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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140444/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-different-formulations-of-norovirus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#1
G Leroux-Roels, J P Cramer, P M Mendelman, J Sherwood, R Clemens, A Aerssens, I De Coster, A Borkowski, F Baehner, P Van Damme
Background: We investigated safety and immunogenicity of 1-2 doses of different bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidate (NoV) formulations in healthy 18-64-year-olds. Methods: On Days 1 and 28 participants (n=420) randomized to 14 equal groups received intramuscular control vaccine (hepatitis A) or one of 11 NoV formulations contained varying dosages of GI.1 and GII.4c genotype VLP antigens with Al(OH)3, and 0μg, 15μg or 50μg MPL. Immunogenicity was assessed on Days 1, 28, 56, 208 and 393...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#2
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135827/norovirus-and-rotavirus-disease-severity-in-children-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Margarita Riera-Montes, Miguel O'Ryan, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) and Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common causes of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. It is generally accepted that RV causes severe AGE in a higher proportion of cases compared with NoV. To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing the severity of NoV and RV disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies reporting data for NoV and RV medically-attended disease severity in children. We included studies where all children had been tested for both NoV (RT-PCR) and RV (ELISA or RT-PCR) and that reported disease severity using the Vesikari or modified Vesikari score, or provided clinical information on severity...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109476/the-major-targets-of-acute-norovirus-infection-are-immune-cells-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#4
Katrina R Grau, Alexa N Roth, Shu Zhu, Abel Hernandez, Natacha Colliou, Bayli B DiVita, Drake T Philip, Cara Riffe, Benoit Giasson, Shannon M Wallet, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Stephanie M Karst
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year (1-4) . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro (5-7) , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results...
November 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102999/prospective-cohort-study-to-investigate-the-burden-and-transmission-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-care-homes-a-study-protocol
#5
Thomas Inns, Anna Pulawska-Czub, John P Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M Read, Nicholas J Beeching, David J Allen, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups, but illness is more severe and causes excess mortality in the elderly, particularly those in long-term care. The total burden of norovirus disease in the elderly in the UK is poorly defined; no current surveillance programmes systematically or accurately quantify norovirus infection in those living in care homes. The aim of this study is to evaluate an enhanced surveillance system for acute gastroenteritis among the elderly in care homes...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077213/emergence-of-g9p-8-rotaviruses-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-thailand-2015-2016
#6
Wisoot Chan-It, Chulapong Chanta
Human group A rotavirus is a major contagious virus causing gastroenteritis in children. Molecular epidemiological study of group A rotavirus infections in hospitalized children was performed by multiplex RT-PCR during 2015-2016 in Chiang Rai, Thailand. G- and P-genotypes of positive rotavirus samples were further analyzed by one-step and two-step multiplex RT-PCR methods. Among 270 fecal specimens tested, rotavirus was the most prevalent (33.7%), followed by norovirus GII (4.1%), adenovirus (3%), and astrovirus (1...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064572/changing-pattern-of-prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-mixed-infections-of-viruses-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-patients-in-new-delhi-india
#7
Shipra Gupta, Anuja Krishnan, Sumit Sharma, Praveen Kumar, Satinder Aneja, Pratima Ray
There are very few studies that have assessed multiple viral agents causing Acute-Gastroenteritis (AGE) in India. The present study compared the changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of five enteric viruses associated with acute-diarrhea in Delhi children within a gap of 5 years. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children (<4 years) during two winter seasons: year 2009-2010 (n = 59) and year 2014-2015 (n = 85). Samples were individually tested for rotavirus-A, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus using EIA/RT-PCR and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062895/norovirus-escape-from-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-is-limited-to-allostery-like-mechanisms
#8
Abimbola O Kolawole, Hong Q Smith, Sophia A Svoboda, Madeline S Lewis, Michael B Sherman, Gillian C Lynch, B Montgomery Pettitt, Thomas J Smith, Christiane E Wobus
Ideal antiviral vaccines elicit antibodies (Abs) with broad strain recognition that bind to regions that are difficult to mutate for escape. Using 10 murine norovirus (MNV) strains and 5 human norovirus (HuNoV) virus-like particles (VLPs), we identified monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2D3, which broadly neutralized all MNV strains tested. Importantly, escape mutants corresponding to this antibody were very slow to develop and were distal to those raised against our previously studied antibody, A6.2. To understand the atomic details of 2D3 neutralization, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the 2D3/MNV1 complex...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032020/long-term-impact-of-suboptimal-rotavirus-vaccines-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-in-northern-taiwan
