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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167602/case-case-analysis-using-7-years-of-travelers-diarrhea-surveillance-data-preventive-and-travel-medicine-applications-in-cusco-peru
#1
Mary Carol Jennings, Drake H Tilley, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Miguel Villanueva, Fernando Maldonado Costa, Martha Lopez, Hannah E Steinberg, C Giannina Luna, Rina Meza, Maria E Silva, Robert H Gilman, Mark P Simons, Ryan C Maves, Miguel M Cabada
In Cusco, Peru, and South America in general, there is a dearth of travelers' diarrhea (TD) data concerning the clinical features associated with enteropathogen-specific infections and destination-specific risk behaviors. Understanding these factors would allow travel medicine providers to tailor interventions to patients' risk profiles and travel destination. To characterize TD etiology, evaluate region-specific TD risk factors, and examine relationships between preventive recommendations and risk-taking behaviors among medium- to long-term travelers' from high-income countries, we conducted this case-case analysis using 7 years of prospective surveillance data from adult travelers' presenting with TD to a physician in Cusco...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#2
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160726/acute-norovirus-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-a-highly-rotavirus-vaccinated-population-in-northeast-brazil
#3
Victor S Santos, Ricardo Q Gurgel, Sandra M M Cavalcante, Andrew Kirby, Lilian P Café, Maria J Souto, Silvio S Dolabella, Matheus R de Assis, Tulio M Fumian, Marize P Miagostovich, Nigel A Cunliffe, Luis E Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and an important etiological agent is norovirus. OBJECTIVE: We describe the occurrence and characteristics of norovirus diarrhoea in children from Sergipe, Northeast-Brazil, over two consecutive periods of three years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional hospital-based survey conducted from October-2006 to September-2009 and from July-2011 to January-2013...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158632/impact-of-pre-exposure-history-and-host-genetics-on-antibody-avidity-following-norovirus-vaccination
#4
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Taylor A Jones, Charles Richardson, Robert R Goodwin, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Robert F Bargatze, Ralph S Baric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151964/supplementation-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-with-norovirus-p-particle-m2e-chimeric-vaccine-enhances-protection-against-heterologous-virus-challenge-in-chickens
#5
Mohamed Elaish, John M Ngunjiri, Ahmed Ali, Ming Xia, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Hyesun Jang, Jagadish Hiremath, Santosh Dhakal, Yosra A Helmy, Xi Jiang, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Chang-Won Lee
The current inactivated influenza vaccines provide satisfactory protection against homologous viruses but limited cross-protection against antigenically divergent strains. Consequently, there is a need to develop more broadly protective vaccines. The highly conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) has shown promising results as one of the components of a universal influenza vaccine in different animal models. As an approach to overcome the limited, strain specific, protective efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a combination of recombinant M2e expressed on the surface of norovirus P particle (M2eP) and IIV was tested in chickens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145650/epidemiology-and-factors-related-to-clinical-severity-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-after-the-introduction-of-rotavirus-vaccination
#6
Ahlee Kim, Ju Young Chang, Sue Shin, Hana Yi, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Sohee Oh
We aimed to investigate epidemiology and host- and pathogen-related factors associated with clinical severity of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children after rotavirus vaccination introduction. Factors assessed included age, co-infection with more than 2 viruses, and virus-toxigenic Clostridium difficile co-detection. Fecal samples and clinical information, including modified Vesikari scores, were collected from hospitalized children with AGE. The presence of enteric viruses and bacteria, including toxigenic C...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094075/re-assessing-the-total-burden-of-norovirus-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-population
#8
John P Harris, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
The second Infectious Intestinal Diseases study (IID2) estimated the incidence of norovirus in the UK at 47/1000 population (three million cases annually). Clinically significant norovirus was defined using a cycle threshold (ct) value of <30; a more stringent cut-off than used in diagnostic laboratories. The low infectious dose of norovirus means asymptomatic individuals potentially contribute to ongoing transmission. Using a less stringent but diagnostically relevant threshold increases the estimation of the population burden of norovirus infection by around 26% to 59/1000 person years (95% CI 52...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041960/structure-s-function-s-and-inhibition-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-noroviruses
#9
REVIEW
Jerome Deval, Zhinan Jin, Ying-Chih Chuang, C Cheng Kao
Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans. Human noroviruses are responsible for widespread outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and represent one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. No vaccine or antiviral treatment options are available for norovirus infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses is a key enzyme responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome...
December 29, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964971/outbreak-of-g2p-4-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-a-retirement-community-brazil-2015-an-important-public-health-risk
#10
Adriana Luchs, Geraldine Madalosso, Audrey Cilli, Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Sandra Regina Martins, Karen Aparecida Farias de Souza, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Cláudia Regina Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
The present study described a group A rotavirus (RVA) outbreak in an age-care facility in Brazil, using epidemiologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A descriptive clinical, epidemiological and environmental investigation was conducted. Stool samples were collected and screened for RVA, Norovirus (NoV), Enteric Adenovirus 40/41 (AdV 40/41) and Astrovirus (AstV) using ELISA, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, electron microscopy and sequencing methods. Outbreak occurred during 26th-29th October, 2015; 28 individuals affected (22 residents; 6 staff)...
