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area decontamination

Geoffrey Korir, P Andrew Karam
In the event of a significant radiological release in a major urban area where a large number of people reside, it is inevitable that radiological screening and dose assessment must be conducted. Lives may be saved if an emergency response plan and radiological screening method are established for use in such cases. Thousands to tens of thousands of people might present themselves with some levels of external contamination and/or the potential for internal contamination. Each of these individuals will require varying degrees of radiological screening, and those with a high likelihood of internal and/or external contamination will require radiological assessment to determine the need for medical attention and decontamination...
June 11, 2018: Health Physics
Nisha Sharma, Peter W Hunt, Brad C Hine, Nishchal K Sharma, Robert A Swick, Isabelle Ruhnke
Reliable methods for detection of A. galli infection using excreta egg count (EEC) and ELISA assays to determine A. galli specific IgY levels in serum and yolk samples were compared from hens infected naturally and artificially. Artificially infected hens were used to generate samples for analysis of preferred detection methods and to generate contaminated ranges for use in the naturally acquired infection study in which Lohmann Brown hens (n = 200) at 16 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four treatments with five replicate pens...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yujun Zhou, Qinghua Ji, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Hierarchical three-dimensional architectures of granphene-based materials with tailored microstructure and functionality exhibit unique mass transport behaviors and tunable active sites for various applications. The micro- /nano-channels in the porous structure can act as micro- /nano- reactors, which optimize the transport and conversion of contaminants. However, the size-effects of the micro- /nano-channels, which are directly related to its performance in electrochemical processes, have not been explored...
June 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
F Girolami, P Badino, V Spalenza, L Manzini, G Renzone, A M Salzano, F Dal Piaz, A Scaloni, G Rychen, C Nebbia
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such environmental pollutants in cattle subjected to a real eco-contamination event were identified. Animals were removed from the polluted area and fed a standard ration for 6 months. The decontamination was monitored by evaluating dioxin and PCB levels in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months (days 59, 125 and 188)...
May 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wenjun Zheng, Negar H Golshan, Sue-Jonnathane Celestin, Katherine S Ziemer, Ming Su
Metal ions in ground are hard to remove and constitute a serious environmental challenge. This paper reports a new laser-based method for in situ soil decontamination at high efficiency, in which a focused CO2 laser is used to oxidize metal contaminants from soil and fuse them with silica (base materials of soil), thus preventing undesired transport of metal ions within soil. Three types of metal ions (copper, nickel, and cadmium) adsorbed on porous silica plates are exposed to continuous laser irradiation...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Max C T Wei, Carol Tran, Neil Meredith, Laurence James Walsh
Because implant surface decontamination is challenging, air powder abrasive systems have been suggested as an alternative debridement method. This in vitro study investigated the effectiveness of different powder formulations and air pressures in cleaning implant surfaces and the extent of surface damage. A validated ink model of implant biofilm was used. Sterile 4.1 × 10 mm Grade 4 titanium implants were coated in a blue indelible ink to form a uniform, visually detectable biofilm-like layer over the implant threads and mounted into a bone replica material with bony defects to approximate peri-implantitis...
August 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research
Katy-Anne Thompson, Susan Paton, Thomas Pottage, Allan Bennett
AIMS: Four commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners were assessed for sampling efficiency of wet disseminated Bacillus atrophaeus spores on carpet, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and laminate flooring. Furthermore, their operability was evaluated and decontamination efficiency of one robot was assessed using a sodium hypochlorite solution. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an environmental chamber, robots self-navigated around 4 m2 of flooring containing a single contaminated 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marion Le Gall, Sophie Ayrault, Olivier Evrard, J Patrick Laceby, David Gateuille, Irène Lefèvre, Jean-Marie Mouchel, Michel Meybeck
Fine sediment transport in rivers is exacerbated during flood events. These particles may convey various contaminants (i.e. metals, pathogens, industrial chemicals, etc.), and significantly impact water quality. The exceptional June 2016 flood of the Seine River (catchment area: 65 000 km2 , France), potentially mobilized and deposited contaminated materials throughout the Paris region. Flood sediment deposits (n = 29) were collected along the Seine River and its main tributaries upstream (Yonne, Loing and Marne Rivers) and downstream of Paris (Oise and Eure Rivers)...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tsun S N Ku, Carla J Walraven, Samuel A Lee
Candida auris is a rapidly emerging pathogen and is able to cause severe infections with high mortality rates. It is frequently misidentified in most clinical laboratories, thus requiring more specialized identification techniques. Furthermore, several clinical isolates have been found to be multidrug resistant and there is evidence of nosocomial transmission in outbreak fashion. Appropriate infection control measures will play a major role in controlling the management and spread of this pathogen. Unfortunately, there are very few data available on the effectiveness of disinfectants against C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haruko M Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito
In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Manuel López-Vicente, Yuichi Onda, Junko Takahashi, Hiroaki Kato, Shinya Chayama, Keigo Hisadome
Owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident a vast amount of radiocesium was released polluting the land. Afterwards, a variety of decontamination practices has been done, reducing the ambient dose rates. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of eight forest decontamination practices by means of monitoring the radiocesium (137 Cs) concentration in soil and leaf samples, and the daily discharge rates in ten plots during 27 months (May 2013-July 2015). A forest plantation located 16 km southwest to the FDNPP and within the exclusion area was selected...
