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Giardia intestinalis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774300/epidemiology-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-three-departments-of-south-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-before-the-implementation-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#1
Gaoussou Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Kouassi Dongo, Eveline Hürlimann, Fidèle K Bassa, Naférima Koné, Clémence Essé, Richard B Yapi, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K N'Goran
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#2
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726306/secreted-giardia-intestinalis-cysteine-proteases-disrupt-intestinal-epithelial-cell-junctional-complexes-and-degrade-chemokines
#3
Jingyi Liu, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Lars Hellman, Staffan G Svärd
Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are acknowledged as virulence factors in Giardia but their specific role in the molecular pathogenesis of disease is not known. Herein, we aimed to characterize the three main secreted CPs (CP14019, CP16160 and CP16779), which were identified by mass spectrometry in the medium during interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. First, the CPs were epitope-tagged and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicle-like structures...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702111/new-advances-in-scanning-microscopy-and-its-application-to-study-parasitic-protozoa
#4
REVIEW
Wanderley de Souza, Marcia Attias
Scanning electron microscopy has been used to observe and study parasitic protozoa for at least 40 years. However, field emission electron sources, as well as improvements in lenses and detectors, brought the resolution power of scanning electron microscopes (SEM) to a new level. Parallel to the refinement of instruments, protocols for preservation of the ultrastructure, immunolabeling, exposure of cytoskeleton and inner structures of parasites and host cells were developed. This review is focused on protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary relevance, e...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692802/hemolytic-anticancer-and-antigiardial-activity-of-palythoa-caribaeorum-venom
#5
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Ariana Zavala-Moreno, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Alejandro García-Arredondo, Miguel Cuevas-Cruz, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Barbarín Arreguín-Lozano, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa
Background: Cnidarian venoms and extracts have shown a broad variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antibacterial and antitumoral effects. Most of these studied extracts were obtained from sea anemones or jellyfish. The present study aimed to determine the toxic activity and assess the antitumor and antiparasitic potential of Palythoa caribaeorum venom by evaluating its in vitro toxicity on several models including human tumor cell lines and against the parasite Giardia intestinalis ...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627329/molecular-identification-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-two-cities-of-the-colombian-caribbean-coast
#6
Vivian Villalba-Vizcaíno, Yaleyvis Buelvas, Barbara Arroyo-Salgado, Lyda R Castro
INTRODUCTION: Parasitoses are an important health problem and its post-infectious consequences can cause high morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Epidemiological data is scarce in our region. We aimed to obtain frequency and circulating genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in two cities of the Caribbean Coast. METHODS: To identify parasites in samples, a fecal concentration and microscopical examination were performed. For further identification and genotyping of G...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590215/the-draft-genome-of-kipferlia-bialata-reveals-reductive-genome-evolution-in-fornicate-parasites
#7
Goro Tanifuji, Shun Takabayashi, Keitaro Kume, Mizue Takagi, Takuro Nakayama, Ryoma Kamikawa, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto
The fornicata (fornicates) is a eukaryotic group known to consist of free-living and parasitic organisms. Genome datasets of two model fornicate parasites Giardia intestinalis and Spironucleus salmonicida are well annotated, so far. The nuclear genomes of G. intestinalis assemblages and S. salmonicida are small in terms of the genome size and simple in genome structure. However, an ancestral genomic structure and gene contents, from which genomes of the fornicate parasites have evolved, remains to be clarified...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587846/evaluation-of-two-dna-extraction-methods-for-the-pcr-based-detection-of-eukaryotic-enteric-pathogens-in-fecal-samples
#8
Estelle Menu, Charles Mary, Isabelle Toga, Didier Raoult, Stéphane Ranque, Fadi Bittar
OBJECTIVE: Efficient and easy-to-use DNA extraction and purification methods are critical in implementing PCR-based diagnosis of pathogens. In order to optimize the routine clinical laboratory diagnosis of eukaryotic enteric pathogens, we compare, via quantitative PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, the efficiency of two DNA extraction kits: the semi-automated EZ1® (Qiagen) and the manual QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), on six protozoa: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis and Cystoisospora belli and one microsporidia: Enterocytozoon bieneusi...
