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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155670/lessons-learned-from-emergency-response-vaccination-efforts-for-cholera-typhoid-yellow-fever-and-ebola
#1
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153777/vaccination-with-a-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-chimeric-fhn-glycoprotein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-induces-protective-immunity
#2
R Garg, R Brownlie, L Latimer, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is a major cause of lower respiratory disease i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, in infants and young children. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against PIV3. To produce an effective subunit vaccine, a chimeric FHN glycoprotein consisting of the N-terminal ectodomain of the fusion (F) protein linked to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein without transmembrane domain, and secreted forms of the individual F and HN glycoproteins, were expressed in mammalian cells and purified...
November 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152691/strategies-for-the-control-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-ticks-in-a-world-of-conventional-acaricide-and-macrocyclic-lactone-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Roger I Rodriguez-Vivas, Nicholas N Jonsson, Chandra Bhushan
Infestations with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, constitute the most important ectoparasite problem for cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, resulting in major economic losses. The control of R. microplus is mostly based on the use of conventional acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. However, the intensive use of such compounds has resulted in tick populations that exhibit resistance to all major acaricide chemical classes. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative approaches, possibly including the use of animal husbandry practices, synergized pesticides, rotation of acaricides, pesticide mixture formulations, manual removal of ticks, selection for host resistance, nutritional management, release of sterile male hybrids, environmental management, plant species that are unfavourable to ticks, pasture management, plant extracts, essential oils and vaccination...
November 20, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#5
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148958/human-leptospirosis-vaccines-in-china
#6
Yinghua Xu, Qiang Ye
The present incidence of leptospirosis in China is significantly lower than past rates, although small localized outbreaks continue to occur in epidemic regions. Improvements in sanitation, as well as vaccination of high-risk populations, have played crucial roles in reducing the disease burden. Several types of human leptospirosis vaccines have been developed, including inactivated whole-cell, outer-envelope, and recombinant vaccines. Of these, only a multivalent inactivated leptospirosis vaccine is available in China, which was added to the Chinese Expanded Program on Immunization in 2007...
November 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147873/comparison-of-the-adjuvanticity-of-two-adjuvant-formulations-containing-de-o-acylated-lipooligosaccharide-on-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-in-mice
#7
Ara Ko, Seo Ri Wui, Ji In Ryu, Hien Thi Thu Do, Yeon Jeong Lee, Soo Jeong Lim, Inmoo Rhee, Dae Im Jung, Jin-Ah Park, Jung-Ah Choi, Man Ki Song, Na Gyong Lee
Adjuvants are essential vaccine components used to enhance, accelerate, and/or prolong adaptive immunity against specific vaccine antigens. In this study, we compared the adjuvanticity of two adjuvant formulations containing de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS), a toll-like receptor 4 agonist, on the Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in mice. Mice were immunized once or twice at a two-week interval with inactivated JE vaccine in the absence or presence of adjuvant. We found that both the alum- and the liposome-based formulation induced significantly faster and higher serum IgG antibody responses as compared with the non-adjuvanted vaccine after either one or two immunizations...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147614/exploiting-a-new-strategy-to-induce-immunogenic-cell-death-to-improve-dendritic-cell-based-vaccines-for-lymphoma-immunotherapy
#8
B Montico, C Lapenta, M Ravo, D Martorelli, E Muraro, B Zeng, E Comaro, M Spada, S Donati, S M Santini, R Tarallo, G Giurato, F Rizzo, A Weisz, F Belardelli, R Dolcetti, J Dal Col
Although promising, the clinical benefit provided by dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines is still limited and the choice of the optimal antigen formulation is still an unresolved issue. We have developed a new DC-based vaccination protocol for aggressive and/or refractory lymphomas which combines the unique features of interferon-conditioned DC (IFN-DC) with highly immunogenic tumor cell lysates (TCL) obtained from lymphoma cells undergoing immunogenic cell death. We show that treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines with 9-cis-retinoic acid and IFNα (RA/IFNα) induces early membrane exposure of Calreticulin, HSP70 and 90 together with CD47 down-regulation and enhanced HMGB1 secretion...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146379/lt-adjuvant-modulates-epitope-specificity-and-improves-the-efficacy-of-murine-antibodies-elicited-by-sublingual-vaccination-with-the-n-terminal-domain-of-streptococcus-mutans-p1
#9
Milene Tavares Batista, Ewerton Lucena Ferreira, Gisela de Souza Pereira, Phillip Stafford, Denicar Lina Nascimento Fabris Maeda, Juliana Falcão Rodrigues, L Jeannine Brady, Stephen Albert Johnston, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Café Ferreira
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and peptide-based immune signatures of antibodies raised in mice after sublingual immunization with a recombinant form of the P1 (aka AgI/II, PAc) adhesin (P139-512) of Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of dental caries. Sublingual administration of P139-512 in combination with the mucosal adjuvant LTK4R (a derivative of heat-labile LT toxin) induced strong and long-lasting systemic and mucosal immune responses. Incorporation of the adjuvant resulted in an enhancement of the anti-adhesive and anti-colonization activity against S...
