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Early language

Donna Hermawati, Farid Agung Rahmadi, Tanjung Ayu Sumekar, Tri Indah Winarni
Prevalence autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been on rise, but many studies suggests over-diagnosed. Currently, children have more access to electronic media on the daily basis than those of previous generation. Some studies suggest that increases screen time is associated with melanopsin-expressing neurons and decreasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter, and thus results aberrant behavior, decreased cognitive, and language development. Early exposure of electronic media in early life (< 2 years old) gives an impact on language, but it still inconclusive...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Florian B Pokorny, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Christa Einspieler, Dajie Zhang, Ralf Vollmann, Sven Bölte, Markus Gugatschka, Björn W Schuller, Peter B Marschik
BACKGROUND: Early speech-language development of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been repeatedly characterised by a co-occurrence of apparently typical and atypical vocalisations. AIMS: To describe specific features of this intermittent character of typical versus atypical early RTT-associated vocalisations by combining auditory Gestalt perception and acoustic vocalisation analysis. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We extracted N = 363 (pre-)linguistic vocalisations from home video recordings of an infant later diagnosed with RTT...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Li Yin, Xueqiang Guo, Chunyan Zhang, Zhihui Cai, Cunshuan Xu
The priming stage is the first step of liver regeneration (LR). This stage is characterized by the transition from G0 to cell cycle for 4 hours in rat. In this study, individual gene level and gene set level (GSEA) was performed to identify the candidate genes and significantly changed biological processes at 2 h after partial hepatectomy (PH). The leading edge analysis is performed to identify the key genes and iRegulon was employed for transcription factor (TF) analysis. A total of 53 differentially expressed genes were identified using RMA package based on R language at 2 h after PH, including the transcription factor, enzyme and cytokine...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Haiyan Wang, Linyi Li, Ling Ling Qin, Yanan Song, Josep Vidal-Alaball, Tong Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. Most people with vitamin B12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 . Doctors may not be prescribing oral vitamin B12 formulations because they may be unaware of this option or have concerns regarding its effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS, as well as the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mathilde Fort, Imme Lammertink, Sharon Peperkamp, Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Paula Fikkert, Sho Tsuji
Adults and toddlers systematically associate pseudowords such as "bouba" and "kiki" with round and spiky shapes, respectively, a sound symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect". To date, whether this sound symbolic effect is a property of the infant brain present at birth or is a learned aspect of language perception remains unknown. Yet, solving this question is fundamental for our understanding of early language acquisition. Indeed, an early sensitivity to such sound symbolic associations could provide a powerful mechanism for language learning, playing a bootstrapping role in the establishment of novel sound-meaning associations...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Valentina Morsan, Carlo Fantoni, Maria Anna Tallandini
AIM: To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). METHOD: Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Natalia Mitrofanova, Marit Westergaard
This paper focuses on the acquisition of locative prepositional phrases in L1 Norwegian. We report on two production experiments with children acquiring Norwegian as their first language and compare the results to similar experiments conducted with Russian children. The results of the experiments show that Norwegian children at age 2 regularly produce locative utterances lacking overt prepositions, with the rate of preposition omission decreasing significantly by age 3. Furthermore, our results suggest that phonologically strong and semantically unambiguous locative items appear earlier in Norwegian children's utterances than their phonologically weak and semantically ambiguous counterparts...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Nicole Netelenbos, Robbin L Gibb, Fangfang Li, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Executive function (EF) and language learning play a prominent role in early childhood development. Empirical research continues to point to a concurrent relation between these two faculties. What has been given little attention, however, is the association between EF and speech articulation abilities in children. This study investigated this relation in children aged 4-6 years. Significant correlations indicated that children with better EF [via parental report of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) inventory] exhibited stronger speech sound production abilities in the articulation of the "s" and "sh" sounds...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Deirdre M Twomey, Conal Wrigley, Caroline Ahearne, Raegan Murphy, Michelle De Haan, Neil Marlow, Deirdre M Murray
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using a touch screen assessment tool to measure cognitive capacity in toddlers. DESIGN: 112 typically developing children with a median age of 31 months (IQR: 26-34) interacted with a touch screen cognitive assessment tool. We examined the sensitivity of the tool to age-related changes in cognition by comparing the number of items completed, speed of task completion and accuracy in two age groups; 24-29 months versus 30-36 months...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Klaus Bsl Batista, Badri Thiruvenkatachari, Jayne E Harrison, Kevin D O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Jens Minnerup, Paul Muhle, Inga Claus, Jens Burchard Schröder, Thomas Marian, Tobias Warnecke, Marianne Kalic, Klaus Berger, Rainer Dziewas
BACKGROUND: Early dysphagia screening and appropriate management are recommended by current guidelines to reduce complications and case fatality in acute stroke. However, data on the potential benefit of changes in dysphagia care on patient outcome are limited. Our objective was to assess the degree of implementation of dysphagia guidelines and determine the impact of modifications in dysphagia screening and treatment practices on disease complications and outcome in stroke patients over time...
