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norovirus vaccine

Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Joana Rocha-Pereira, Jana Van Dycke, Johan Neyts
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness causing both acute and chronic gastroenteritis. In recent years, a number of vaccine candidates entered (pre-) clinical development and the first efforts to develop antiviral therapy have been made. We here discuss aspects of norovirus genetic evolution, persistence in immunocompromised patients as well as the risk and potential consequences of resistance development toward future antiviral drugs.
October 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Lu Fu, Hao Jin, Yongjiao Yu, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Yuhe Yin, Xianghui Yu, Hui Wu, Wei Kong
The Norovirus (NoV) P domain, with three surface loops for foreign antigen insertion, has been demonstrated as an excellent platform for antigen presentation and novel vaccine development. The P domain alone can self-assemble into a P dimer, 12-mer small particle or 24-mer P particle, and vaccines based on those particles may elicit different levels of immunogenicity. Currently, P particles are generally produced in soluble expression systems in Escherichia coli, mainly in the 24-mer form. However, the low yield of the soluble protein has hindered further clinical applications of P particle-based protein vaccines...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Suvi Lappalainen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
We have recently shown that tubular form of rotavirus (RV) recombinant VP6 protein has an in vivo adjuvant effect on the immunogenicity of norovirus (NoV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate. In here, we investigated in vitro effect of VP6 on antigen presenting cell (APC) activation and maturation and whether VP6 facilitates NoV VLP uptake by these APCs. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and dendritic cell line JAWSII were used as model APCs. Internalization of VP6, cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, and cytokine and chemokine production were analyzed...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Niwat Maneekarn
Poliovirus (PV) is typically transmitted by the fecal-oral route, which means that the risk of infection and virus distribution could be achieved by exposure to the virus contaminated in food and water. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of PV strains by detecting the virus in pediatric patients who admitted to the hospitals with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand during 2010-2015. By applying a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing analysis of 1,300 stool specimens collected from pediatric patients, PVs were detected at 0...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Julianne R Brown, Divya Shah, Judy Breuer
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea in children is a common disease; understanding the incidence of causative viruses can aid infection control and vaccine development. OBJECTIVES: Describe the incidence and characteristics of gastroenteric viruses including norovirus genotypes in a paediatric hospital cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Norovirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus qPCR and norovirus genotyping results for all stool specimens (n=4786; 1393 patients) at a UK paediatric tertiary referral hospital June 2014-July 2015...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Elisabeth Mathijs, Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, Axel Mauroy, Damien Thiry, François Massart, Claude Saegerman, Etienne Thiry
The infectivity of a recombinant murine norovirus (RecMNV) strain, previously isolated following in vitro coinfections, was evaluated in vivo in comparison with its parental strains (MNV-1-CW1 and WU20) in Balb/cByJ mice via measurement of weight loss and estimation of viral loads in faeces, tissues and organs 48 and 72h post-infection. The presence of infectious virus in all analysed tissues and organs suggests that, similarly to its parental viruses, RecMNV can disseminate beyond organs associated with the digestive tract...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Xu-Hui Zhu, Lei Tian, Zhong-Ju Cheng, Wei-Yong Liu, Song Li, Wei-Ting Yu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Xu Xiang, Zi-Yong Sun
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. METHODS: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Shayla Hesse, Frederick H Neill, Mary K Estes, Sreejesh Shanker, B V Venkataram Prasad, Jennifer Ferreira, Robert L Atmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Maria Cleonice Aguiar Justino, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of children hospitalized due to norovirus infection in Brazil. This is due both to the occurrence of more severe norovirus-related gastroenteritis cases after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine and an increase in the tools for the detection of the disease. This pathogen is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and the illness is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal cramps. The genome of the virus is organized into three open reading frames showing strong mutation rates...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Maria Hemming-Harlo, Jukka Markkula, Leena Huhti, Marjo Salminen, Timo Vesikari
