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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304015/development-of-a-surrogate-neutralization-assay-for-norovirus-vaccine-evaluation-at-the-cellular-level
#1
Xiaoli Wang, Shuxia Wang, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhou, Pei Xiong, Qingwei Liu, Zhong Huang
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main pathogens responsible for sporadic and epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, causing an estimated 219,000 deaths annually worldwide. There is no commercially available vaccine for NoVs, due partly to the difficulty in establishing NoV cell culture models. The histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assay is used extensively to assess the protective potential of candidate vaccine-elicited antibodies, but there is still no widely used cellular evaluation model. In this study, we have established a cell line-based NoV vaccine evaluation model through the construction of human α1,2-fucosyltransferase 2-overexpressing 293T (293T-FUT2) cell lines...
January 5, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246474/functionality-and-avidity-of-norovirus-specific-antibodies-and-t-cells-induced-by-gii-4-virus-like-particles-alone-or-co-administered-with-different-genotypes
#2
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. Current NoV vaccine candidates are based on non-infectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in cell cultures in vitro. As NoVs infecting human population are highly divergent, it is proposed that the vaccine should contain at least two different NoV genotypes, potentially affecting the immunogenicity of each other. We investigated the immunogenicity of NoV GII.4 VLPs administered by intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) injections to BALB/c mice either alone or co-delivered with genogroup I (GI) and other genogroup GII VLPs...
December 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227928/structure-guided-design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-oxazolidinone-based-inhibitors-of-norovirus-3cl-protease
#3
Vishnu C Damalanka, Yunjeong Kim, Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Athri D Rathnayake, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Harry Nhat Nguyen, Gerald H Lushington, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
Acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis caused by noroviruses constitutes a global public health concern and a significant economic burden. There are currently no small molecule therapeutics or vaccines for the treatment of norovirus infections. A structure-guided approach was utilized in the design of a series of inhibitors of norovirus 3CL protease that embody an oxazolidinone ring as a novel design element for attaining optimal binding interactions. Low micromolar cell-permeable inhibitors that display anti-norovirus activity have been identified...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204334/norovirus-disease-in-older-adults-living-in-long-term-care-facilities-strategies-for-management
#4
Yingxi Chen, Aron J Hall, Martyn D Kirk
Purpose of Review: Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facility (LTCFs). This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge on norovirus infection in LTCFs with the aim of identifying potential strategies for management. Recent Findings: LTCF residents are at greater risk of norovirus infection. Early identification of norovirus infection and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive therapy are required to reduce morbidity and mortality...
2017: Current Geriatrics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203935/viral-enteritis-in-calves
#5
REVIEW
Diego E Gomez, J Scott Weese
A complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of calves and play important roles in gut health and disease. The viral component of the microbiome (the virome) is receiving increasing attention for its role in neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). Rotavirus and coronavirus have for a long time been associated with NCD and commercial vaccines have been produced against these agents. Recently, several other viruses which may play a role in diarrhea have been discovered in calf fecal samples, mostly by sequence-based methods...
December 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#6
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165124/changes-in-the-numbers-of-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-after-voluntary-introduction-of-the-rotavirus-vaccine-in-a-japanese-children-s-primary-emergency-medical-center
#7
Ichiro Morioka, Naohiro Kamiyoshi, Masahiro Nishiyama, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Sota Iwatani, Hiroaki Nagase, Kandai Nozu, Noriyuki Nishimura, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kazuto Ishibashi, Akihito Ishida, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major reason for presentation to pediatric primary emergency medical centers. Because rotavirus vaccines were introduced in November 2011 for voluntary vaccination in Japan, we analyzed the changes in the numbers of AGE patients. METHODS: The number and proportion of patients visiting Kobe children's primary emergency medical center from January 2011 to February 2015 due to AGE, out of all visiting children, were investigated retrospectively...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140444/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-different-formulations-of-norovirus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#8
G Leroux-Roels, J P Cramer, P M Mendelman, J Sherwood, R Clemens, A Aerssens, I De Coster, A Borkowski, F Baehner, P Van Damme
Background: We investigated safety and immunogenicity of 1-2 doses of different bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidate (NoV) formulations in healthy 18-64-year-olds. Methods: On Days 1 and 28 participants (n=420) randomized to 14 equal groups received intramuscular control vaccine (hepatitis A) or one of 11 NoV formulations contained varying dosages of GI.1 and GII.4c genotype VLP antigens with Al(OH)3, and 0μg, 15μg or 50μg MPL. Immunogenicity was assessed on Days 1, 28, 56, 208 and 393...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#9
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135827/norovirus-and-rotavirus-disease-severity-in-children-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Margarita Riera-Montes, Miguel O'Ryan, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) and Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common causes of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. It is generally accepted that RV causes severe AGE in a higher proportion of cases compared with NoV. To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing the severity of NoV and RV disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies reporting data for NoV and RV medically-attended disease severity in children. We included studies where all children had been tested for both NoV (RT-PCR) and RV (ELISA or RT-PCR) and that reported disease severity using the Vesikari or modified Vesikari score, or provided clinical information on severity...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109476/the-major-targets-of-acute-norovirus-infection-are-immune-cells-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#11
Katrina R Grau, Alexa N Roth, Shu Zhu, Abel Hernandez, Natacha Colliou, Bayli B DiVita, Drake T Philip, Cara Riffe, Benoit Giasson, Shannon M Wallet, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Stephanie M Karst
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year 1-4 . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro 5-7 , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results...
