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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#1
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904188/characterization-of-antigenic-relatedness-between-gii-4-and-gii-17-noroviruses-using-serum-samples-from-norovirus-infected-patients
#2
Ying-Chun Dai, Ming Xia, Qiong Huang, Ming Tan, Lin Qin, Ya-Li Zhuang, Yan Long, Jian-Dong Li, Xi Jiang, Xu-Fu Zhang
A novel GII.17 norovirus variant caused major gastroenteritis epidemics in China in 2014 -2016. To explore the host immune factors in selection of the emergence of this new variant, we characterized its antigenic relatedness with the GII.4 noroviruses that have dominated in China for decades. Through ELISA and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assays using sera from GII.4 and the GII.17 variant-infected patients, respectively, we observed limited cross immune reactivity by the ELISA but little reactivity by the HBGA blocking assay between GII...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902863/identification-of-vaccine-derived-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-japan-2012-2015
#3
Mei Kaneko, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Koo Nagasawa, Hirokazu Kimura, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#4
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843813/live-baculovirus-acts-as-a-strong-b-and-t-cell-adjuvant-for-monomeric-and-oligomeric-protein-antigens
#5
Suvi Heinimäki, Kirsi Tamminen, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Recombinant proteins produced by baculovirus (BV) expression systems contain residual BV after crude purification. We studied adjuvant effect of BV on antibody and T cell responses against two model antigens, monomeric ovalbumin (OVA) protein and oligomeric norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs). BALB/c mice were immunized intradermally with OVA alone or OVA formulated with live or inactivated BV, and VLP formulations comprised of chromatographically purified NoV GII.4 VLPs alone or mixed with BV, or of crude purified VLPs containing BV impurities from expression system...
August 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838152/etiology-of-severe-acute-watery-diarrhea-in-children-in-the-global-rotavirus-surveillance-network-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Darwin J Operario, James A Platts-Mills, Sandrama Nadan, Nicola Page, Mapaseka Seheri, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Ira Praharaj, Gagandeep Kang, Irene T Araujo, Jose Paulo G Leite, Daniel Cowley, Sarah Thomas, Carl D Kirkwood, Francis Dennis, George Armah, Jason M Mwenda, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Gloria Rey, Varja Grabovac, Chipo Berejena, Chibumbya J Simwaka, Jeannine Uwimana, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Isidore J O Bonkoungou, Sheriffo Jagne, Enyonam Tsolenyanu, Amadou Diop, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Sam-Aliyah Borbor, Jie Liu, Timothy McMurry, Benjamin Lopman, Umesh Parashar, John Gentsch, A Duncan Steele, Adam Cohen, Fatima Serhan, Eric R Houpt
Background: The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013-2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#7
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#8
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756066/prospects-and-challenges-in-the-development-of-a-norovirus-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas W Cortes-Penfield, Sasirekha Ramani, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
PURPOSE: Norovirus is the leading cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis among children under the age of 5 years and adults in the United States and in adults worldwide, accounting for an estimated 20% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. No effective vaccine is presently available. This article provides an overview of the current state of norovirus vaccine development, emphasizing barriers and challenges in the development of an effective vaccine, correlates of protection used to assess vaccine efficacy, and the results of clinical trials of the major candidate vaccines...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754559/enzymatic-cleavage-promotes-disassembly-of-gii-3-norovirus-virus-like-particles-and-its-binding-to-salivary-histo-blood-group-antigens
#10
Yuqi Huo, Wenhui Wang, Lijun Zheng, Xuhui Chen, Shuo Shen, Mingchen Wang
In this study, we found that addition of fecal extract significantly promoted the binding of GII.3 NoV VLPs to salivary HBGAs. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that major capsid proteins (VP1) were cleaved into two major bands with molecular weights of 26 and 31kD, respectively. Pretreatment of fecal extract by boiling or addition of protease inhibitor cocktail or type specific protease inhibitor (leupeptin and aprotinin) during incubation all decreased VP1 cleavage and its binding to salivary HBGAs. Trypsin digestion led to cleavage of VP1 and promoted its binding to HBGAs, suggesting that the active enzyme(s) might be trypsin or trypsin-like enzymes...
