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Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323821/comparing-resting-state-fmri-de-noising-approaches-using-multi-and-single-echo-acquisitions
#1
Ottavia Dipasquale, Arjun Sethi, Maria Marcella Laganà, Francesca Baglio, Giuseppe Baselli, Prantik Kundu, Neil A Harrison, Mara Cercignani
Artifact removal in resting state fMRI (rfMRI) data remains a serious challenge, with even subtle head motion undermining reliability and reproducibility. Here we compared some of the most popular single-echo de-noising methods-regression of Motion parameters, White matter and Cerebrospinal fluid signals (MWC method), FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier (FIX) and ICA-based Automatic Removal Of Motion Artifacts (ICA-AROMA)-with a multi-echo approach (ME-ICA) that exploits the linear dependency of BOLD on the echo time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323525/the-impact-of-pharmacotherapy-on-substance-use-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-variations-across-subtypes
#2
Navneet Upadhyay, Hua Chen, Osaro Mgbere, Vinod S Bhatara, Rajender R Aparasu
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy on the risk of substance use within each ADHD subtype. METHODS: The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent supplement, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents (ages 13-18) collected from 6,483 adolescent-parent interviews conducted between 2001 and 2004. ADHD was categorized into three subtypes: ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H); ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I); and ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319054/association-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-with-mean-platelet-volume-and-vitamin-d
#3
Mesut Garipardic, Murat Doğan, Keziban Asli Bala, Tuba Mutluer, Sultan Kaba, Oktay Aslan, Lokman Üstyol
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the values of the mean platelet volume (MPV) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in these 2 disorder groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included a total of 79 patients with ADHD or ASDs and controls in the Van region of Turkey. The control group included subjects of matching age and sex with no ADHD, ASDs, or chronic disease and taking no vitamins...
March 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318338/latent-class-profiles-of-anxiety-symptom-trajectories-from-preschool-through-school-age
#4
Sarah J Kertz, Chad Sylvester, Rebecca Tillman, Joan L Luby
Anxiety typically arises early in childhood and decreases during school age. However, little is known about the earlier developmental course of anxiety in preschool, especially in at risk children, posing a clinically important problem. Given that anxiety in youth has a chronic course for some and also predicts later development of other mental health problems, it is important to identify factors early in development that may predict chronic anxiety symptoms. At-risk children (oversampled for depression) and caregivers completed 6 assessment waves beginning at preschool age (between 3-5...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318073/self-and-parent-reported-executive-problems-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-are-associated-with-poor-metabolic-control-and-low-physical-activity
#5
Charlotte Nylander, Ylva Tindberg, Josephine Haas, Ingemar Swenne, Torun Torbjörnsdotter, Karin Åkesson, Eva Örtqvist, Jan Gustafsson, Elisabeth Fernell
BACKGROUND: Management of diabetes is demanding and requires efficient cognitive skills, especially in the domain of executive functioning. However, the impact of impaired executive functions on diabetes control has been studied to a limited extent. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between executive problems and diabetes control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-one of 477 (51%) of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents, with a diabetes duration of >2 years in Stockholm, Uppsala, and Jönköping participated...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317224/pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-aggression-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-questionnaire-survey-of-571-psychiatrists
#6
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Noa Tsujii, Toyosaku Ota, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Junzo Iida
AIMS: Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently accompanied by serious aggression that requires psychiatric treatment. However, little is known about the experiences psychiatrists have had using pharmacotherapy to treat aggression in patients who have both ASD and ADHD (ASD/ADHD). The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Japanese child and adolescent psychiatrists in prescribing medication for aggression in patients with ASD/ADHD...
March 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317068/predicting-adhd-symptoms-in-adolescence-from-early-childhood-temperament-traits
#7
Tzlil Einziger, Linoy Levi, Yael Zilberman-Hayun, Judith G Auerbach, Naama Atzaba-Poria, Shoshana Arbelle, Andrea Berger
Extreme levels of certain temperament traits can be early markers of different developmental pathways of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the long-term utility of using these traits as predictors of ADHD is not fully known. This study includes 64 male adolescents (M age = 13.5), who have been followed since birth as part of a longitudinal study. The primary aim was to test effortful control (EC), activity level, and anger, measured in early childhood - both with mother's reports and laboratory assessments -as predictors of ADHD symptoms in adolescence...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#8
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314458/facilitating-transition-from-high-school-and-special-education-to-adult-life-focus-on-youth-with-learning-disorders-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-speech-language-impairments
#9
REVIEW
Lee I Ascherman, Julia Shaftel
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302577/methamphetamine-effects-on-the-brain-gut-and-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Monica D Prakash, Kathy Tangalakis, Juliana Antonipillai, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system...
March 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301980/an-investigation-of-intra-individual-variability-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd
#11
Sheliza Ali, Kimberly A Kerns, Bryce P Mulligan, Heather Carmichael Olson, Susan J Astley
Intra-individual variability (IIV) is defined as systematic within-person variation in performance either across test sessions (e.g., test/retest performance on the same task) or in one session (e.g., variations in performance on multiple trials of a single task). Higher levels of IIV have been noted as a characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder​ (ADHD), but IIV is yet to be investigated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a range of conditions resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol...