#9
Wan-Ju Yu, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Man-Shan Kong, Yi-Jung Chang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rotavirus vaccines were launched in Taiwan since early 2006. Our study was aimed to figure out long-term extended molecular epidemiology in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized young children after rotavirus vaccination in Taiwan. METHODS: During the 10-year period from January 2007 to December 2016, fecal samples from children under 5 years old with AGE hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital (CGCH) were examined for enteric pathogens and they were divided into two time intervals: early post-vaccine (Jan...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#10
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984764/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-norovirus-in-cases-of-gastroenteritis-in-developing-countries
#11
REVIEW
Gia Thanh Nguyen, Kevin Phan, Ian Teng, Jian Pu, Toru Watanabe
BACKGROUND: While norovirus (NoV) is well known as a leading causal pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in developed countries,structured data on prevalence in developing countries are not available thus far. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NoV in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries based on recently published reports. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Web of Science for the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 2016...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982545/pediatric-norovirus-gii-4-infections-in-nicaragua-1999-2015
#12
Filemón Bucardo, Yaoska Reyes, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Natalie Bowman, Joann F Gruber, Jan Vinjé, Felix Espinoza, Margarita Paniagua, Angel Balmaseda, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
OBJECTIVES: Investigate clinical and epidemiological factors of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and epidemiologic data from 1,790 children≤7years with AGE from 6 hospitals in Nicaragua (n=538), and 3 community clinics (n=919) and households (n=333) in León, between 1999 and 2015. Moreover, asymptomatic children from community clinics (n=162) and households (n=105) were enrolled...
October 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#13
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904188/characterization-of-antigenic-relatedness-between-gii-4-and-gii-17-noroviruses-using-serum-samples-from-norovirus-infected-patients
#14
Ying-Chun Dai, Ming Xia, Qiong Huang, Ming Tan, Lin Qin, Ya-Li Zhuang, Yan Long, Jian-Dong Li, Xi Jiang, Xu-Fu Zhang
A novel GII.17 norovirus variant caused major gastroenteritis epidemics in China in 2014 -2016. To explore the host immune factors in selection of the emergence of this new variant, we characterized its antigenic relatedness with the GII.4 noroviruses that have dominated in China for decades. Through ELISA and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assays using sera from GII.4 and the GII.17 variant-infected patients, respectively, we observed limited cross immune reactivity by the ELISA but little reactivity by the HBGA blocking assay between GII...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902863/identification-of-vaccine-derived-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-japan-2012-2015
#15
Mei Kaneko, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Koo Nagasawa, Hirokazu Kimura, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#16
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843813/live-baculovirus-acts-as-a-strong-b-and-t-cell-adjuvant-for-monomeric-and-oligomeric-protein-antigens
#17
Suvi Heinimäki, Kirsi Tamminen, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Recombinant proteins produced by baculovirus (BV) expression systems contain residual BV after crude purification. We studied adjuvant effect of BV on antibody and T cell responses against two model antigens, monomeric ovalbumin (OVA) protein and oligomeric norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs). BALB/c mice were immunized intradermally with OVA alone or OVA formulated with live or inactivated BV, and VLP formulations comprised of chromatographically purified NoV GII.4 VLPs alone or mixed with BV, or of crude purified VLPs containing BV impurities from expression system...
November 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838152/etiology-of-severe-acute-watery-diarrhea-in-children-in-the-global-rotavirus-surveillance-network-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Darwin J Operario, James A Platts-Mills, Sandrama Nadan, Nicola Page, Mapaseka Seheri, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Ira Praharaj, Gagandeep Kang, Irene T Araujo, Jose Paulo G Leite, Daniel Cowley, Sarah Thomas, Carl D Kirkwood, Francis Dennis, George Armah, Jason M Mwenda, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Gloria Rey, Varja Grabovac, Chipo Berejena, Chibumbya J Simwaka, Jeannine Uwimana, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Isidore J O Bonkoungou, Sheriffo Jagne, Enyonam Tsolenyanu, Amadou Diop, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Sam-Aliyah Borbor, Jie Liu, Timothy McMurry, Benjamin Lopman, Umesh Parashar, John Gentsch, A Duncan Steele, Adam Cohen, Fatima Serhan, Eric R Houpt
Background: The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013-2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#19
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#20
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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