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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633888/burden-of-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-norovirus-in-china-a-systematic-review
#1
Hong-Lu Zhou, Shan-Shan Zhen, Jin-Xia Wang, Can-Jing Zhang, Chao Qiu, Song-Mei Wang, Xi Jiang, Xuan-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: To understand the epidemiology and disease burden of norovirus (NoVs) gastroenteritis in China, a systematic review was conducted. METHODS: Studies on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by NoVs from mainland China, published before 2017 were searched. All retrieved articles were screened and reviewed by a standardized algorithm. NoVs detection rates as well as strain variations by ages, seasonal variations and geographic locations were analyzed using random-effects model...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618751/frequency-and-molecular-characterization-of-human-norovirus-in-erzurum-turkey
#2
Mehmet Özkan Timurkan, Hakan Aydin, Osman Aktaş
BACKGROUND/AIM: There are limited studies on genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of norovirus in Turkey, and this has not previously been studied in the Eastern Anatolia region. The aim of the present study was to determine the norovirus profile in this region with genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study were stool samples obtained from 427 people from different age groups in Eastern Anatolia. The nucleic acid samples isolated by the automatic system and nucleic acid sequence reactions and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RNA samples...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604828/genotype-diversity-and-molecular-evolution-of-noroviruses-a-30-year-1982-2011-comprehensive-study-with-children-from-northern-brazil
#3
Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Liann Filiphe Pereira Dos Santos, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591681/structural-features-of-glycan-recognition-among-viral-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Sreejesh Shanker, Liya Hu, Sasirekha Ramani, Robert L Atmar, Mary K Estes, B V Venkataram Prasad
Recognition and binding to host glycans present on cellular surfaces is an initial and critical step in viral entry. Diverse families of host glycans such as histo-blood group antigens, sialoglycans and glycosaminoglycans are recognized by viruses. Glycan binding determines virus-host specificity, tissue tropism, pathogenesis and potential for interspecies transmission. Viruses including noroviruses, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, influenza, and papillomaviruses have evolved novel strategies to bind specific glycans often in a strain-specific manner...
June 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545670/inhibitory-mechanism-of-five-natural-flavonoids-against-murine-norovirus
#5
Dong Joo Seo, Changsun Choi
BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses (HuNoV), which are responsible for acute gastroenteritis, are becoming a serious public health concern worldwide. Since no effective antiviral drug or vaccine for HuNoV has been developed yet, some natural extracts and their active components have been investigated for their ability to inhibit noroviruses. However, their exact antiviral mechanisms have not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the expression of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Mx, and zinc finger CCCH type antiviral protein 1 (ZAP), 2'-5' oligo (A) synthetase (OAS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545100/intranasal-delivery-of-a-bivalent-norovirus-vaccine-formulated-in-an-in-situ-gelling-dry-powder
#6
Jordan P Ball, Michael J Springer, Yawei Ni, Isaac Finger-Baker, Juan Martinez, Jessica Hahn, John F Suber, Ashley V DiMarco, James D Talton, Ronald R Cobb
The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™) with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529975/phylogenetic-analyses-suggest-that-factors-other-than-the-capsid-protein-play-a-role-in-the-epidemic-potential-of-gii-2-norovirus
#7
Kentaro Tohma, Cara J Lepore, Lauren A Ford-Siltz, Gabriel I Parra
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For over two decades, a single genotype (GII.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. However, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the GII.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (GII.17) in several countries of the Asian continent. Moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the GII.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. This reemerging GII.2 strain is a recombinant virus that presents a GII...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#8
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472489/pathogen-specific-burden-of-outpatient-diarrhea-in-infants-in-nepal-a-multisite-prospective-case-control-study
#9
Cristina V Cardemil, Jeevan B Sherchand, Laxman Shrestha, Arun Sharma, Howard E Gary, Concepcion F Estivariz, Marta Diez-Valcarce, M Leanne Ward, Michael D Bowen, Jan Vinjé, Umesh Parashar, Susan Y Chu
Background.: Nonsevere diarrheal disease in Nepal represents a large burden of illness. Identification of the specific disease-causing pathogens will help target the appropriate control measures. Methods.: Infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months were recruited from 5 health facilities in eastern, central, and western Nepal between August 2012 and August 2013. The diarrhea arm included infants with mild or moderate diarrhea treatable in an outpatient setting; the nondiarrhea arm included healthy infants who presented for immunization visits or had a mild nondiarrheal illness...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453838/impact-of-pre-exposure-history-and-host-genetics-on-antibody-avidity-following-norovirus-vaccination
#10
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Taylor A Jones, Charles Richardson, Robert R Goodwin, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Robert F Bargatze, Ralph S Baric
Background.: Development of high avidity, broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) is a priority after vaccination against rapidly evolving, widely disseminated viruses like human norovirus. After vaccination with a multivalent GI.1 and GII.4c norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate adjuvanted with alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), blockade Ab titers peaked early, with no increase in titer following a second vaccine dose. Methods.: Blockade Ab relative avidity was evaluated by measuring the slope of blockade Ab neutralization curves...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407442/rotavirus-capsid-vp6-tubular-and-spherical-nanostructures-act-as-local-adjuvants-when-co-delivered-with-norovirus-vlps
#11
