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Giardia intestinalis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066287/multiple-identification-of-most-important-waterborne-protozoa-in-surface-water-used-for-irrigation-purposes-by-18s-rrna-amplicon-based-metagenomics
#1
Y Moreno, L Moreno-Mesonero, I Amorós, R Pérez, A J Morillo, J L Alonso
Understanding waterborne protozoan parasites (WPPs) diversity has important implications in public health. In this study, we evaluated a NGS-based method as a detection approach to identify simultaneously most important WPPs using 18S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. A set of primers to target the V4 18S rRNA region of WPPs such as Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia sp., Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba spp, Toxoplasma sp. and free-living amoebae (FLA) was designed. In order to optimize PCR conditions before sequencing, both a mock community with a defined composition of representative WPPs and a real water sample inoculated with specific WPPs DNA were prepared...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041984/prevalence-and-multilocus-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-pigs-of-shaanxi-province-northwestern-china
#2
Sha-Sha Wang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Yan-Ling Yin, Rui-Si Hu, Jun-Ke Song, Guang-Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis, Giardia lamblia), is a significant zoonotic parasitic disease of animals and humans worldwide. Accurate genotyping of G. duodenalis is essential for efficient control and management of giardiasis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and assemblages of giardiasis in pigs in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, and for the first time study multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in pigs using multilocus genotyping technology in this region...
October 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040080/detection-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-water-samples-collected-from-natural-water-reservoirs-and-wells-in-northern-and-north-eastern-poland-using-lamp-real-time-pcr-and-nested-pcr
#3
Anna Lass, Beata Szostakowska, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Panagiotis Karanis
Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite, transmitted to humans and animals by the faecal-oral route, mainly through contaminated water and food. Knowledge about the distribution of this parasite in surface water in Poland is fragmentary and incomplete. Accordingly, 36 environmental water samples taken from surface water reservoirs and wells were collected in Pomerania and Warmia-Masuria provinces, Poland. The 50 L samples were filtered and subsequently analysed with three molecular detection methods: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and nested PCR...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979346/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-human-intestinal-parasites-in-roudehen-tehran-province-iran
#4
Nasrin Hemmati, Elham Razmjou, Saeideh Hashemi-Hafshejani, Abbas Motevalian, Lameh Akhlaghi, Ahmad Reza Meamar
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959734/drug-free-approach-to-study-the-unusual-cell-cycle-of-giardia-intestinalis
#5
Kathleen Horlock-Roberts, Chase Reaume, Guillem Dayer, Christine Ouellet, Nicholas Cook, Janet Yee
Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a form of severe and infectious diarrhea. Despite the importance of the cell cycle in the control of proliferation and differentiation during a giardia infection, it has been difficult to study this process due to the absence of a synchronization procedure that would not induce cellular damage resulting in artifacts. We utilized counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE), a size-based separation technique, to successfully obtain fractions of giardia cultures enriched in G1, S, and G2...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924741/spectrum-of-infectious-diseases-among-newly-arrived-eritrean-refugees-in-switzerland-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Afona Chernet, Andreas Neumayr, Christoph Hatz, Kerstin Kling, Véronique Sydow, Katharina Rentsch, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Hanspeter Marti, Beatrice Nickel, Niklaus D Labhardt
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at determining the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among recently arrived Eritrean refugees in Switzerland. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, asymptomatic Eritrean migrants aged ≥16 years who arrived <24 months ago were recruited at refugee centres in Switzerland. Infectious disease screening included serology for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and schistosomiasis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for malaria, stool microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) testing in urine for schistosomiasis...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884403/resonance-raman-studies-on-the-flavohemoglobin-of-the-protist-giardia-intestinalis-evidence-of-a-type-i-ii-peroxidase-like-heme-environment-and-roles-of-the-active-site-distal-residues
#7
Brian Lukaszewicz, Eliza McColl, Janet Yee, Steven Rafferty, Manon Couture