December 10, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928912/immune-responses-against-norovirus-gii-4-virus-like-particles-in-mice
#11
H Ushijima, S Machida, A Nomura, P Khamrin, D N Tran, H Nomura, S Hayakawa
Norovirus (NoV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a NoV vaccine candidate, 100 µg of GII.4 NoV-like particles (VLPs) was challenged orally (oral and intrabuccal administration) and by subcutaneous injection without adjuvant in mice. The subcutaneous injection induced IgG in sera, but not IgA in feces. The oral delivery method induced IgA in both sera and feces, but not IgG in sera. However, challenging by the intrabuccal administration induced IgG in sera and IgA in both sera and feces, especially by 2-dose immunization...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914364/structure-based-exploration-and-exploitation-of-the-s4-subsite-of-norovirus-3cl-protease-in-the-design-of-potent-and-permeable-inhibitors
#12
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Athri D Rathnayake, Vishnu C Damalanka, Pathum M Weerawarna, Sean T Doyle, Amer F Alsoudi, D M Padmasankha Dissanayake, Gerald H Lushington, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
Human noroviruses are the primary cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. The worldwide high morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infections, particularly among the elderly, immunocompromised patients and children, constitute a serious public health concern. There are currently no approved human vaccines or norovirus-specific small-molecule therapeutics or prophylactics. Norovirus 3CL protease has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the development of anti-norovirus agents...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#13
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821278/targeting-pediatric-versus-elderly-populations-for-norovirus-vaccines-a-model-based-analysis-of-mass-vaccination-options
#14
Molly K Steele, Justin V Remais, Manoj Gambhir, John W Glasser, Andreas Handel, Umesh D Parashar, Benjamin A Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne diarrheal disease in the United States. Norovirus vaccine development has progressed in recent years, but critical questions remain regarding which age groups should be vaccinated to maximize population impact. METHODS: We developed a deterministic, age-structured compartmental model of norovirus transmission and immunity in the U.S. POPULATION: The model was fit to age-specific monthly U...
December 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809881/norovirus-in-benign-convulsions-with-mild-gastroenteritis
#15
Gun-Ha Kim, Jung Hye Byeon, Deog-Yong Lee, Hyun Ju Jeong, Baik-Lin Eun
BACKGROUND: Benign convulsions with gastroenteritis (CwG) are defined as afebrile convulsions accompanying symptoms of gastroenteritis without evidence of laboratory derangement. Although the main pathogen has been known as rotavirus, since the introduction of rotavirus vaccine, associated viruses with CwG may have changed. Thus, we evaluated the viral association of CwG for patients admitting for recent 2.5 years. METHODS: All patients hospitalized for CwG between November 2012 and May 2015 were included in our study...
November 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807684/inhibition-of-murine-norovirus-and-feline-calicivirus-by-edible-herbal-extracts
#16
Dong Joo Seo, Changsun Choi
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause foodborne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Because HuNoV culture systems have not been developed thus far, no available medicines or vaccines preventing infection with HuNoVs exist. Some herbal extracts were considered as phytomedicines because of their bioactive components. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 29 edible herbal extracts against the norovirus surrogates murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) were examined. FCV was significantly inhibited to 86...
November 2, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755184/no-when-the-immunologist-becomes-a-virologist-norovirus-an-emerging-infection-in-immune-deficiency-diseases
#17
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746682/ginseng-the-natural-effectual-antiviral-protective-effects-of-korean-red-ginseng-against-viral-infection
#18
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736665/norovirus-genetic-diversity-and-evolution-implications-for-antiviral-therapy
#19
Joana Rocha-Pereira, Jana Van Dycke, Johan Neyts
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness causing both acute and chronic gastroenteritis. In recent years, a number of vaccine candidates entered (pre-) clinical development and the first efforts to develop antiviral therapy have been made. We here discuss aspects of norovirus genetic evolution, persistence in immunocompromised patients as well as the risk and potential consequences of resistance development toward future antiviral drugs.
October 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693623/characterization-of-nov-p-particle-based-chimeric-protein-vaccines-developed-from-two-different-expression-systems
#20
Lu Fu, Hao Jin, Yongjiao Yu, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Yuhe Yin, Xianghui Yu, Hui Wu, Wei Kong
The Norovirus (NoV) P domain, with three surface loops for foreign antigen insertion, has been demonstrated as an excellent platform for antigen presentation and novel vaccine development. The P domain alone can self-assemble into a P dimer, 12-mer small particle or 24-mer P particle, and vaccines based on those particles may elicit different levels of immunogenicity. Currently, P particles are generally produced in soluble expression systems in Escherichia coli, mainly in the 24-mer form. However, the low yield of the soluble protein has hindered further clinical applications of P particle-based protein vaccines...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
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