November 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146244/extending-antigen-release-from-particulate-vaccines-results-in-enhanced-antitumor-immune-response
#10
Chintan H Kapadia, Shaomin Tian, Jillian L Perry, David Sailer, J Christopher Luft, Joseph M DeSimone
Tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in an anti-tumor immune response. However, vaccination intended to elicit a potent CD8(+) T cell responses employing tumor-associated peptide antigens, are typically ineffective due to poor immunogenicity. Previously, we engineered a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel-based subunit vaccine for the delivery of an antigenic peptide and CpG (adjuvant) to elicit potent CTLs. In this study, we further examined the effect of antigen release kinetics on their induced immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#11
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142131/single-dose-trivalent-vesiculovax-vaccine-protects-macaques-from-lethal-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-challenge
#12
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141136/systemic-mrna-delivery-to-the-lungs-by-functional-polyester-based-carriers
#13
Yunfeng Yan, Hu Xiong, Xinyi Zhang, Qiang Cheng, Daniel John Siegwart
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently come into focus as an emerging therapeutic class with great potential for protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, regenerative medicine, vaccines, and gene editing. However, the lack of effective and safe delivery methods impedes the broad application of mRNA-based therapeutics. Here, we report a robust approach to develop efficient polymeric delivery carriers for mRNA. Lead polyesters were identified by in vitro screening of a 480-member combinatorially modified poly(trimethylolpropane allyl ether-co-suberoyl chloride) library for the delivery of luciferase encoding mRNA (Luc mRNA) to IGROV1 cells...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140444/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-different-formulations-of-norovirus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#14
G Leroux-Roels, J P Cramer, P M Mendelman, J Sherwood, R Clemens, A Aerssens, I De Coster, A Borkowski, F Baehner, P Van Damme
Background: We investigated safety and immunogenicity of 1-2 doses of different bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidate (NoV) formulations in healthy 18-64-year-olds. Methods: On Days 1 and 28 participants (n=420) randomized to 14 equal groups received intramuscular control vaccine (hepatitis A) or one of 11 NoV formulations contained varying dosages of GI.1 and GII.4c genotype VLP antigens with Al(OH)3, and 0μg, 15μg or 50μg MPL. Immunogenicity was assessed on Days 1, 28, 56, 208 and 393...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139018/vaccination-against-hydatidosis-molecular-cloning-and-optimal-expression-of-the-eg95nc-recombinant-antigen-in-escherichia-coli
#15
M Jazouli, M Lightowlers, C G Gauci, K Tadlaoui, A Belmlih, M M Ennaji, M Elharrak
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely distributed zoonosis that is highly endemic in the Mediterranean basin. The disease represents a serious public health threat and causes economic losses. The parasite life-cycle involves dogs and ruminants as definitive and intermediate hosts; humans are accidently infected, causing serious clinical issues. Vaccination of ruminants and dog treatments represent the most efficient measures to prevent parasite transmission. The recombinant protein vaccine, EG95, has been used successfully in sheep vaccine trials against CE in several countries...
November 14, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137294/immunoprevention-of-kras-driven-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-a-multipeptide-vaccine
#16
Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Shizuko Sei, Robert H Shoemaker, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mutations in KRAS are detected in up to 30% of lung cancer cases. No effective therapies specifically targeting mutant KRAS have been developed. Vaccination against KRAS mutants is one of the venues of active exploration. The present study evaluated both immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of a newly formulated multipeptide vaccine targeting multiple epitopes of the KRAS molecule. The formulated vaccine contained top four peptides, which elicited the strongest immunologic response and showed 100% sequence homology between human and mouse...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135343/effects-of-influenza-immunization-on-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#17
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133207/oral-hepatitis-b-vaccine-chitosan-or-glucan-based-delivery-systems-for-efficient-hbsag-immunization-following-subcutaneous-priming
#18
Edna Soares, Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
The World Health Organization encourages "the development of oral formulations to simplify their transport, storage and administration in poor countries", and to "facilitate an effective immunization program to prevent sexually transmitted hepatitis B". Thus, two distinct and promising delivery systems were developed: recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) encapsulated into alginate-coated chitosan particles (AlgChiPs) and into glucan particles (GPs) mainly composed of β-1,3-d-glucan. In vitro preliminary studies showed that both could be internalized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine Peyer's patches, an imperative aspect regarding oral immunization...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#19
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127039/biodegradable-sting-agonist-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
David R Wilson, Rupashree Sen, Joel C Sunshine, Drew M Pardoll, Jordan J Green, Young J Kim
Therapeutic cancer vaccines require adjuvants leading to robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine responses in the tumor microenvironment to induce an anti-tumor response. Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), a potent Stimulator of Interferon Receptor (STING) agonist, are currently in phase I trials. However, their efficacy may be limited to micromolar concentrations due to the cytosolic residence of STING in the ER membrane. Here we utilized biodegradable, poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) nanoparticles to deliver CDNs to the cytosol leading to robust immune response at >100-fold lower extracellular CDN concentrations in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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