BACKGROUND: Universal rotavirus (RV) vaccination with RotaTeq® was introduced into National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Finland in September 2009. We have previously reported reduction of RV gastroenteritis (GE) cases in the first two years after RV vaccination in NIP in Finland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Tampere University Hospital, a 2-year survey of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children was conducted before NIP in the years 2006-2008. This was followed by a similar prospective survey in years 2009-2011 and now extended to years 2012-2014...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Janko van Beek, Miranda de Graaf, Ming Xia, Xi Jiang, Jan Vinjé, Mathias Beersma, Erwin de Bruin, David van de Vijver, Melle Holwerda, Marlies van Houten, Annemarie M Buisman, Rob van Binnendijk, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Fiona van der Klis, Harry Vennema, Marion P G Koopmans
Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and are a genetically diverse group of viruses. Since 2002, an increasing number of norovirus outbreaks have been reported globally, but it is not clear whether this increase has been caused by a higher awareness or reflects the emergence of new genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) variants. The hypothesis that norovirus prevalence has increased post-2002 and is related to the emergence of GII.4 is tested in this study. Sera collected from children aged <5 years of three Dutch cross-sectional population based cohorts in 1963, 1983 and 2006/2007 (n=143, n=130 and n=376, respectively) were tested for specific serum IgG by protein array using antigens to GII...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Gopal Sapparapu, Rita Czakó, Gabriela Alvarado, Sreejesh Shanker, B V Venkataram Prasad, Robert L Atmar, Mary K Estes, James E Crowe
Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus gastroenteritis are still being elucidated. Recent studies have shown an association of protection with NoV-specific serum histo-blood group antigen-blocking antibody and with serum IgA in patients vaccinated with NoV VLPs. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of human monoclonal IgG and IgA antibodies against a GI...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Robert L Atmar, Frank Baehner, Jakob P Cramer, Eric Song, Astrid Borkowski, Paul M Mendelman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses pose a significant public health risk, particularly in very young individuals, older adults, and individuals with underlying conditions. We assessed 2 bivalent norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate formulations in healthy adults aged 18-49 years. METHODS: Enrolled subjects (n = 454) randomly assigned among 3 groups received intramuscular placebo (saline) or vaccines containing either 15 µg or 50 µg of GI.1 VLP and 50 µg GII...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maribeth R Nicholson, Gerald T Van Horn, Yi-Wei Tang, Jan Vinjé, Daniel C Payne, Kathryn M Edwards, James D Chappell
OBJECTIVE: To detect the etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children using broad molecular-based techniques, and compare clinical presentations among etiologies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective population-based surveillance study of children aged <6 years with AGE conducted between 2008 and 2011 as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Stools from patients and healthy controls were tested for 21 gastrointestinal pathogens using the analyte-specific reagent Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel and an additional reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for sapovirus and astrovirus...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Bv Venkataram Prasad, Sreejesh Shanker, Zana Muhaxhiri, Lisheng Deng, Jae-Mun Choi, Mary K Estes, Yongcheng Song, Timothy Palzkill, Robert L Atmar
Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Pathum M Weerawarna, Yunjeong Kim, Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Vishnu C Damalanka, Gerald H Lushington, Kevin R Alliston, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis caused by noroviruses constitute a public health concern worldwide. To date, there are no approved drugs or vaccines for the management and prophylaxis of norovirus infections. A potentially effective strategy for the development of norovirus therapeutics entails the discovery of inhibitors of norovirus 3CL protease, an enzyme essential for noroviral replication. We describe herein the structure-based design of the first class of permeable, triazole-based macrocyclic inhibitors of norovirus 3C-like protease, as well as pertinent X-ray crystallographic, biochemical, spectroscopic, and antiviral studies...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yuqi Huo, Xuhui Chen, Lijun Zheng, Jinling Huo, Shanfeng Zhang, Mingchen Wang, Yumei Wang
Genogroup II, genotype 3 noroviruses (GII.3 NoVs) are secondary to GII.4 NoVs in causing acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In our previous study, we found that virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from a GII.3 NoV strain exhibited no binding activity to any salivary and synthetic histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) tested. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding the major capsid protein of another documented GII.3 NoV strain was codon-optimized and synthesized, and the major capsid protein was expressed using recombinant baculovirus virus expression system...
October 2016: Virus Genes
Silvana Augusta Rodrigues Portes, Eduardo de Mello Volotão, Monica Simões Rocha, Maria Cristina Rebelo, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro Xavier, Rosane Maria de Assis, Tatiana Lundgren Rose, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa
A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively...
May 24, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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