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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407442/rotavirus-capsid-vp6-tubular-and-spherical-nanostructures-act-as-local-adjuvants-when-co-delivered-with-norovirus-vlps
#1
Maria Malm, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been recently proposed. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have recently shown that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent on a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397614/genotype-analysis-of-noroviruses-associated-with-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-in-childcare-centres-victoria-australia-2012-2015
#2
L D Bruggink, J M Moselen, J A Marshall
The characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in children (0-5 years) in childcare centres in Victoria, Australia (2012-2015) were examined. The three most common open reading frame (ORF) 2 genotypes in childcare centre outbreaks were GII.4 (42%), GII.6 (21%) and GII.3 (14%); the remaining genotypes (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.8, GI.13, GII.1, GII.2, GII.7 and GII.13) each made up <10%. The GII.4 genotype was the only norovirus genotype seen in all 4 years of the study and was the most common genotype in 2012-2014 but in 2015 the most common genotype was GII...
April 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393756/norovirus-epidemiology-in-south-african-children-5-years-hospitalised-for-diarrhoeal-illness-between-2009-and-2013
#3
N A Page, M J Groome, S Nadan, R Netshikweta, K H Keddy, B Poonsamy, J Moyes, S Walaza, K Kahn, S A Madhi, M B Taylor, J Mans, C Cohen
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays...
April 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381555/inclusion-of-an-arg-gly-asp-receptor-recognition-motif-into-the-capsid-protein-of-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-enables-culture-of-the-virus-in-vitro
#4
Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Yonggui Tan, Huimin Guo, Teng Liu, Binbin Wang, Zongyan Chen, Chuanfeng Li, Guangqing Liu
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), an important member of the caliciviridae family, cannot be propagated in vitro, which has greatly impeded the progress of investigations into the mechanisms of pathogenesis, translation, and replication of this and related viruses. In this study, we have successfully bypassed this obstacle by constructing a mutant RHDV (mRHDV) by using a reverse genetics-technique. By changing two amino acids (305S→R, 307N→D), we produced a specific receptor recognition motif (Arg-Gly-Asp, called RGD) on the surface of the RHDV capsid protein...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361480/human-intestinal-enteroids-new-models-to-study-gastrointestinal-virus-infections
#5
Winnie Y Zou, Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Khalil Ettayebi, Xi-Lei Zeng, Kapil Saxena, Sasirekha Ramani, Umesh C Karandikar, Nicholas C Zachos, Mary K Estes
Human rotavirus (HRV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) infections are recognized as the most common causes of epidemic and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. The study of these two human gastrointestinal viruses is important for understanding basic virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis and to establish models to evaluate vaccines and treatments. Despite the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent life-threatening HRV-induced disease, the burden of HRV illness remains significant in low-income and less-industrialized countries, and small animal models or ex vivo models to study HRV infections efficiently are lacking...
March 31, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262332/report-from-the-world-health-organization-s-third-product-development-for-vaccines-advisory-committee-pdvac-meeting-geneva-8-10th-june-2016
#6
Birgitte K Giersing, Johan Vekemans, Samantha Nava, David C Kaslow, Vasee Moorthy
The third meeting of WHO's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was held in June 2016, with a remit to revisit the pathogen areas for which significant progress has occurred since recommendations from the 2015 meeting, as well as to consider new advances in the development of vaccines against other pathogens. Since the previous meeting, significant progress has been made with regulatory approvals of the first malaria and dengue vaccines, and the first phase III trials of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate has started in the elderly and pregnant women...
March 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249841/b-cell-responses-to-intramuscular-administration-of-a-bivalent-virus-like-particle-human-norovirus-vaccine
#7
Sasirekha Ramani, Frederick H Neill, Jennifer Ferreira, John J Treanor, Sharon E Frey, David J Topham, Robert R Goodwin, Astrid Borkowski, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. A virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine induces the production of serum histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking antibodies, the first identified correlate of protection from HuNoV gastroenteritis. Recently, virus-specific IgG memory B-cells were identified as another potential correlate of protection against HuNoV gastroenteritis. We assessed B-cell responses following intramuscular administration of a bivalent (GI.1/GII...
March 1, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219831/expression-and-characterization-of-the-major-capsid-protein-derived-from-a-gii-6-norovirus-strain-isolated-in-china
#8
Yuqi Huo, Lijun Zheng, Xuhui Chen, Lili Ge, Yumei Wang
The objective of this study was to express and characterize the major capsid protein (VP1) of a GII.6 Norovirus (NoV)strain isolated in China. The newly identified GII.6 NoV strain was isolated from a five-year old boy presenting acute gastroenteritis. The genome of the GII.6 strain was 7550 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly-adenylation tail. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on deduced VP1 amino acid sequences from different genotypes indicated close relationship between GII...