March 13, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Pia Rämä, Alina Leminen, Satu Koskenoja-Vainikka, Miika Leminen, Kimmo Alho, Teija Kujala
Dual language experience has typically been shown to improve various executive control functions. We investigated with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded from early (natively) bilingual speakers and control participants whether it also affects auditory selective attention. We delivered to our participants two tone streams, one to the left and one to the right ear. Both streams consisted of standard tones and two types of infrequent deviant tones which had either an enhanced duration or intensity...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Pablo Martínez, Graciela Rojas, Vania Martínez, María Asunción Lara, J Carola Pérez
BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions for depression may be a valuable resource to reduce the treatment gap for those living in developing countries. However, evidence comes mainly from developed countries. This systematic review summarized the evidence on preventive or therapeutic Internet-based interventions for depression for people who reside in developing countries. METHODS: CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, SciELO Citation Indexes, the Journal of Medical Internet Research, and the Telemedicine and e-Health journal, were searched up to June 2017, to identify feasibility or effectiveness studies of preventive or therapeutic Internet-based interventions for depression, with or without human support...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sarah Marks
This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe...
2018: European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling
Vanessa L Castro, Alison N Cooke, Amy G Halberstadt, Patricia Garrett-Peters
Cross-sectional studies support negative associations between children's skills in recognizing emotional expressions and their problem behaviors. Few studies have examined these associations over time, however, precluding our understanding of the direction of effects. Emotion recognition difficulties may contribute to the development of problem behaviors; additionally, problem behaviors may constrain the development of emotion recognition skill. The present study tested the bidirectional linkages between children's emotion recognition and teacher-reported problem behaviors in 1st and 3rd grade...
June 2018: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Anna Bugge, Lars Bo Andersen
PURPOSE: The current investigation aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between physical fitness and academic performance over 3 years in adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine to what extent waist circumference mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. METHODS: For the current study, 1020 students from first grade [mean age: 7.87 (0.34) y] to fifth grade [mean age: 11.87 (0.37) y] were monitored annually for 3 years (2010-2013)...
March 10, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
Yegor Tryliskyy, Gavin J Bryce
Acute pancreatitis is the most common and feared complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of the study was to review the current knowledge on the nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and risk stratification of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). A structured search in PubMed and Scopus databases was performed using search terms related to the subject of diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification of post-ERCP pancreatitis, including full text articles and abstracts in the English language...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ann M Weber, Virginia A Marchman, Yatma Diop, Anne Fernald
Valid indigenous language assessments are needed to further our understanding of how children learn language around the world. We assessed the psychometric properties and performance of two caregiver-report measures of Wolof language skill (language milestones achieved and vocabulary knowledge) for 500 children (ages 0;4 to 2;6) living in rural Senegal. Item response models (IRM) evaluated instrument- and item-level performance and differential function by gender. Both caregiver-report measures had good psychometric properties and displayed expected age and socioeconomic effects...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Language
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