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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906529/genes-behavior-and-behavior-genetics
#1
REVIEW
Evan Charney
According to the 'first law' of behavior genetics, 'All human behavioral traits are heritable.' Accepting the validity of this first law and employing statistical methods, researchers within psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and business claim to have demonstrated that all the behaviors studied by their disciplines are heritable-no matter how culturally specific these behaviors appear to be. Further, in many cases they claim to have identified specific genes that play a role in those behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906509/principles-of-brain-development
#2
REVIEW
Joan Stiles
Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#3
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906501/the-heritability-fallacy
#4
REVIEW
David S Moore, David Shenk
The term 'heritability,' as it is used today in human behavioral genetics, is one of the most misleading in the history of science. Contrary to popular belief, the measurable heritability of a trait does not tell us how 'genetically inheritable' that trait is. Further, it does not inform us about what causes a trait, the relative influence of genes in the development of a trait, or the relative influence of the environment in the development of a trait. Because we already know that genetic factors have significant influence on the development of all human traits, measures of heritability are of little value, except in very rare cases...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906387/hierarchically-porous-materials-synthesis-strategies-and-structure-design
#5
REVIEW
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906301/realization-of-multiplexing-of-heralded-single-photon-sources-using-photon-number-resolving-detectors
#6
Takayuki Kiyohara, Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi
Heralded single-photon sources (HSPS) are widely used in experimental quantum science because they have negligibly small jitter and can therefore achieve high visibility for quantum interference. However, it is necessary to decrease the photon generation rate to suppress multi-photon components. To address this problem, two methods have been proposed and discussed: spatial (or temporal) source multiplexing and photon-pair number discrimination. Here, we report the experimental realization of a HSPS combining these two methods that can suppress the two-photon probability to 44...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906280/generation-and-applications-of-an-ultrahigh-fidelity-four-photon-greenberger-horne-zeilinger-state
#7
Chao Zhang, Yun-Feng Huang, Cheng-Jie Zhang, Jian Wang, Bi-Heng Liu, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
High-quality entangled photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion have made great contributions to the modern quantum information science and the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, the quality of the entangled states decreases sharply when moving from biphoton to multiphoton experiments, mainly due to the lack of interactions between photons. Here, for the first time, we generate a four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a fidelity of 98%, which is even comparable to the best fidelity of biphoton entangled states...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906158/singing-for-lung-health-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-consensus-statement
#8
REVIEW
Adam Lewis, Phoene Cave, Myra Stern, Lindsay Welch, Karen Taylor, Juliet Russell, Anne-Marie Doyle, Anne-Marie Russell, Heather McKee, Stephen Clift, Julia Bott, Nicholas S Hopkinson
There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes...
December 1, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906135/seed-germination-and-biochemical-profile-of-silybum-marianum-exposed-to-monometallic-and-bimetallic-alloy-nanoparticles
#9
Muhammad Salman Khan, Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Latifur- Rahman, Afzal Shah
In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906117/carotid-artery-stenting-versus-no-stenting-assisting-thrombectomy-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-clinical-trials-with-meta-analyses-and-trial-sequential-analyses
#10
Henrik Steglich-Arnholm, Markus Holtmannspötter, Christian Gluud, Derk Wolfgang Krieger
BACKGROUND: In patients with intracranial large vessel arterial occlusion, ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery occlusions or near-occlusions pose a significant hurdle in endovascular management of acute ischaemic stroke. Stenting of the carotid lesion may be beneficial in this situation to provide a stable access for introducing catheters through the carotid lesion into the intracranial vasculature and the target occlusion. Furthermore, carotid stenting may ensure ample blood flow for wash-out of clot material and reperfusion of the ischaemic penumbral tissue...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906071/are-digital-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-pregnancy-effective-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
Sarah Ellen Griffiths, Katherine E Brown, Emily Anne Fulton, Ildiko Tombor, Felix Naughton
BACKGROUND: Behavioural support for smoking cessation in pregnancy can be effective; however, many pregnant women face barriers to seeking support to stop smoking. Some digital interventions have been found to be effective for smoking cessation in the general population and may be effective for supporting cessation in pregnancy due to their flexibility and the potential for personalisation. To date, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906011/prevalence-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-coinfection-in-ghana-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality and may impact significantly on healthcare resource utilization. However, in Ghana, accurate estimates of the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection needed to inform policy decisions and the design of public health interventions are currently lacking. In this study, our aim was to determine the HIV/HBV coinfection prevalence rate in Ghana. METHODS: Primary studies reporting prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Ghana were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, science direct, Google scholar and Africa journals online (AJOL) databases...
May 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905981/correlates-of-meal-skipping-in-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Felicity J Pendergast, Katherine M Livingstone, Anthony Worsley, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905696/the-curative-effect-of-early-use-of-enteral-immunonutrition-in-postoperative-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Hu Qiang, Lu Hang, Sun Y Shui
INTRODUCTION: It's uncertain about the clinical efficacy which early enteral immunonutrition in postoperative gastric cancer patients,and this study attempts to assess its clinical efficacy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Use the search engine database incuding the Pubmed,the Cochrane library, Web of Science, Medline,and Embase,which there are comparative studies of early efficacy of enteral immune nutrition and standard enteral nutrition after gastric cancer operation.According to the studies,we use the RevMan 5...
December 1, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905611/surface-tension-driven-self-alignment
#15
REVIEW
Massimo Mastrangeli, Quan Zhou, Veikko Sariola, Pierre Lambert
Surface tension-driven self-alignment is a passive and highly-accurate positioning mechanism that can significantly simplify and enhance the construction of advanced microsystems. After years of research, demonstrations and developments, the surface engineering and manufacturing technology enabling capillary self-alignment has achieved a degree of maturity conducive to a successful transfer to industrial practice. In view of this transition, a broad and accessible review of the physics, material science and applications of capillary self-alignment is presented...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905608/drop-coating-deposition-of-a-liposome-suspension-on-surfaces-with-different-wettabilities-coffee-ring-formation-and-suspension-preconcentration
#16
Eva Kočišová, Martin Petr, Hana Šípová, Ondřej Kylián, Marek Procházka
Evaporation of a drop of biomolecular solution on a solid surface typically creates a ring-shaped drying pattern, formed by the so-called "coffee ring" effect. The size and shape of the "coffee ring" pattern is strongly dependent on the properties of the surface as well as on the deposited molecular solution or suspension. In this paper, we tested six types of surfaces differing in their physico-chemical surface characteristics (contact angles, wettability and roughness) as well as in the presence or absence of a base metal layer...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905602/achieving-enhanced-ionic-mobility-in-nanoporous-silica-by-controlled-surface-interactions
#17
Mounesha Nagendrachar Garaga, Luis Aguilera, Negin Yaghini, Aleksandar Matic, Michael Persson, Anna Martinelli
We report a strategy to enhance the ionic mobility in an emerging class of gels, based on robust nanoporous silica micro-particles, by chemical functionalization of the silica surface. Two very different ionic liquids are used to fill the nano-pores of silica at varying pore filling factors, namely one aprotic imidazolium based (1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, C6C1ImTFSI), and one protic ammonium based (diethylmethylammonium methanesulfonate, DEMAOMs) ionic liquid. Both these ionic liquids display higher ionic mobility when confined in functionalized silica as compared to untreated silica nano-pores, an improvement that is more pronounced at low pore filling factors (i...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#18
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905448/materials-science-atom-thick-coats-for-copper
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905412/planetary-science-pluto-s-telltale-heart
#20
Amy C Barr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
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