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Giardia intestinalis

Mehmet Burak Selek, Bayhan Bektöre, Ergenekon Karagöz, Orhan Baylan, Mustafa Özyurt
OBJECTIVE: Parasitic diseases are among the major public health issues worldwide. A number of tests are available for diagnosis, but the sentivity and specifity of these tests are assumed to be insufficient. Nevertheless, the most common diagnostic method is microscopic examination. In this study, we aimed to introduce the distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients admitted to our laboratory on the basis of parameters such as, age, and gender during a 3-year period between 2012 and 2014...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Marwa A Ghieth, Magd A Kotb, Enas Y Abu-Sarea, Ayman A El-Badry
Giardiasis is a prevailing intestinal disease in children. This study aimed to determine molecular prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in children attending Cairo University Pediatrics Hospitals, using copro-PCR assays, conventional methods and to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of used tests. 229 fecal samples were collected from children suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and examined for Giardia by microscopy, Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), copro-DNA using two PCR assays targeting tpi [nested-PCR (nPCR)] and 18S [conventional-PCR (cPCR)] genes...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology International
Edmund V Capparelli, Robin Bricker-Ford, M John Rogers, James H McKerrow, Sharon L Reed
Under an NIH priority to identify new drugs to treat Class B parasitic agents, we performed high throughput screens, which identified Auranofin's (Ridaura™) activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis, major causes of water- and food-borne outbreaks. Auranofin, an oral, gold-containing compound FDA approved in 1985 for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro and in vivo against E histolytica and both metronidazole-sensitive and resistant strains of Giardia We now report the results of an NIH sponsored Phase I trial to characterize the PK and safety of auranofin in healthy volunteers using modern techniques to measure gold levels...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Staffan Svärd, Karin Troell
Protozoans are single-celled eukaryotes and many of the best-studied protozoans are parasitic to humans (e.g., Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria and Trypanosoma brucei causing sleeping sickness). These organisms are distantly related to humans but with retained eukaryotic type of cellular processes, making them good model systems for studies of the evolution of basic processes like the cell cycle. Giardia intestinalis causes 250 million cases of diarrhea yearly and is one of the earliest diverging protozoans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Tarnagda Grissoum, Aminata Kaboré, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Edgar E Caamal-Fuentes, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejón, Rosa E Moo-Puc
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done.The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jolanta Piekarska, Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Magdalena Kantyka, Magdalena Podkowik
INTRODUCTION: Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlović, Bruna Aguiar, Luis M Jara, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Juana Arzola Guerrero, Elayse Hachich, Glavur Rogério Matté, Milena Dropa, Maria Helena Matté, Ronalda Silva de Araújo
The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magdalena Uzlíková, Jana Fulnečková, Filip Weisz, Eva Sýkorová, Eva Nohýnková, Pavla Tůmová
The ends of linear chromosomes, telomeres, are most commonly maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Our study presents the characteristics of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled parasitic eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized telomeres during all stages of the trophozoite cell cycle and demonstrated differences in the observed number of telomeric foci, indicating telomere clustering. The length of Giardia telomeres was determined in different cell lines derived from WB clinical isolate using terminal restriction fragment analysis and ranged from 0...
