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Giardia intestinalis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#1
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#2
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540488/an-18s-rrna-workflow-for-characterizing-protists-in-sewage-with-a-focus-on-zoonotic-trichomonads
#3
Julia M Maritz, Krysta H Rogers, Tara M Rock, Nicole Liu, Susan Joseph, Kirkwood M Land, Jane M Carlton
Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524742/piqueria-trinervia-as-a-source-of-metabolites-against-giardia-intestinalis
#4
Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Candy N Jiménez-Fragoso, Guadalupe Palencia, Gabriel Sansón-Romero, Anahi Anzo-Osorio, Mario N Martínez-Gordillo
CONTEXT: Piqueria trinervia Cav. (Asteraceae) is a plant species with a long history in traditional medicine to cure diarrhoea and other digestive disorders. OBJECTIVE: The study investigates the antigiardial activity of piquerol, trinervinol, red oil and two fractions (F1 and F2) from P. trinervia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P. trinervia was collected in the Ajusco in Mexico City. Aerial parts were ground and mixed with water to obtain the extract, which was treated with dichloromethane to isolate piquerol and trinervinol (P & T)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458199/occurrence-and-removal-efficiency-of-parasitic-protozoa-in-swedish-wastewater-treatment-plants
#5
Björn Berglund, Olaf Dienus, Ekaterina Sokolova, Emma Berglind, Andreas Matussek, Thomas Pettersson, Per-Eric Lindgren
Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373093/experimental-and-bioinformatic-characterization-of-cabp2933-an-ef-hand-protein-of-giardia-intestinalis
#6
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Eliana Calvo, Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans. This parasite is a divergent eukaryote with a compact genome. The calcium ion is an essential messenger in cell signaling. Calcium's role as a messenger is mediated through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) that decode the message. The most important family of CaBPs is the EF-Hand protein family. In this study we have explored the role of EF-Hand protein CaBP2933. We analyzed its location, confirmed its ability to bind calcium and identified some of its interacting proteins...
March 31, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372543/giardia-intestinalis-mitosomes-undergo-synchronized-fission-but-not-fusion-and-are-constitutively-associated-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#7
Luboš Voleman, Vladimíra Najdrová, Ásgeir Ástvaldsson, Pavla Tůmová, Elin Einarsson, Zdeněk Švindrych, Guy M Hagen, Jan Tachezy, Staffan G Svärd, Pavel Doležal
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria of opisthokonts undergo permanent fission and fusion throughout the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the mitosomes, the simplest forms of mitochondria, in the anaerobic protist parasite Giardia intestinalis, a member of the Excavata supergroup of eukaryotes. The mitosomes have abandoned typical mitochondrial traits such as the mitochondrial genome and aerobic respiration and their single role known to date is the formation of iron-sulfur clusters...
April 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329069/giardiasis-and-subsequent-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-using-health-insurance-data
#8
Jolene H Nakao, Sarah A Collier, Julia W Gargano
Background.: Giardia intestinalis is the most commonly reported human intestinal parasite in the United States. Increased incidence of chronic gastrointestinal complaints has been reported after some giardiasis outbreaks. We examined the relationship between giardiasis diagnosis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis. Methods.: We used the 2006-2010 MarketScan commercial insurance database. Persons with at least 1 giardiasis diagnosis were individually matched on age group, sex, and enrollment length in months to 5 persons without a giardiasis diagnosis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#9
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
June 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236495/microvesicles-released-from-giardia-intestinalis-disturb-host-pathogen-response-in-vitro
#10
Ingrid Evans-Osses, Andres Mojoli, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Antonio Marcilla, Veronica Aran, Maria Amorim, Jameel Inal, Francesc E Borràs, Marcel I Ramirez
Giardia intestinalis (G.I), is an anaerobic protozoan and the aetiological agent of giardiasis, a diarrhoea present worldwide and associated with poverty. G.I has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Cysts are transmitted orally to the stomach and transform to trophozoites in the intestine by a multifactorial process. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) have been found to be released from a wide range of eukaryotic cells. We have observed a release of MVs during the life cycle of G.I., identifying MVs from active trophozoites and from trophozoites differentiating to the cyst form...
March 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219994/coinfection-with-hymenolepis-nana-hymenolepis-diminuta-giardia-intestinalis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report-with-complex-immunologic-interactions
#11
Gladymar Pérez-Chacón, Leonor A Pocaterra, Elsy Rojas, Aurora Hernán, Juan Carlos Jiménez, Luz Núñez
AbstractWe describe the case of a 43-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected man receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and coinfected with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Giardia intestinalis, presenting as chronic diarrhea and critical weight loss. Immunological aspects of these interactions are reviewed.