March 27, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560592/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-giardia-assemblages-in-two-watersheds-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#9
Ronalda Silva de Araújo, Bruna Aguiar, Milena Dropa, Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto, Ana Tereza Galvani, José Antônio Padula, Glavur Rogério Matté, Maria Helena Matté
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are associated with cases of water and foodborne outbreaks in the world. This study included 50 samples of surface raw water collected from two watersheds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolation of (oo)cysts was performed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1623 and genotypic characterization and quantification were carried out by Nested PCR and qPCR assays based on 18S rRNA and gdh genes, respectively. U.S. EPA 1623 method showed the presence of (oo)cysts in 40% ([Formula: see text] = 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558978/a-new-species-of-giardia-k%C3%A3-nstler-1882-sarcomastigophora-hexamitidae-in-hamsters
#10
Zhangxia Lyu, Jingru Shao, Min Xue, Qingqing Ye, Bing Chen, Yan Qin, Jianfan Wen
BACKGROUND: Giardia spp. are flagellated protozoan parasites that infect humans and many other vertebrates worldwide. Currently seven species of Giardia are considered valid. RESULTS: Here, we report a new species, Giardia cricetidarum n. sp. in hamsters. Trophozoites of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are pear-shaped with four pairs of flagella and measure on average 14 μm (range 12-18 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-12 μm) in width. The trophozoites of the new species are generally larger and stouter than those of most of the other Giardia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554992/the-first-multilocus-genotype-analysis-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-humans-in-the-czech-republic
#11
L Lecová, F Weisz, P Tůmová, V Tolarová, E Nohýnková
To date, genotyping data on giardiasis have not been available in the Czech Republic. In this study, we characterized 47 human isolates of Giardia intestinalis from symptomatic as well as asymptomatic giardiasis cases. Genomic DNA from trophozoites was tested by PCR-sequence analysis at three loci (β-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase). Sequence analysis showed assemblages A and B in 41 (87.2%) and six (12.8%) isolates, respectively. Two of the 41 assemblage A samples were genotyped as sub-assemblage AI, and 39 were genotyped as sub-assemblage AII...
March 20, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545152/prevalence-and-multi-locus-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-from-goats-in-shaanxi-province-northwestern-china
#12
Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543807/association-between-gastrointestinal-tract-infections-and-glycated-hemoglobin-in-school-children-of-poor-neighborhoods-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#13
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529848/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-and-associated-risk-factors-for-infection-among-rural-communities-of-chachoengsao-province-thailand
#14
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522552/intestinal-parasite-infections-in-a-rural-community-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-subtypes
#15
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499754/foodborne-intestinal-protozoan-infection-and-associated-factors-among-patients-with-watery-diarrhea-in-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Birhane Berhe, Gessessew Bugssa, Sena Bayisa, Megbaru Alemu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454845/evaluation-of-a-new-multiplex-pcr-assay-paragenie-g-amoeba-real-time-pcr-kit-targeting-giardia-intestinalis-entamoeba-histolytica-and-entamoeba-dispar-entamoeba-moshkovskii-from-stool-specimens-evidence-for-the-limited-performances-of-microscopy-based-approach
#17
F Morio, S Valot, A Laude, G Desoubeaux, N Argy, C Nourrisson, C Pomares, M Machouart, Y Le Govic, F Dalle, F Botterel, N Bourgeois, E Cateau, M Leterrier, F Jeddi, M Gaboyard, P Le Pape
OBJECTIVES: Besides the potential to identify a wide variety of gastrointestinal parasites, microscopy remains the reference standard in clinical microbiology for amoeba species identification and, especially when coupled with adhesin detection, to discriminate the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from its sister but non-pathogenic species Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii. However, this approach is time-consuming, requires a high-level of expertise that can be jeopardized considering the low prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in non-endemic countries...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438742/a-novel-high-resolution-multilocus-sequence-typing-of-giardia-intestinalis-assemblage-a-isolates-reveals-zoonotic-transmission-clonal-outbreaks-and-recombination
#18
Johan Ankarklev, Marianne Lebbad, Elin Einarsson, Oscar Franzén, Harri Ahola, Karin Troell, Staffan G Svärd
Molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis have proven difficult due to multiple factors, such as low discriminatory power in the commonly used genotyping loci, which has hampered molecular analyses of outbreak sources, zoonotic transmission and virulence types. Here we have focused on assemblage A Giardia and developed a high-resolution assemblage-specific multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Analyses of sequenced G. intestinalis assemblage A genomes from different sub-assemblages identified a set of six genetic loci with high genetic variability...
June 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404745/in-silico-analysis-of-the-ef-hand-proteins-in-the-genome-of-giardia-intestinalis-assembly-a
#19
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Diana Velandia, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans and other mammals, causing a disease that can manifest itself with acute diarrhea. This parasite is an early divergent eukaryote with a compact genome and a life cycle composed of two distinct cell types: the trophozoite, the replicative form, and the cyst, the infectious form. Signal transduction pathways implicated in differentiation processes of G. intestinalis are largely unknown. Calcium, considered an essential messenger in cell signaling, has been shown to regulate a myriad of key cell processes including metabolism, motility, and exocytosis, among other important functions, through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)...
April 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363443/a-cross-sectional-study-on-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-children-in-suburban-public-primary-schools-saraburi-the-central-region-of-thailand
#20
Buravej Assavapongpaiboon, Uthaitip Bunkasem, Vivornpun Sanprasert, Surang Nuchprayoon
Intestinal parasitic infection rate among school-aged children in Thailand has been decreasing. However, certain intestinal parasites remain problematic in some regions. This cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September 2016 in three suburban government primary schools (KK, BR, and HK), Saraburi, Thailand. Stool was collected from 263 asymptomatic subjects (4-15 years old), using simple direct smear, formalin-ether concentration, Boeck and Drbohlav's Locke-Egg-Serum (LES) medium culture, and agar plate culture...
March 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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