many healthcare workers are non-compliant with hand decontamination. The behaviours that prevent hand decontamination are complex. Studies look at attitudes towards dirt, disgust, self-protective hand washing and familiarity with patients. Self-protection behaviours manifest themselves in washing hands more often after certain tasks...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401386/a-comprehensive-review-on-removal-of-arsenic-using-activated-carbon-prepared-from-easily-available-waste-materials
#8
REVIEW
Monoj Kumar Mondal, Ravi Garg
Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389036/use-of-different-surface-covering-materials-to-enhance-removal-of-radiocaesium-in-plants-and-upper-soil-from-orchards-in-fukushima-prefecture
#9
Mamoru Sato, Hiroko Akai, Yuichi Saito, Tsugiko Takase, Hidetoshi Kikunaga, Nobuhito Sekiya, Tsutomu Ohtsuki, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
The effectiveness of a decontamination methodology whereby herbaceous plants were grown through different materials covering the soil surface followed by subsequent removal of the material, associated plant tissues and attached soil on (137)Cs removal from soil was evaluated. Revegetation netting sown with Kentucky bluegrass and white clover had a high effectiveness in (137)Cs removal when rolling up the plants, roots, and rhizosphere soil approximately 6 months after sowing. The removal rate was lower when there was higher (137)Cs vertical migration down the soil profile...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336856/a-novel-heterostructure-of-bioi-nanosheets-anchored-onto-mwcnts-with-excellent-visible-light-photocatalytic-activity
#10
Shijie Li, Shiwei Hu, Kaibing Xu, Wei Jiang, Jianshe Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Developing efficient visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts for environmental decontamination has drawn significant attention in recent years. Herein, we have reported a novel heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with BiOI nanosheets as an efficient VLD photocatalyst, which was prepared via a simple solvothermal method. The morphology and structure were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and specific surface area measurements...
January 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334443/pollutant-ground-concentrations-of-nonneutrally-buoyant-particles
#11
Alon Mandel, Eli Stern, Amos Ullmann, Neima Brauner
A methodology is suggested for the estimation of the mass density and the cumulative ground deposition of a nonvolatile, nonneutrally buoyant, air pollutant (liquid or solid) released from a polluted column (following an explosion caused during routine operation in, e.g., the chemical industry or due to any kind of hostile act) and deposited on the ground via gravitational settling. In many cases, the deposited mass due to gravitational settling constitutes a significant fraction of the original inventory released from the source...
March 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330389/radiation-doses-and-associated-risk-from-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#12
REVIEW
Tetsuo Ishikawa
The magnitude of dose due to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report published in April 2014. Following this, the UNSCEAR white paper, which comprises a digest of new information for the 2013 Fukushima report, was published in October 2015. Another comprehensive report on radiation dose due to the accident is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident published in August 2015...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324837/status-of-pesticides-pollution-in-tanzania-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Raheli Elibariki, Mihayo Musabila Maguta
Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#14
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278063/assessment-of-personal-airborne-exposures-and-surface-contamination-from-x-ray-vaporization-of-beryllium-targets-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#15
Samuel Y Paik, Patrick M Epperson, Kenneth M Kasper
This article presents air and surface sampling data collected over the first two years since beryllium was introduced as a target material at the National Ignition Facility. Over this time, 101 experiments with beryllium-containing targets were executed. The data provides an assessment of current conditions in the facility and a baseline for future impacts as new, reduced regulatory limits for beryllium are being proposed by both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Department of Energy. This study also investigates how beryllium deposits onto exposed surfaces as a result of x-ray vaporization and the effectiveness of simple decontamination measures in reducing the amount of removable beryllium from a surface...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208260/simultaneous-enhancement-of-bioactivity-and-stability-of-laccase-by-cu-2-paa-ppega-matrix-for-efficient-biosensing-and-recyclable-decontamination-of-pyrocatechol
#16
Tao Chen, Yuanhong Xu, Zhi Peng, Aihua Li, Jingquan Liu
Simultaneously enhancing the catalytic bioactivity and stability of enzyme is still an intractable issue in the enzymatic study. Herein, a facile and effective approach was designed to immobilize and modify laccase on a Cu(2+)-adsorbed pyrene-terminated block copolymer [poly(acrylic acid)/poly(poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate)] (PAA/PPEGA), which was prepared via well-controlled reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. PAA provided the supporting matrix for firm immobilization of Cu(2+), an enzyme bioactivity inducer, onto the microstructure of laccase, while avoiding any contamination of the heavy metal Cu(2+) into the following application system...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191745/comparison-of-sampling-methods-to-recover-germinated-bacillus-anthracis-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-endospores-from-surface-coupons
#17
T M Mott, J L Shoe, M Hunter, A M Woodson, K A Fritts, C P Klimko, A V Quirk, S L Welkos, C K Cote
AIMS: In an attempt to devise decontamination methods that are both effective and minimally detrimental to the environment, we evaluated germination induction as an enhancement to strategies for Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination. To determine an optimal method for the recovery of germinating spores from different matrices, it was critical to ensure that the sampling procedures did not negatively impact the viability of the germinating spores possibly confounding the results and downstream analyses of field trial data...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161316/modeling-watershed-scale-137-cs-transport-in-a-forested-catchment-affected-by-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#18
Lezhang Wei, Tsuyoshi Kinouchi, Kazuya Yoshimura, Mark L Velleux
The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in (137)Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale (137)Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers (137)Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced (137)Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155883/first-on-site-true-gamma-ray-imaging-spectroscopy-of-contamination-near-fukushima-plant
#19
Dai Tomono, Tetsuya Mizumoto, Atsushi Takada, Shotaro Komura, Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Yoshitaka Mizumura, Makoto Oda, Toru Tanimori
We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), which provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF) by reconstructing a direction of each gamma as a point and realizes simultaneous measurement of brightness and spectrum of MeV gamma-rays for the first time. Here, we present the results of our on-site pilot gamma-imaging-spectroscopy with ETCC at three contaminated locations in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants in Japan in 2014. The obtained distribution of brightness (or emissivity) with remote-sensing observations is unambiguously converted into the dose distribution...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139533/amitraz-an-underrecognized-poison-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: 'amitraz', 'poisoning', 'toxicity', 'intoxication' and 'overdose'...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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