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165283/parasiticidal-effect-of-synthetic-bovine-lactoferrin-peptides-on-the-enteric-parasite-giardia-intestinalis
#12
Hugo Aguilar-Diaz, Adrian Canizalez-Roman, Tomas Nepomuceno-Mejia, Francisco Gallardo-Vera, Yolanda Hornelas-Orozco, Kamran Nazmi, Jan G M Bolscher, Julio Cesar Carrero, Claudia Leon-Sicairos, Nidia Leon-Sicairos
Giardia intestinalis is the most common infectious protozoan parasite in children. Despite the effectiveness of some drugs, the disease remains a major worldwide problem. Consequently, the search for new treatments is important for disease eradication. Biological molecules with antimicrobial properties represent a promising alternative to combat pathogens. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a key component of the innate host defense system, and its peptides have exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Based on these properties, we evaluated the parasiticidal activity of these peptides on G...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164484/significance-of-nitric-oxide-level-in-giardiasis
#13
Mitra Zarebavani, Delaram Dargahi, Nahid Einollahi, Nasrin Dashti, Fatemeh Safari, Mostafa Rezaeian
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the most prevalent intestinal protozoa infections in humans. Nowadays, nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in the immune system against Giardia intestinalis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of NO in individuals with giardiasis in comparison to normal subjects. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted among 49 Giadia positive and 39 age and gender matched healthy volunteers. Examination of stool samples was done by wet mount technique and formol-ether concentration method...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138344/detection-of-intestinal-pathogens-in-river-shore-and-drinking-water-in-lima-peru
#14
David C Grothen, Sydney J Zach, Paul H Davis
Water quality management is an ongoing struggle for many locations worldwide. Current testing of water supplies can be time-consuming, expensive, and lack sensitivity. This study describes an alternative, easy-to-use, and inexpensive method to water sampling and testing at remote locations. This method was employed to detect a number of intestinal pathogens in various locations of Lima, Peru. A total of 34 PCR primer pairs were tested for specificity and high-yield amplification for 12 different pathogens using known DNA templates...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070012/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-intestinal-parasitic-infection-in-schoolchildren-in-battambang-cambodia
#15
Chien-Wei Liao, Kuan-Chih Chiu, I-Chen Chiang, Po-Ching Cheng, Ting-Wu Chuang, Juo-Han Kuo, Yun-Hung Tu, Chia-Kwung Fan
AbstractMost intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs), commonly endemic in tropical resource-poor developing countries, are neglected tropical diseases. Parasitic infections and malnutrition are most commonly found in children. We determined the prevalence of IPIs and the risk factors in Battambang Province, northwestern Cambodia, from August to September 2015. This study collected 308 valid questionnaires and specimens from Dontri (173, 56.2%) and Kon Kaêk (135, 43.8%) primary schools. All stool samples were examined using Chang's Feces Examination Apparatus through the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde technique...
March 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049541/the-presence-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-donkeys-equus-asinus-in-china
#16
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Fu-Kai Zhang, Fa-Cai Li, Jun-Ling Hou, Wen-Bin Zheng, Shuai-Zhi Du, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is one of the most important zoonotic enteric parasites. As no information regarding prevalence and genotype of G. intestinalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in China is available, 181 faecal samples from 48 donkeys from Jilin Province, from 104 from Shandong Province and from 29 from Liaoning Province were examined between May and December 2015. FINDINGS: Twenty-eight (15.47%) out of 181 donkey samples were tested G. intestinalis-positive by nested amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030941/diagnostics-of-intestinal-parasites-in-light-microscopy-among-the-population-of-children-in-eastern-afghanistan
#17
Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Agata Smoleń, Alina Augustynowicz, Anna Lass
OBJECTIVES: The Afghans, living in poor socioeconomic conditions, are estimated to be a community with a high rate of intestinal parasitic infections. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and species of intestinal parasites among children's population in eastern Afghanistan and to present the methods of optimizing the techniques for identification of pathogens in light microscopy. The research was carried out as a part of humanitarian project Capacity building of health care system in Ghazni Province...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030344/report-of-fatal-mixed-infection-with-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-giardia-intestinalis-in-neonatal-calves
#18
Yuu Matsuura, Makoto Matsubayashi, Satoko Nukata, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Osamu Ayukawa, Yasuko Kondo, Tomohide Matsuo, Shigehiko Uni, Masaru Furuya, Hiroyuki Tani, Naotoshi Tsuji, Kazumi Sasai
In the production and management of beef and dairy cattle, controlling diarrhea is one of the important concerns. Pathogenic agents of the disease, protozoan parasites including Cryptosporidium spp., are difficult to control, making prevention, diagnoses, and treatment of diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated a farm with a history of calf deaths over a period of 10 years in order to determine the cause of disease and to clarify the detailed distribution of the pathogens. In four examined calves that were reared in calf pens, all were positive with Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia, while the other breeding stock and adult cattle were negative...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009386/detection-of-giardia-intestinalis-infections-in-polish-soldiers-deployed-to-afghanistan
#19
Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Monika Konior, Alina Augustynowicz, Anna Lass, Ewa Kowalska
BACKGROUND: Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces...
2016: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007484/diagnosis-of-intestinal-parasites-in-a-rural-community-of-venezuela-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-using-microscopy-or-rt-pcr
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Renzo Nino Incani, Elizabeth Ferrer, Denise Hoek, Robbert Ramak, Jeroen Roelfsema, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Titia Kortbeek, Elena Pinelli
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
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