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Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorders

Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
H Andersson, L Sonnesen
AIMS: This was to compare sleepiness, occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and healthy children (control group). METHODS: 15 children with ADHD (10 boys, 5 girls, mean age 10.98 years) and 36 healthy age matched children (21 boys, 15 girls, mean age 10.60 years) were included. Intra-oral three-dimensional scans of the teeth and palate were performed to evaluate the occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions...
March 14, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
John T Mitchell, Andrea L Howard, Katherine A Belendiuk, Traci M Kennedy, Annamarie Stehli, James M Swanson, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Betsy Hoza, Benedetto Vitiello, Bo Lu, Scott H Kollins, Brooke S G Molina
Introduction: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for smoking cigarettes, but there is little longitudinal research on the array of smoking characteristics known to be prognostic of long-term smoking outcomes into adulthood. These variables were studied into early adulthood in a multi-site sample diagnosed with ADHD combined-type at ages 7-9.9 and followed prospectively alongside an age- and sex-matched local normative comparison group (LNCG)...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Samantha C L Cohen, Danielle J Harvey, Rebecca H Shields, Grant S Shields, Roxanne N Rashedi, Daniel J Tancredi, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Robin L Hansen, Julie B Schweitzer
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral therapies are first-line for preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies support yoga for school-aged children with ADHD; this study evaluated yoga in preschoolers on parent- and teacher-rated attention/challenging behaviors, attentional control (Kinder Test of Attentional Performance [KiTAP]), and heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: This randomized waitlist-controlled trial tested a 6-week yoga intervention in preschoolers with ≥4 ADHD symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
P A Gonzalez-Perez, S Hernandez-Exposito, J Perez, G Ramirez, A Dominguez
AIMS: To investigate whether or not the deficits in executive functions in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect reading comprehension and identify a potential biological marker of this neuropsychological endophenotype through event-related potentials (ERP). The phenotypic association between reading comprehension and the specific functions of inhibition and working memory is studied. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 children with ADHD (8-13 years) divided in two groups according to the presence (TDAH-; n = 27; percentile < 30) or the absence (TDAH+; n = 25; percentile > 50) of reading comprehension deficits and a control group (n = 27)...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Rikinkumar S Patel, Priya Patel, Kaushal Shah, Mandeep Kaur, Zeeshan Mansuri, Ramkrishna Makani
Objective To determine the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) on the inpatient outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents Background Previous studies have evaluated the impact of CUD on the health-related quality of life in ADHD patients. Methods We used the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from years 2010--2014. We identified ADHD and cannabis use (CU) as the primary and the other diagnosis, respectively, using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-9--CM) codes...
January 7, 2018: Curēus
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shuangqin Yan, Hui Cao, Chunli Gu, Lingling Ni, Huihui Tao, Ting Shao, Yeqing Xu, Fangbiao Tao
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify the major dietary patterns among preschoolers and assess the relation of major dietary patterns to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large sample of 14,912 children aged 3-6 years old in Ma'anshan city of Anhui Province in China. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and the 10-item Chinese version of the Conners' abbreviated symptom questionnaire were administered to assess usual dietary intakes and ADHD...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Serhat Türkoğlu, Fatih Hilmi Çetin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Patrick D Quinn, Kwan Hur, Zheng Chang, Eric L Scott, Erin E Krebs, Matthew J Bair, Martin E Rickert, Robert D Gibbons, Kurt Kroenke, Brian M D'Onofrio
Importance: Adults with mental health conditions are more likely than those without to receive long-term opioid therapy. Less is known about opioid therapy among adolescents, especially those with mental health conditions. Objective: To examine associations between preexisting mental health conditions and treatments and initiation of any opioid and long-term opioid therapy among adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 1 224 520 incident opioid recipients without cancer diagnoses aged 14 to 18 years at first receipt was extracted from nationwide commercial health care claims data from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Lizanne Schweren, Pieter Hoekstra, Marloes van Lieshout, Jaap Oosterlaan, Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Catharina Hartman
BACKGROUND: Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Nicole Papadopoulos, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Jennifer McGinley, Mark Bellgrove, Bruce Tonge, Anna Murphy, Kim Cornish, Nicole Rinehart
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: A high proportion of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- Combined type (ADHD-CT) experience sleep and motor problems. This study investigated (a) whether motor proficiency moderated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and sleep problems in children with and without ADHD-CT and (b) whether this moderation differed as a function of ADHD diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 70 primary school male children between 8-15 years were recruited; children with ADHD-CT (n = 38; mean age 10 years, 2 months [SD = 1 year, 6 months]) and a typically developing (TD) (n = 32; mean age 9 years, 6 months [SD = 1 year, 5 months]) group...
March 12, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
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