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Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorders

Arthur Caye, James Swanson, Anita Thapar, Margaret Sibley, Louise Arseneault, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Janni Niclasen, Terrie Moffitt, Luis Augusto Rohde
There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Silje Merethe Husby, Lars Wichstrøm
Childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has commonly been thought to increase the risk of conduct disorder (CD) in late childhood and adolescence. However, symptoms of CD may also emerge during preschool and middle childhood. The few studies that have examined whether ODD increases the risk of such early onset CD have produced equivocal results, potentially due to methodological issues. In this study, a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 1042, 49.9 % males) was examined bi-annually over four waves of data collection...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
October 25, 2016: Brain Topography
Jilly Naaijen, Saskia de Ruiter, Marcel P Zwiers, Jeffrey C Glennon, Sarah Durston, David J Lythgoe, Steven C R Williams, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Giovanni A Salum, Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley, Argyris Stringaris, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Luis A Rohde, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Gisele G Manfro, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
BACKGROUND: Irritability, a frequent complaint in children with psychiatric disorders, reflects increased predisposition to anger. Preliminary work in pediatric clinical samples links irritability to attention bias to threat, and the current study examines this association in a large population-based sample. METHODS: We studied 1,872 children (ages 6-14) using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and dot-probe tasks...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jae Hyun Yoo, Yunhye Oh, Byongsu Jang, Jihye Song, Jiwon Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Hye-Yeon Shin, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Yun-Hee Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Yoo-Sook Joung
Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Connor H G Patros, R Matt Alderson, Kristen L Hudec, Stephanie J Tarle, Sarah E Lea
Changes in motor activity were examined across control and executive function (EF) tasks that differ with regard to demands placed on visuospatial working memory (VS-WM) and self-control processes. Motor activity was measured via actigraphy in 8- to 12-year-old boys with (n=15) and without (n=17) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the completion of VS-WM, self-control, and control tasks. Results indicated that boys with ADHD, relative to typically developing boys, exhibited greater motor activity across tasks, and both groups' activity was greater during EF tasks relative to control tasks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Matthew A Jarrett, Anna Van Meter, Eric A Youngstrom, Dane C Hilton, Thomas H Ollendick
Guidelines exist for the assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but they are often unclear as to how a clinician should consider multiple informants, methods, and co-occurring symptoms to reach an overall diagnostic probability for an individual patient. The current study used receiver operating characteristic analyses and evidence-based medicine methods to evaluate the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment measures and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test for ADHD diagnosis in youth...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Alice Guilleux, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Amandine Luquiens, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale - Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Eylem Özten, Sermin Kesebir, Gül Eryılmaz, Nevzat Tarhan, Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Sunyoung Park, Andrew B C Nevin, Fernando Cardozo-Pelaez, Diana I Lurie
Pb exposure is associated with cognitive deficits including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and alters auditory temporal processing in humans and animals. Serotonin has been implicated in auditory temporal processing and previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that developmental Pb decreases expression of serotonin (5-HT) in the adult murine lateral superior olive (LSO). During development, certain non-serotonergic sensory neurons, including auditory LSO neurons, transiently take up 5-HT through the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT)...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Chieh Chang, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Wen-Sheng Huang, Chyng-Yann Shiue, Chin-Bin Yeh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aims of the current study were to determine whether patients with conduct disorder (CD) showed an abnormal availability of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and if their hyperkinetic symptoms, impulsivity, and quality of life were correlated with the availability of SERT. METHODS: We recruited 14 drug-naïve patients with CD and eight age-matched healthy controls (HCs). The adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) self-report scale (ASRS), Barrett impulsivity scale (BIS), and the World Health Organization quality of life-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) scale were administered...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
C H M Cheung, R Bedford, M H Johnson, T Charman, T Gliga
An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years...
September 30, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
S Bioulac, F Chalumeau, K Lode-Kolz
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder, often associated with sleep disorders. Patients with primary sleep disorders often present hyperactivity and/or attention deficit symptoms. Indeed, obstructive sleep disorder breathing (snoring, hypoventilation disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) with poor sleep quality can mimic ADHD in children. In this case, inattention and hyperactivity behavior are induced by sleep disorders but do not constitute a clinical diagnosis of ADHD...
October 18, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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