Flavohemoglobins are microbial enzymes that counter nitrosative stress, but the details of their underlying enzymatic activities and structure-function relationships are not completely understood. These enzymes have been identified in Gram-negative bacteria, certain fungi, and the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis (gFlHb) which, despite lacking the ability to make heme, encodes several hemeproteins. To gain knowledge about the biophysical properties of the active site of gFlHb, we used resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe the wild-type protein and variants at globin domain positions E11, E7, and B10 on the distal, ligand-binding side of the heme...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822909/variation-in-basal-body-localisation-and-targeting-of-trypanosome-rp2-and-for20-proteins
#8
Jane Harmer, Xin Qi, Gabriella Toniolo, Aysha Patel, Hannah Shaw, Fiona E Benson, Michael L Ginger, Paul G McKean
TOF-LisH-PLL motifs define FOP family proteins; some members are involved in flagellum assembly. The critical role of FOP family protein FOR20 is poorly understood. Here, we report relative localisations of the four FOP family proteins in parasitic Trypanosoma brucei: TbRP2, TbOFD1 and TbFOP/FOP1-like are mature basal body proteins whereas TbFOR20 is present on pro- and mature basal bodies - on the latter it localises distal to TbRP2. We discuss how the data, together with published work for another protist Giardia intestinalis, informs on likely FOR20 function...
July 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793025/environmental-aspects-related-to-tuberculosis-and-intestinal-parasites-in-a-low-income-community-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#9
Biatriz Araújo Cardoso, Fabio de Oliveira Fonseca, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza Martins, Nissa Vilhena da Silva Oliveira, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Maria Helena Féres Saad
We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793024/socioenvironmental-conditions-and-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-brazilian-urban-slums-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Natasha Berendonk Handam, Maria de Fatima Leal Alencar, Adriana Sotero-Martins, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770921/insights-into-the-giardia-intestinalis-enolase-and-human-plasminogen-interaction
#11
R Aguayo-Ortiz, P Meza-Cervantez, R Castillo, A Hernández-Campos, L Dominguez, L Yépez-Mulia
Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. The enolase of G. intestinalis (GiENO) participates in its glycolysis pathway and is abundantly expressed in the parasite cytosol; however, its localization on the surface of trophozoites and cysts has been demonstrated. Enolases from bacteria and parasites can have different functions and are considered moonlighting proteins, for example, as a cell surface plasminogen receptor. In relation to GiENO, no studies have been performed about its possible participation as a plasminogen receptor...
September 26, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770713/detection-and-multilocus-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-dogs-in-sichuan-province-china
#12
Yue Zhang, Zhijun Zhong, Lei Deng, Maoqing Wang, Wei Li, Chao Gong, Hualin Fu, Suizhong Cao, Xianpeng Shi, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. intestinalis) is a flagellated protozoan that parasitizes the small intestine and is a common causal agent of zoonotic infections in humans and animals. To assess the genetic diversity and zoonotic transmission potential of G. duodenalis in stray dogs, 159 fecal specimens were collected from dogs in Chengdu, Yaan, and Leshan in Sichuan province, China. Of the 159 fecal samples from stray dogs, 18 (11.3%) were G. duodenalis-positive based on nested PCR amplification of the beta giardin (bg) gene, and the occurrence varied from 1...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749764/use-of-serologic-responses-against-enteropathogens-to-assess-the-impact-of-a-point-of-use-water-filter-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-western-province-rwanda
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Divens Zambrano, Jeffrey W Priest, Emil Ivan, John Rusine, Corey Nagel, Miles Kirby, Ghislaine Rosa, Thomas F Clasen
Diarrhea is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the challenge of blinding most water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, diarrheal disease outcome measures in WASH intervention trials are subject to potential bias and misclassification. Using the platform of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a household-based drinking water filter in western province, Rwanda, we assessed the impact of the drinking water filter on enteric seroconversion in young children as a health outcome and examined the association between serologic responses and caregiver-reported diarrhea...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704362/local-and-global-genetic-diversity-of-protozoan-parasites-spatial-distribution-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-genotypes
#14
Juan C Garcia-R, Nigel French, Anthony Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, Rima Shrestha, David Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671392/recreational-waterborne-illnesses-recognition-treatment-and-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Allen Perkins, Marirose Trimmier
Illness after recreational water activities can be caused by a variety of agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, algae, and even chlorine gas. These illnesses are more common in summer. Waterborne illnesses are underreported because most recreational activity occurs in unsupervised venues or on private property, and participants tend to disperse before illness occurs. Symptoms of waterborne illness are primarily gastrointestinal, but upper respiratory and skin manifestations also occur. Gastrointestinal symptoms are usually self-limited, and supportive treatment may be all that is necessary...