Maria Malm, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been recently proposed. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have recently shown that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent on a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397614/genotype-analysis-of-noroviruses-associated-with-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-in-childcare-centres-victoria-australia-2012-2015
#12
L D Bruggink, J M Moselen, J A Marshall
The characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in children (0-5 years) in childcare centres in Victoria, Australia (2012-2015) were examined. The three most common open reading frame (ORF) 2 genotypes in childcare centre outbreaks were GII.4 (42%), GII.6 (21%) and GII.3 (14%); the remaining genotypes (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.8, GI.13, GII.1, GII.2, GII.7 and GII.13) each made up <10%. The GII.4 genotype was the only norovirus genotype seen in all 4 years of the study and was the most common genotype in 2012-2014 but in 2015 the most common genotype was GII...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393756/norovirus-epidemiology-in-south-african-children-5-years-hospitalised-for-diarrhoeal-illness-between-2009-and-2013
#13
N A Page, M J Groome, S Nadan, R Netshikweta, K H Keddy, B Poonsamy, J Moyes, S Walaza, K Kahn, S A Madhi, M B Taylor, J Mans, C Cohen
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381555/inclusion-of-an-arg-gly-asp-receptor-recognition-motif-into-the-capsid-protein-of-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-enables-culture-of-the-virus-in-vitro
#14
Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Yonggui Tan, Huimin Guo, Teng Liu, Binbin Wang, Zongyan Chen, Chuanfeng Li, Guangqing Liu
The fact that rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), an important member of the Caliciviridae family, cannot be propagated in vitro has greatly impeded the progress of investigations into the mechanisms of pathogenesis, translation, and replication of this and related viruses. In this study, we have successfully bypassed this obstacle by constructing a mutant RHDV (mRHDV) by using a reverse genetics technique. By changing two amino acids (S305R,N307D), we produced a specific receptor-recognition motif (Arg-Gly-Asp; called RGD) on the surface of the RHDV capsid protein...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361480/human-intestinal-enteroids-new-models-to-study-gastrointestinal-virus-infections
#15
Winnie Y Zou, Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Khalil Ettayebi, Xi-Lei Zeng, Kapil Saxena, Sasirekha Ramani, Umesh C Karandikar, Nicholas C Zachos, Mary K Estes
Human rotavirus (HRV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) infections are recognized as the most common causes of epidemic and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. The study of these two human gastrointestinal viruses is important for understanding basic virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis and to establish models to evaluate vaccines and treatments. Despite the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent life-threatening HRV-induced disease, the burden of HRV illness remains significant in low-income and less-industrialized countries, and small animal models or ex vivo models to study HRV infections efficiently are lacking...
March 31, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262332/report-from-the-world-health-organization-s-third-product-development-for-vaccines-advisory-committee-pdvac-meeting-geneva-8-10th-june-2016
#16
Birgitte K Giersing, Johan Vekemans, Samantha Nava, David C Kaslow, Vasee Moorthy
The third meeting of WHO's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was held in June 2016, with a remit to revisit the pathogen areas for which significant progress has occurred since recommendations from the 2015 meeting, as well as to consider new advances in the development of vaccines against other pathogens. Since the previous meeting, significant progress has been made with regulatory approvals of the first malaria and dengue vaccines, and the first phase III trials of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate has started in the elderly and pregnant women...
March 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249841/b-cell-responses-to-intramuscular-administration-of-a-bivalent-virus-like-particle-human-norovirus-vaccine
#17
Sasirekha Ramani, Frederick H Neill, Jennifer Ferreira, John J Treanor, Sharon E Frey, David J Topham, Robert R Goodwin, Astrid Borkowski, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. A virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine induces the production of serum histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-blocking antibodies, the first identified correlate of protection from HuNoV gastroenteritis. Recently, virus-specific IgG memory B cells were identified to be another potential correlate of protection against HuNoV gastroenteritis. We assessed B-cell responses following intramuscular administration of a bivalent (genogroup I, genotype 1 [GI...
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219831/expression-and-characterization-of-the-major-capsid-protein-derived-from-a-gii-6-norovirus-strain-isolated-in-china
#18
Yuqi Huo, Lijun Zheng, Xuhui Chen, Lili Ge, Yumei Wang
The objective of this study was to express and characterize the major capsid protein (VP1) of a GII.6 Norovirus (NoV)strain isolated in China. The newly identified GII.6 NoV strain was isolated from a five-year old boy presenting acute gastroenteritis. The genome of the GII.6 strain was 7550 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly-adenylation tail. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on deduced VP1 amino acid sequences from different genotypes indicated close relationship between GII...
April 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167602/case-case-analysis-using-7-years-of-travelers-diarrhea-surveillance-data-preventive-and-travel-medicine-applications-in-cusco-peru
#19
Mary Carol Jennings, Drake H Tilley, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Miguel Villanueva, Fernando Maldonado Costa, Martha Lopez, Hannah E Steinberg, C Giannina Luna, Rina Meza, Maria E Silva, Robert H Gilman, Mark P Simons, Ryan C Maves, Miguel M Cabada
AbstractIn Cusco, Peru, and South America in general, there is a dearth of travelers' diarrhea (TD) data concerning the clinical features associated with enteropathogen-specific infections and destination-specific risk behaviors. Understanding these factors would allow travel medicine providers to tailor interventions to patients' risk profiles and travel destination. To characterize TD etiology, evaluate region-specific TD risk factors, and examine relationships between preventive recommendations and risk-taking behaviors among medium- to long-term travelers' from high-income countries, we conducted this case-case analysis using 7 years of prospective surveillance data from adult travelers' presenting with TD to a physician in Cusco...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#20
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
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