July 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673856/a-luciferase-immunoprecipitation-system-lips-assay-for-profiling-human-norovirus-antibodies
#11
Christine M Tin, Lijuan Yuan, Rachel J Dexter, Gabriel I Parra, Tammy Bui, Kim Y Green, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev
A luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) assay was developed to define the antigenic specificity and titer of antibodies directed against human norovirus (HuNoV). Recombinant proteins, expressed by plasmid constructs encoding Renilla luciferase (Ruc) fused to the full-length HuNoV major capsid protein (VP1) (Ruc-antigen), were generated for ten HuNoV strains. In addition, subdomain constructs Ruc-Shell (S) and Ruc-Protruding (P) were engineered for a representative GII.4 norovirus (strain GII.4/2006b)...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668568/norovirus-vaccines-under-development
#12
Yalda Lucero, Roberto Vidal, Miguel O'Ryan G
Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis, including both outbreaks and endemic infections. The development of preventive strategies, including vaccines, for the most susceptible groups (children <5years of age, the elderly and individuals suffering crowding, such as military personnel and travelers) is desirable. However, NoV vaccine development has faced many difficulties, including genetic/antigenic diversity, limited knowledge on NoV immunology and viral cycle, lack of a permissive cell line for cultivation and lack of a widely available and successful animal model...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663743/viral-population-changes-during-murine-norovirus-propagation-in-raw-264-7-cells
#13
Takuya Kitamoto, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Akiko Kato, Kumiko Kanamori, Hirotaka Takagi, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Kazuhiko Katayama, Akira Nakanishi
Laboratory adaptation of viruses is an essential technique for basic virology research, including the generation of attenuated vaccine strains, although the principles of cell adaptation remain largely unknown. Deep sequencing of murine norovirus (MuNoV) S7 during serial passages in RAW264.7 cells showed that the frequencies of viral variants were altered more dynamically than previously reported. Serial passages of the virus following two different multiplicity of infections gave rise to distinct haplotypes, implying that multiple cell-adaptable sequences were present in the founder population...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651680/full-genome-sequence-analysis-of-an-uncommon-norovirus-genotype-gii-21-from-south-korea
#14
J W Lee, S G Lee, H G Cho, Y J Park, J W Yun, C J Park, S Y Paik
Noroviruses (NoVs) are major causal agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans. NoV GII.4 is the predominant genotype globally. However, uncommon and minor types of NoVs are consistently detected and some have been shown to dominate over GII.4. Therefore, the prevalence of dominant and uncommon NoVs makes the identification of these viruses important for the prediction and prevention of pandemics. In this study, the full-genome sequence of a NoV (strain JW) detected in Korea was extensively characterized. The full-length genome was 7510 nucleotides long, and phylogenetic analysis based on the whole-genome sequences, including open reading frame (ORF)1, ORF2, and ORF3, indicated that it belonged to the GII...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633888/burden-of-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-norovirus-in-china-a-systematic-review
#15
Hong-Lu Zhou, Shan-Shan Zhen, Jin-Xia Wang, Can-Jing Zhang, Chao Qiu, Song-Mei Wang, Xi Jiang, Xuan-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: To understand the epidemiology and disease burden of norovirus (NoVs) gastroenteritis in China, a systematic review was conducted. METHODS: Studies on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by NoVs from mainland China, published before 2017 were searched. All retrieved articles were screened and reviewed by a standardized algorithm. NoVs detection rates as well as strain variations by ages, seasonal variations and geographic locations were analyzed using random-effects model...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618751/frequency-and-molecular-characterization-of-human-norovirus-in-erzurum-turkey
#16
Mehmet Özkan Timurkan, Hakan Aydin, Osman Aktaş
BACKGROUND/AIM: There are limited studies on genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of norovirus in Turkey, and this has not previously been studied in the Eastern Anatolia region. The aim of the present study was to determine the norovirus profile in this region with genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study were stool samples obtained from 427 people from different age groups in Eastern Anatolia. The nucleic acid samples isolated by the automatic system and nucleic acid sequence reactions and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RNA samples...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604828/genotype-diversity-and-molecular-evolution-of-noroviruses-a-30-year-1982-2011-comprehensive-study-with-children-from-northern-brazil
#17
Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Liann Filiphe Pereira Dos Santos, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591681/structural-features-of-glycan-recognition-among-viral-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Sreejesh Shanker, Liya Hu, Sasirekha Ramani, Robert L Atmar, Mary K Estes, B V Venkataram Prasad
Recognition and binding to host glycans present on cellular surfaces is an initial and critical step in viral entry. Diverse families of host glycans such as histo-blood group antigens, sialoglycans and glycosaminoglycans are recognized by viruses. Glycan binding determines virus-host specificity, tissue tropism, pathogenesis and potential for interspecies transmission. Viruses including noroviruses, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, influenza, and papillomaviruses have evolved novel strategies to bind specific glycans often in a strain-specific manner...
June 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545670/inhibitory-mechanism-of-five-natural-flavonoids-against-murine-norovirus
#19
Dong Joo Seo, Changsun Choi
BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses (HuNoV), which are responsible for acute gastroenteritis, are becoming a serious public health concern worldwide. Since no effective antiviral drug or vaccine for HuNoV has been developed yet, some natural extracts and their active components have been investigated for their ability to inhibit noroviruses. However, their exact antiviral mechanisms have not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the expression of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Mx, and zinc finger CCCH type antiviral protein 1 (ZAP), 2'-5' oligo (A) synthetase (OAS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545100/intranasal-delivery-of-a-bivalent-norovirus-vaccine-formulated-in-an-in-situ-gelling-dry-powder
#20
Jordan P Ball, Michael J Springer, Yawei Ni, Isaac Finger-Baker, Juan Martinez, Jessica Hahn, John F Suber, Ashley V DiMarco, James D Talton, Ronald R Cobb
The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™) with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII...
2017: PloS One
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