September 13, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is an early divergent organism that was recently shown to have introns. The machinery responsible for the removal of introns in higher eukaryotes is the spliceosome, which consists of five ribonucleoproteins. Each of these ribonucleoproteins has a small nuclear RNA, a set of seven Sm proteins (B, D1, D2, D3, E, F and G) and several specific proteins. Some genes that encode spliceosome proteins have been bioinformatically identified in the parasite genome. Although it is assumed that the spliceosome is responsible for splicing in this parasite, biochemical characterization is lacking...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Victor Midlej, Luciana Penha, Rosane Silva, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
The mitosome is a double-membrane enveloped organelle that is found in few unicellular eukaryotes, one of which is the human intestinal parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis, which also lacks mitochondria and peroxisomes. This flagellated protist grows in vitro as trophozoites and under some conditions, differentiates into cysts, which are characterized by the absence of externalized flagella, a round shape, and the presence of a cyst wall. The presence and distribution of mitosomal proteins, such as giardial iron-sulfur cluster protein (GiIscU), heat-shock protein 70 (mit-HSP70) and giardial chaperonin 60 (GiCpn60), during the process of trophozoite-to-cyst transformation was tracked using confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Shaadi F Elswaifi, James R Palmieri, Nora El-Tantawy, Mona El-Hussiny, Tarek Besheer, Ekbal Abohashem
Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Jan Pyrih, Eva Pyrihová, Martin Kolísko, Darja Stojanovová, Somsuvro Basu, Karel Harant, Alexander C Haindrich, Pavel Doležal, Julius Lukeš, Andrew Roger, Jan Tachezy
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors that enable proteins to transport electrons, sense signals, or catalyze chemical reactions. The maturation of dozens of Fe-S proteins in various compartments of every eukaryotic cell is driven by several assembly pathways. The ubiquitous cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) pathway, typically composed of eight highly conserved proteins, depends on mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly (ISC) machinery. Giardia intestinalis contains one of the smallest eukaryotic genomes and the mitosome, an extremely reduced mitochondrion...
November 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wen-Bin Zheng, Jian-Gang Ma, Qiu-Xia Yao, Yang Zou, Cai-Jia Bubu, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis, the only causative agent of human giardiasis, can infect a wide range of animals. As no information concerning the prevalence and genotyping of G. intestinalis in raccoon dogs in China is available, examination of 305 faecal samples from raccoon dogs in Jilin Province (n = 110), Heilongjiang Province (n = 40), Liaoning Province (n = 72), Hebei Province (n = 54) and Shandong Province (n = 29) was conducted to estimate the prevalence of G...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Carlos A Méndez-Cuesta, Miguel Ángel Herrera-Rueda, Sergio Hidalgo-Figueroa, Hugo Tlahuext, Rosa Moo-Puc, Juan Bautista Chale-Dzul, Manuel Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Oscar Méndez-Lucio, José L Medina-Franco, Gabriel Navarrete-Vazquez
BACKGROUND: Propamidine, an antiseptic aromatic diamidine is a toxic compound with potential use as antiprotozoal drug. On the other hand, benzimidazole derivatives have shown excellent antiparasitic effects. We designed hybrid molecules between propamidine and benzimidazole in order to retain the antiprotozoal action, but decreasing the toxic effect of the molecule. Objetive: Design and prepare 12 hybrids from propamidine and benzimidazole for testing their antiparasitic effect over three protozoa: Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania Mexicana, as well as conduct several in silico simulations such as toxicological profile, molecular docking and molecular dynamics in order to understand their potential mode of action...
August 11, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Elin Einarsson, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Staffan G Svärd
Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite infecting the upper small intestine causing acute, watery diarrhea or giardiasis in 280 million people annually. Asymptomatic infections are equally common and recent data have suggested that infections even can be protective against other diarrheal diseases. Most symptomatic infections resolve spontaneously but infections can lead to chronic disease and treatment failures are becoming more common world-wide. Giardia infections can also result in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and food allergies after resolution...
August 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kristyna Markova, Magdalena Uzlikova, Pavla Tumova, Klara Jirakova, Guy Hagen, Jaroslav Kulda, Eva Nohynkova
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Elizabeth J Matey, Masaharu Tokoro, Tetsushi Mizuno, Takahiro Matsumura, Takehiro Nagamoto, Xiuqiong Bi, Jane A Oyombra, Willie K Sang, Elijah M Songok, Hiroshi Ichimura
A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Samantha J Emery, Ernest Lacey, Paul A Haynes
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite of vertebrates and a major contributor to the global burden of diarrheal diseases and gastroenteritis. The publication of multiple genome sequences in the G. duodenalis species complex has provided important insights into parasite biology, and made post-genomic technologies, including proteomics, significantly more accessible. The aims of proteomics are to identify and quantify proteins present in a cell, and assign functions to them within the context of dynamic biological systems...
August 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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