August 2018: Environmental Pollution
Takeshi Iimoto, Hirofumi Fujii, Seiichi Someya, Hajime Matsuzawa, Yukihide Yanagawa, Kiyoshi Kunii
Kashiwa city, inside the Tokyo metropolitan area and located ~200 km south of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, received a raised environmental ambient radiation dose due to the disaster relative to the rest of area. In this paper, the challenging process of the official voluntary decontamination activity in Kashiwa city, Chiba prefecture, which was carried out with strong cooperation between a local government and experts, is described and reviewed in terms of the effectiveness of the radiation protection...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
J C Gariel, F Rollinger, T Schneider
Following a nuclear accident, a major dilemma for affected people is whether to stay or leave the affected area, or, for those who have been evacuated, whether or not to return to the decontaminated zones. Populations who have to make such decisions have to consider many parameters, one of which is the radiological situation. Feedback from Chernobyl and Fukushima has demonstrated that involvement and empowerment of the affected population is a way to provide them with the necessary elements to make informed decisions and, if they decide to return to decontaminated areas, to minimise exposure by contributing to the development of a prudent attitude and vigilance towards exposure...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Tara Kirk Sell, Matthew P Shearer, Diane Meyer, Hannah Chandler, Monica Schoch-Spana, Erin Thomas, Dale A Rose, Eric G Carbone, Eric Toner
CONTEXT: The experiences of communities that responded to confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease in the United States provide a rare opportunity for collective learning to improve resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease events. DESIGN: Key informant interviews (n = 73) were conducted between February and November 2016 with individuals who participated in Ebola virus disease planning or response in Atlanta, Georgia; Dallas, Texas; New York, New York; or Omaha, Nebraska; or had direct knowledge of response activities...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
T Maystrenko, B Gruzdev, E Belykh, A Rybak
Long-term observation of the succession in a plant community is considered a fundamental unit used to investigate the expected consequences of soil contamination by radionuclides and to understand restoration of technogeneously disturbed ecosystems. The development of arboreal willow meadow under remediation of a radioactively contaminated site has been studied for half a century. Succession stages in the formation of the de novo community were noted. Changes in the floristic composition, soil structure as well as radionuclide activity concentrations in topsoil were registered on each step...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marcus Schmidt, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards...
March 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephanie Krifka, Verena Preis, Martin Rosentritt
(1) Background: This study evaluated the bonding performance of high translucency zirconia after diverse surficial decontamination and cleaning procedures. (2) Methods: High translucency zirconia (LavaTM Esthetic) specimens (2.0 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were exposed to different surface treatments prior to bonding to CoCr cylinders (d = 5 mm, height = 3 mm). All surfaces were sandblasted (40 µm aluminum oxide, 2 bar) and treated with alcohol (al), saliva (s), saliva + water (sw), or saliva + NaOCl + water (sn) before bonding was performed with the following adhesive luting systems: RelyXTM Unicem 2 (RX), ScotchbondTM Universal (SBU) + RelyXTM Ultimate (RU) or Monobond Plus (MP) + Multilink® Automix (ML)...
November 14, 2017: Dentistry journal
N Sharma, P W Hunt, B C Hine, N K Sharma, A Chung, R A Swick, I Ruhnke
A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas, Stefan M Waliszewski, Rubén Ruiz-Ramos, María Del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela
The population that lives in areas where organochlorine pesticides were spread in the past is still exposed to them through contaminated food, particulate matter, and vapors. Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to metabolic reactions, they accumulate in tissues and fluids rich in lipids. The aim of the study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in forensic adipose tissue samples of adult inhabitants of Veracruz City, Mexico, and compare their time trend levels from 1988 to 2014...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Claudio Stacchi, Federico Berton, Davide Porrelli, Teresa Lombardi
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of two systems in cleaning used healing abutments (HAs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 used HAs were randomized into two groups: one treated with an automatic cleaning system, and the other with conventional decontamination procedures. After sterilization and staining, the HAs were microscopically analyzed and underwent a cellular adhesion in vitro assay. RESULTS: Contaminated areas were observed with different frequencies in the two groups (3...
March 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
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