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Giardia intestinalis

Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Tarnagda Grissoum, Aminata Kaboré, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Edgar E Caamal-Fuentes, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejón, Rosa E Moo-Puc
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done.The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jolanta Piekarska, Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Magdalena Kantyka, Magdalena Podkowik
INTRODUCTION: Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlović, Bruna Aguiar, Luis M Jara, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Juana Arzola Guerrero, Elayse Hachich, Glavur Rogério Matté, Milena Dropa, Maria Helena Matté, Ronalda Silva de Araújo
The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magdalena Uzlíková, Jana Fulnečková, Filip Weisz, Eva Sýkorová, Eva Nohýnková, Pavla Tůmová
The ends of linear chromosomes, telomeres, are most commonly maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Our study presents the characteristics of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled parasitic eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized telomeres during all stages of the trophozoite cell cycle and demonstrated differences in the observed number of telomeric foci, indicating telomere clustering. The length of Giardia telomeres was determined in different cell lines derived from WB clinical isolate using terminal restriction fragment analysis and ranged from 0...
September 13, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is an early divergent organism that was recently shown to have introns. The machinery responsible for the removal of introns in higher eukaryotes is the spliceosome, which consists of five ribonucleoproteins. Each of these ribonucleoproteins has a small nuclear RNA, a set of seven Sm proteins (B, D1, D2, D3, E, F and G) and several specific proteins. Some genes that encode spliceosome proteins have been bioinformatically identified in the parasite genome. Although it is assumed that the spliceosome is responsible for splicing in this parasite, biochemical characterization is lacking...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Victor Midlej, Luciana Penha, Rosane Silva, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
The mitosome is a double-membrane enveloped organelle that is found in few unicellular eukaryotes, one of which is the human intestinal parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis, which also lacks mitochondria and peroxisomes. This flagellated protist grows in vitro as trophozoites and under some conditions, differentiates into cysts, which are characterized by the absence of externalized flagella, a round shape, and the presence of a cyst wall. The presence and distribution of mitosomal proteins, such as giardial iron-sulfur cluster protein (GiIscU), heat-shock protein 70 (mit-HSP70) and giardial chaperonin 60 (GiCpn60), during the process of trophozoite-to-cyst transformation was tracked using confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Shaadi F Elswaifi, James R Palmieri, Nora El-Tantawy, Mona El-Hussiny, Tarek Besheer, Ekbal Abohashem
Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Jan Pyrih, Eva Pyrihová, Martin Kolísko, Darja Stojanovová, Somsuvro Basu, Karel Harant, Alexander C Haindrich, Pavel Doležal, Julius Lukeš, Andrew Roger, Jan Tachezy
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors that enable proteins to transport electrons, sense signals or catalyze chemical reactions. The maturation of dozens of Fe-S proteins in various compartments of every eukaryotic cell is driven by several assembly pathways. The ubiquitous cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) pathway, typically composed of eight highly conserved proteins, depends on mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly (ISC) machinery. Giardia intestinalis contains one of the smallest eukaryotic genomes and the mitosome, an extremely reduced mitochondrion...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wen-Bin Zheng, Jian-Gang Ma, Qiu-Xia Yao, Yang Zou, Cai-Jia Bubu, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis, the only causative agent of human giardiasis, can infect a wide range of animals. As no information concerning the prevalence and genotyping of G. intestinalis in raccoon dogs in China is available, examination of 305 faecal samples from raccoon dogs in Jilin Province (n = 110), Heilongjiang Province (n = 40), Liaoning Province (n = 72), Hebei Province (n = 54) and Shandong Province (n = 29) was conducted to estimate the prevalence of G...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Carlos A Méndez-Cuesta, Miguel Ángel Herrera-Rueda, Sergio Hidalgo-Figueroa, Hugo Tlahuext, Rosa Moo-Puc, Juan Bautista Chale-Dzul, Manuel Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Oscar Méndez-Lucio, José L Medina-Franco, Gabriel Navarrete-Vazquez
BACKGROUND: Propamidine, an antiseptic aromatic diamidine is a toxic compound with potential use as antiprotozoal drug. On the other hand, benzimidazole derivatives have shown excellent antiparasitic effects. We designed hybrid molecules between propamidine and benzimidazole in order to retain the antiprotozoal action, but decreasing the toxic effect of the molecule. Objetive: Design and prepare 12 hybrids from propamidine and benzimidazole for testing their antiparasitic effect over three protozoa: Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania Mexicana, as well as conduct several in silico simulations such as toxicological profile, molecular docking and molecular dynamics in order to understand their potential mode of action...
August 11, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Elin Einarsson, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Staffan G Svärd
Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite infecting the upper small intestine causing acute, watery diarrhea or giardiasis in 280 million people annually. Asymptomatic infections are equally common and recent data have suggested that infections even can be protective against other diarrheal diseases. Most symptomatic infections resolve spontaneously but infections can lead to chronic disease and treatment failures are becoming more common world-wide. Giardia infections can also result in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and food allergies after resolution...
August 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kristyna Markova, Magdalena Uzlikova, Pavla Tumova, Klara Jirakova, Guy Hagen, Jaroslav Kulda, Eva Nohynkova
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Elizabeth J Matey, Masaharu Tokoro, Tetsushi Mizuno, Takahiro Matsumura, Takehiro Nagamoto, Xiuqiong Bi, Jane A Oyombra, Willie K Sang, Elijah M Songok, Hiroshi Ichimura
A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Samantha J Emery, Ernest Lacey, Paul A Haynes
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite of vertebrates and a major contributor to the global burden of diarrheal diseases and gastroenteritis. The publication of multiple genome sequences in the G. duodenalis species complex has provided important insights into parasite biology, and made post-genomic technologies, including proteomics, significantly more accessible. The aims of proteomics are to identify and quantify proteins present in a cell, and assign functions to them within the context of dynamic biological systems...
August 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Beatriz Coronato Nunes, Márcio G Pavan, Lauren H Jaeger, Kerla J L Monteiro, Samanta C C Xavier, Fernando A Monteiro, Márcio N Bóia, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa
BACKGROUND: Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children's nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years...
2016: PloS One
Lorenzo Zammarchi, Alberto Antonelli, Manuela Lapini, Marco Prato, Alberto Farese, Gian Maria Rossolini, Alessandro Bartoloni
We present a case of concurrent infections by Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia intestinalis and Hepatitis E virus acquired during a 5-days travel to India by an Italian traveller : Professionals responsible for pre- and post-travel care should underline food and water precautions and prescribe an adequate diagnostic work-up in symptomatic patients.
May 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Joakim Forsell, Margareta Granlund, Linn Samuelsson, Satu Koskiniemi, Helén Edebro, Birgitta Evengård
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jean T Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Michael V D'Ambrosio, Daniel A Fletcher, Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jason R Andrews, Isaac I Bogoch
BACKGROUND: Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis. METHODOLOGY: Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope). The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elin Einarsson, Ásgeir Ástvaldsson, Kjell Hultenby, Jan O Andersson, Staffan G Svärd, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist
Annexins are multifunctional, calcium-binding proteins found in organisms across all kingdoms. Most studies of annexins from single-celled eukaryotes have focused on the alpha-giardins, proteins assigned to the group E annexins, expressed by the diplomonad Giardia intestinalis. We have characterized the annexin gene family in another diplomonad parasite, Spironucleus salmonicida, by phylogenetic and experimental approaches. We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the diplomonad group E annexins and found that they are abundant across the group with frequent gene duplications and losses...
March 2016: MSphere
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