April 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167602/case-case-analysis-using-7-years-of-travelers-diarrhea-surveillance-data-preventive-and-travel-medicine-applications-in-cusco-peru
#9
Mary Carol Jennings, Drake H Tilley, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Miguel Villanueva, Fernando Maldonado Costa, Martha Lopez, Hannah E Steinberg, C Giannina Luna, Rina Meza, Maria E Silva, Robert H Gilman, Mark P Simons, Ryan C Maves, Miguel M Cabada
In Cusco, Peru, and South America in general, there is a dearth of travelers' diarrhea (TD) data concerning the clinical features associated with enteropathogen-specific infections and destination-specific risk behaviors. Understanding these factors would allow travel medicine providers to tailor interventions to patients' risk profiles and travel destination. To characterize TD etiology, evaluate region-specific TD risk factors, and examine relationships between preventive recommendations and risk-taking behaviors among medium- to long-term travelers' from high-income countries, we conducted this case-case analysis using 7 years of prospective surveillance data from adult travelers' presenting with TD to a physician in Cusco...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#10
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160726/acute-norovirus-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-a-highly-rotavirus-vaccinated-population-in-northeast-brazil
#11
Victor S Santos, Ricardo Q Gurgel, Sandra M M Cavalcante, Andrew Kirby, Lilian P Café, Maria J Souto, Silvio S Dolabella, Matheus R de Assis, Tulio M Fumian, Marize P Miagostovich, Nigel A Cunliffe, Luis E Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and an important etiological agent is norovirus. OBJECTIVE: We describe the occurrence and characteristics of norovirus diarrhoea in children from Sergipe, Northeast-Brazil, over two consecutive periods of three years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional hospital-based survey conducted from October-2006 to September-2009 and from July-2011 to January-2013...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158632/impact-of-pre-exposure-history-and-host-genetics-on-antibody-avidity-following-norovirus-vaccination
#12
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Taylor A Jones, Charles Richardson, Robert R Goodwin, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Robert F Bargatze, Ralph S Baric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151964/supplementation-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-with-norovirus-p-particle-m2e-chimeric-vaccine-enhances-protection-against-heterologous-virus-challenge-in-chickens
#13
Mohamed Elaish, John M Ngunjiri, Ahmed Ali, Ming Xia, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Hyesun Jang, Jagadish Hiremath, Santosh Dhakal, Yosra A Helmy, Xi Jiang, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Chang-Won Lee
The current inactivated influenza vaccines provide satisfactory protection against homologous viruses but limited cross-protection against antigenically divergent strains. Consequently, there is a need to develop more broadly protective vaccines. The highly conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) has shown promising results as one of the components of a universal influenza vaccine in different animal models. As an approach to overcome the limited, strain specific, protective efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a combination of recombinant M2e expressed on the surface of norovirus P particle (M2eP) and IIV was tested in chickens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145650/epidemiology-and-factors-related-to-clinical-severity-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-after-the-introduction-of-rotavirus-vaccination
#14
Ahlee Kim, Ju Young Chang, Sue Shin, Hana Yi, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Sohee Oh
We aimed to investigate epidemiology and host- and pathogen-related factors associated with clinical severity of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children after rotavirus vaccination introduction. Factors assessed included age, co-infection with more than 2 viruses, and virus-toxigenic Clostridium difficile co-detection. Fecal samples and clinical information, including modified Vesikari scores, were collected from hospitalized children with AGE. The presence of enteric viruses and bacteria, including toxigenic C...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094075/re-assessing-the-total-burden-of-norovirus-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-population
#16
John P Harris, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
The second Infectious Intestinal Diseases study (IID2) estimated the incidence of norovirus in the UK at 47/1000 population (three million cases annually). Clinically significant norovirus was defined using a cycle threshold (ct) value of <30; a more stringent cut-off than used in diagnostic laboratories. The low infectious dose of norovirus means asymptomatic individuals potentially contribute to ongoing transmission. Using a less stringent but diagnostically relevant threshold increases the estimation of the population burden of norovirus infection by around 26% to 59/1000 person years (95% CI 52...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041960/structure-s-function-s-and-inhibition-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-noroviruses
#17
REVIEW
Jerome Deval, Zhinan Jin, Ying-Chih Chuang, C Cheng Kao
Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans. Human noroviruses are responsible for widespread outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and represent one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. No vaccine or antiviral treatment options are available for norovirus infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses is a key enzyme responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome...
December 29, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964971/outbreak-of-g2p-4-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-a-retirement-community-brazil-2015-an-important-public-health-risk
#18
Adriana Luchs, Geraldine Madalosso, Audrey Cilli, Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Sandra Regina Martins, Karen Aparecida Farias de Souza, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Cláudia Regina Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
The present study described a group A rotavirus (RVA) outbreak in an age-care facility in Brazil, using epidemiologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A descriptive clinical, epidemiological and environmental investigation was conducted. Stool samples were collected and screened for RVA, Norovirus (NoV), Enteric Adenovirus 40/41 (AdV 40/41) and Astrovirus (AstV) using ELISA, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, electron microscopy and sequencing methods. Outbreak occurred during 26th-29th October, 2015; 28 individuals affected (22 residents; 6 staff)...
December 10, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928912/immune-responses-against-norovirus-gii-4-virus-like-particles-in-mice
#19
H Ushijima, S Machida, A Nomura, P Khamrin, D N Tran, H Nomura, S Hayakawa
Norovirus (NoV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a NoV vaccine candidate, 100 µg of GII.4 NoV-like particles (VLPs) was challenged orally (oral and intrabuccal administration) and by subcutaneous injection without adjuvant in mice. The subcutaneous injection induced IgG in sera, but not IgA in feces. The oral delivery method induced IgA in both sera and feces, but not IgG in sera. However, challenging by the intrabuccal administration induced IgG in sera and IgA in both sera and feces, especially by 2-dose immunization...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914364/structure-based-exploration-and-exploitation-of-the-s4-subsite-of-norovirus-3cl-protease-in-the-design-of-potent-and-permeable-inhibitors
#20
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Athri D Rathnayake, Vishnu C Damalanka, Pathum M Weerawarna, Sean T Doyle, Amer F Alsoudi, D M Padmasankha Dissanayake, Gerald H Lushington, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
Human noroviruses are the primary cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. The worldwide high morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infections, particularly among the elderly, immunocompromised patients and children, constitute a serious public health concern. There are currently no approved human vaccines or norovirus-specific small-molecule therapeutics or prophylactics. Norovirus 3CL protease has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the development of anti-norovirus agents...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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