December 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102999/prospective-cohort-study-to-investigate-the-burden-and-transmission-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-care-homes-a-study-protocol
#12
Thomas Inns, Anna Pulawska-Czub, John P Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M Read, Nicholas J Beeching, David J Allen, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups, but illness is more severe and causes excess mortality in the elderly, particularly those in long-term care. The total burden of norovirus disease in the elderly in the UK is poorly defined; no current surveillance programmes systematically or accurately quantify norovirus infection in those living in care homes. The aim of this study is to evaluate an enhanced surveillance system for acute gastroenteritis among the elderly in care homes...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077213/emergence-of-g9p-8-rotaviruses-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-thailand-2015-2016
#13
Wisoot Chan-It, Chulapong Chanta
Human group A rotavirus is a major contagious virus causing gastroenteritis in children. Molecular epidemiological study of group A rotavirus infections in hospitalized children was performed by multiplex RT-PCR during 2015-2016 in Chiang Rai, Thailand. G- and P-genotypes of positive rotavirus samples were further analyzed by one-step and two-step multiplex RT-PCR methods. Among 270 fecal specimens tested, rotavirus was the most prevalent (33.7%), followed by norovirus GII (4.1%), adenovirus (3%), and astrovirus (1...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064572/changing-pattern-of-prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-mixed-infections-of-viruses-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-patients-in-new-delhi-india
#14
Shipra Gupta, Anuja Krishnan, Sumit Sharma, Praveen Kumar, Satinder Aneja, Pratima Ray
There are very few studies that have assessed multiple viral agents causing Acute-Gastroenteritis (AGE) in India. The present study compared the changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of five enteric viruses associated with acute-diarrhea in Delhi children within a gap of 5 years. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children (<4 years) during two winter seasons: year 2009-2010 (n = 59) and year 2014-2015 (n = 85). Samples were individually tested for rotavirus-A, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus using EIA/RT-PCR and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062895/norovirus-escape-from-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-is-limited-to-allostery-like-mechanisms
#15
Abimbola O Kolawole, Hong Q Smith, Sophia A Svoboda, Madeline S Lewis, Michael B Sherman, Gillian C Lynch, B Montgomery Pettitt, Thomas J Smith, Christiane E Wobus
Ideal antiviral vaccines elicit antibodies (Abs) with broad strain recognition that bind to regions that are difficult to mutate for escape. Using 10 murine norovirus (MNV) strains and 5 human norovirus (HuNoV) virus-like particles (VLPs), we identified monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2D3, which broadly neutralized all MNV strains tested. Importantly, escape mutants corresponding to this antibody were very slow to develop and were distal to those raised against our previously studied antibody, A6.2. To understand the atomic details of 2D3 neutralization, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the 2D3/MNV1 complex...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032020/long-term-impact-of-suboptimal-rotavirus-vaccines-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-in-northern-taiwan
#16
Wan-Ju Yu, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Man-Shan Kong, Yi-Jung Chang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rotavirus vaccines were launched in Taiwan since early 2006. Our study was aimed to figure out long-term extended molecular epidemiology in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized young children after rotavirus vaccination in Taiwan. METHODS: During the 10-year period from January 2007 to December 2016, fecal samples from children under 5 years old with AGE hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital (CGCH) were examined for enteric pathogens and they were divided into two time intervals: early post-vaccine (Jan...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#17
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984764/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-norovirus-in-cases-of-gastroenteritis-in-developing-countries
#18
REVIEW
Gia Thanh Nguyen, Kevin Phan, Ian Teng, Jian Pu, Toru Watanabe
BACKGROUND: While norovirus (NoV) is well known as a leading causal pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in developed countries,structured data on prevalence in developing countries are not available thus far. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NoV in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries based on recently published reports. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Web of Science for the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 2016...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982545/pediatric-norovirus-gii-4-infections-in-nicaragua-1999-2015
#19
Filemón Bucardo, Yaoska Reyes, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Natalie Bowman, Joann F Gruber, Jan Vinjé, Felix Espinoza, Margarita Paniagua, Angel Balmaseda, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
OBJECTIVES: Investigate clinical and epidemiological factors of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and epidemiologic data from 1,790 children≤7years with AGE from 6 hospitals in Nicaragua (n=538), and 3 community clinics (n=919) and households (n=333) in León, between 1999 and 2015. Moreover, asymptomatic children from community clinics (n=162) and households (n=105) were enrolled...
October 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#20
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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