May 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655684/profile-of-intestinal-parasitosis-among-school-aged-children-in-kiliba-eastern-dr-congo
#16
C Kyambikwa Bisangamo, P Jabari Mutwa, P Mulongo Mbarambara
This study of feces sought to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the Kiliba area of the eastern DR Congo. Feces of 602 school children aged from 9 to 20 years were collected from April to June 2014 and examined. Direct analyses were supplemented with the Kato and Ritchie methods. The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in school-aged children in the Kiliba area was 91.4 % [95 % CI: 87.6-94.3%]. The frequency of helminthiasis was high at 73.8 % (95 % CI: 68.4-78.6%) and that of protozoa reached 32...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654741/intestinal-parasites-in-stool-samples-and-perianal-swabs-examined-by-the-voivodeship-sanitary-epidemiological-station-in-bydgoszcz-between-2000-2014
#17
Jerzy Kasprzak, Bożena Szaładzińska, Małgorzata Smoguła, Marcin Ziuziakowski
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological conditions are changing due to the modifications in human behavior and environment. Parasitic diseases are most often caused by intestinal parasites. The frequency of Echinococcus multilocularis and tropical diseases increases in Poland. AIM OF STUDY: Analysis of intestinal parasites’ occurrence in stool samples and perianal swabs tested in Medical Diagnostics Department of The Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Station in Bydgoszcz between 2000-2014...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645659/synthesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-giardicidal-activity-of-nitrothiazole-nsaid-chimeras-displaying-broad-antiprotozoal-spectrum
#18
Blanca Colín-Lozano, Ismael León-Rivera, Manuel Jesús Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Rosa Moo-Puc, Vanessa López-Guerrero, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Raúl Argüello-Garcia, Thomas Scior, Elizabeth Barbosa-Cabrera, Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez
We designed and synthesized five new 5-nitrothiazole-NSAID chimeras as analogues of nitazoxanide, using a DCC-activated amidation. Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro against a panel of five protozoa: 2 amitochondriates (Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis) and 3 kinetoplastids (Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi). All chimeras showed broad spectrum and potent antiprotozoal activities, with IC50 values ranging from the low micromolar to nanomolar order. Compounds 1-5 were even more active than metronidazole and nitazoxanide, two marketed first-line drugs against giardiasis...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634143/pcr-based-verification-of-positive-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-intestinal-protozoa-infections-with-variable-test-band-intensity
#19
Sören L Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624613/nitroimidazole-refractory-giardiasis-a-growing-problem-requiring-rational-solutions
#20
REVIEW
E R Carter, L E Nabarro, L Hedley, P L Chiodini
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is microaerophilic diarrhoea-causing protozoan common in countries with suboptimal sanitation. Standard treatment is with nitroimidazoles, but a growing number of refractory cases is being reported. Treatment failure has become increasingly prevalent in travellers who contract giardiasis in Asia. Clinicians are increasingly falling back on second-line and less well-known drugs to treat giardiasis. AIMS: To review nitroimidazole-refractory G...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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