March 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299159/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-community-based-sample-with-neurodevelopmental-problems-in-lagos-nigeria
#12
Yewande O Oshodi, Andrew T Olagunju, Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu, Elizabeth A Campbell, Charles S Umeh, Olatunji F Aina, Wellington Oyibo, Folusho E A Lesi, Joseph D Adeyemi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296941/the-association-between-methylphenidate-treatment-and-the-risk-for-fracture-among-young-adhd-patients-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#13
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yin-To Liao, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Tzu-Chin Lin
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with higher risk for fracture. Whether the medical treatment for ADHD would mitigate the risk remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of methylphenidate treatment on risk for fracture, as well the moderational role of treatment duration on the risk of fracture, in a large national sample. Cases less than 18 years old were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database with a new primary diagnosis of ADHD (ICD-9:314) between 1996 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295312/young-adult-outcomes-in-the-follow-up-of-the-multimodal-treatment-study-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-persistence-source-discrepancy-and-height-suppression
#14
James M Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Brooke S G Molina, Margaret H Sibley, Lily T Hechtman, Stephen P Hinshaw, Howard B Abikoff, Annamarie Stehli, Elizabeth B Owens, John T Mitchell, Quyen Nichols, Andrea Howard, Laurence L Greenhill, Betsy Hoza, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Peter S Jensen, Benedetto Vitiello, Timothy Wigal, Jeffery N Epstein, Leanne Tamm, Kimberly D Lakes, James Waxmonsky, Marc Lerner, Joy Etcovitch, Desiree W Murray, Maximilian Muenke, Maria T Acosta, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, William E Pelham, Helena C Kraemer
BACKGROUND: The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) began as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral and pharmacological treatments of 579 children (7-10 years of age) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type. It transitioned into an observational long-term follow-up of 515 cases consented for continuation and 289 classmates (258 without ADHD) added as a local normative comparison group (LNCG), with assessments 2-16 years after baseline. METHODS: Primary (symptom severity) and secondary (adult height) outcomes in adulthood were specified...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295280/structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Dienke J Bos, Bob Oranje, Michelle Achterberg, Chantal Vlaskamp, Sara Ambrosino, Marcel A de Reus, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Serge A R B Rombouts, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has frequently been associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity, and decreased white matter (WM) integrity. In the current study, we investigated functional connectivity within Default Mode and frontal control resting-state networks (RSNs) in children with and without ADHD. We hypothesized the RSNs of interest would show a pattern of impaired functional integration and segregation and corresponding changes in WM structure...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295205/peer-problems-and-hyperactivity-impulsivity-among-norwegian-and-american-children-the-role-of-5-httlpr
#16
Frode Stenseng, Zhi Li, Jay Belsky, Beate W Hygen, Vera Skalicka, Ismail C Guzey, Lars Wichstrøm
Peer problems are linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the serotonin system is thought to be involved in ADHD-related behavior. Hence, from a Gene × Environment perspective, the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR may play a moderating role. In two large community samples, the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR was examined related to more hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (HI symptoms) predicted by more peer problems. In Study 1, involving 642 Norwegian children, results indicated that for s-allele carriers only, caregiver-reported peer problems at age 4 predicted more parent-reported HI symptoms at age 6...
March 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293899/effects-of-atomoxetine-on-attention-in-wistar-rats-treated-with-the-neurotoxin-n-2-chloroethyl-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine-dsp4
#17
Joachim Hauser, Andreas Reissmann, Thomas-A Sontag, Oliver Tucha, Klaus W Lange
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), which allows a depletion of noradrenergic terminals in a dose-dependent manner, on attention in rats as measured using the five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT). In addition, we investigated whether the effects of DSP4 treatment can be reversed by atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
March 14, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293481/a-genetic-variant-within-sts-previously-associated-with-inattention-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognition-in-healthy-adult-males
#18
Trevor Humby, Amelia Fisher, Christopher Allen, Meghann Reynolds, Annette Hartman, Ina Giegling, Dan Rujescu, William Davies
INTRODUCTION: The enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS) converts sulfated steroids to their non-sulfated forms. Deficiency for this enzyme is associated with inattention but preserved response control. The polymorphism rs17268988 within the X-linked STS gene is associated with inattentive, but not other, symptoms in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We initially tested whether rs17268988 genotype was associated with attention, response control, and underlying aspects of cognition, using questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks, in two independent cohorts of healthy adult males...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293263/saikosaponin-a-alleviates-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-through-downregulation-of-dat-and-enhancing-bdnf-expression-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#19
Sun Jichao, Han Xinmin, Ren Xianguo, Yin Dongqi, Zhou Rongyi, Lei Shuang, You Yue, Song Yuchen, Ying Jingnan
The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293109/effects-of-a-structured-20-session-slow-cortical-potential-based-neurofeedback-program-on-attentional-performance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-retrospective-analysis-of-an-open-label-pilot-approach-and-6-month-follow
#20
Johanna S Albrecht, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Anne Gallien, Eva Lotte Knospe, Tilman J Gaber, Florian D Zepf
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this approach was to conduct a structured electroencephalography-based neurofeedback training program for children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using slow cortical potentials with an intensive first (almost daily sessions) and second phase of training (two sessions per week) and to assess aspects of attentional performance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 24 young patients with ADHD participated in the 20-session training program...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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