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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913557/translation-and-validation-of-the-cancer-related-fatigue-scale-in-greek-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer
#1
Andreas Charalambous, Charis Kaite, Marianna Constantinou, Christiana Kouta
OBJECTIVE: To translate and validate the Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) Scale in the Greek language. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in order to translate and validate the CRF Scale in Greek. Factor analyses were performed to understand the psychometric properties of the scale and to establish construct, criterion and convergent validity. SETTING: Outpatients' oncology clinics of two public hospitals in Cyprus. PARTICIPANTS: 148 patients with advanced prostate cancer undergoing chemotherapy...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#2
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911122/an-update-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta
Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909214/initial-mainstream-cultural-orientations-predict-early-social-participation-in-the-mainstream-cultural-group
#4
Marina M Doucerain, Sonya S Deschênes, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Catherine E Amiot, Andrew G Ryder
This work adopts a perspective that construes acculturation as a dynamic intergroup process, and social contact with members of the new community as a key mechanism underlying cultural adaptation. We argue that migrants' initial self-reported mainstream cultural orientation constitutes an important antecedent of early social participation in the new community. Results from two longitudinal studies of newly arrived international students (N = 98 and N = 60) show that more positive initial mainstream cultural orientations prospectively predict higher social participation, specifically in the mainstream group, over the following months...
November 30, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#5
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909011/age-dependent-effects-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-gene-val158met-polymorphism-on-language-function-in-developing-children
#6
Lisa Sugiura, Tomoko Toyota, Hiroko Matsuba-Kurita, Yoshimi Iwayama, Reiko Mazuka, Takeo Yoshikawa, Hiroko Hagiwara
The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908645/a-brief-measure-of-language-skills-at-3-years-of-age-and-special-education-use-in-middle-childhood
#7
Laura Lee McIntyre, William E Pelham, Matthew H Kim, Thomas J Dishion, Daniel S Shaw, Melvin N Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To test whether a language screener administered during early childhood predicts special education referrals and placement in middle childhood. STUDY DESIGN: A series of logistic regressions was conducted in a longitudinal study of 731 children. Predictor variables included scores on the early language screener (Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test-Second Edition [Fluharty-2]) at ages 3 and 4 years, a standardized measure of academic achievement at age 5 years, and parent report of special education services at ages 7...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908200/development-of-an-internet-version-of-the-lidcombe-program-of-early-stuttering-intervention-a-trial-of-part-1
#8
Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Sue O'brian, Ross Menzies
PURPOSE: There is evidence that access to treatment for early stuttering is not available for all who need it. An internet version of the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering (Internet-LP) has been developed to deal with this shortfall. The LP is suitable for such development because it is delivered by parents in the child's everyday environment, with training by a speech-language pathologist. A Phase I trial of Internet-LP Part 1, comprising parent training, is reported here. METHOD: Eight parents of pre-schoolers who stutter were recruited and six completed the trial...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905887/a-new-measure-for-infant-mental-health-screening-development-and-initial-validation
#9
Janni Ammitzbøll, Bjørn E Holstein, Lisbeth Wilms, Anette Andersen, Anne Mette Skovgaard
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are a major public health challenges, and strategies of early prevention are needed. Effective prevention depends on feasible and validated measures of screening and intervention. Previous research has demonstrated potentials for infant mental health screening by community health nurses (CHN) in existing service settings in Denmark. This study was conducted to describe the development of a service setting based measure to screen for infant mental health problems, to investigate problems identified by the measure and assess the validity and feasibility in existing public health settings...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905672/oral-astragalus-huang-qi-for-preventing-frequent-episodes-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Guobin Su, Xiankun Chen, Zhuangzhu Liu, Lihong Yang, La Zhang, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Zehuai Wen, Xinfeng Guo, Xindong Qin, Jueyao Liang, Xusheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905541/serbian-language-version-of-the-modified-checklist-for-autism-in-toddlers-revised-with-follow-up-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-assessment-of-reliability
#11
Mia Carakovac, Jelena Jovanovic, Marko Kalanj, Nenad Rudic, Olivera Aleksic-Hil, Branko Aleksic, Itzel Bustos Villalobos, Hideki Kasuya, Norio Ozaki, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic
Early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has proven to be of high significance, however there is a limited availability of ASD screening tools in Serbian language. In this study we aim to translate, assess reliability and, in part, test the applicability of Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up (M-CHAT R/F) in Serbian Healthcare environment. We screened 128 children in three primary healthcare centres and 20 children in a tertiary psychiatric center, using M-CHAT R/F translated into Serbian language, between December 2014 and October 2015...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905202/care-in-subsequent-pregnancies-following-stillbirth-an-international-survey-of-parents
#12
A M Wojcieszek, F M Boyle, J M Belizán, J Cassidy, P Cassidy, Jjhm Erwich, L Farrales, M M Gross, Aep Heazell, S H Leisher, T Mills, M Murphy, K Pettersson, C Ravaldi, J Ruidiaz, D Siassakos, R M Silver, C Storey, A Vannacci, P Middleton, D Ellwood, V Flenady
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of additional care, and parents' perceptions of quality, respectful care, in pregnancies subsequent to stillbirth. DESIGN: Multi-language web-based survey. SETTING: International. POPULATION: A total of 2716 parents, from 40 high- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data were obtained from a broader survey of parents' experiences following stillbirth. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stratified by geographic region...
November 30, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#13
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900753/-issues-related-to-screening-and-caring-for-newborns-with-hearing-impairments
#14
Mei-Show Liou, Ying Tsao
The critical period for auditory development in humans begins at around the 20th gestational week and continues until 3 years of age. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to cause impaired hearing. Without early identification and intervention, hearing-impaired children face a high risk of experiencing significant difficulties with speech and language development, social behavior, and emotional functioning. Two types of commonly used hearing screening technologies include transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (aABR)...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898605/initial-results-of-a-safety-and-feasibility-study-of-auditory-brainstem-implantation-in-congenitally-deaf-children
#15
Eric P Wilkinson, Laurie S Eisenberg, Mark D Krieger, Marc S Schwartz, Margaret Winter, Jamie L Glater, Amy S Martinez, Laurel M Fisher, Robert V Shannon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and feasibility of the auditory brainstem implant (ABI) in congenitally deaf children with cochlear aplasia and/or cochlear nerve deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: Phase I feasibility clinical trial of surgery in 10 children, ages 2 to 5 years, over a 3-year period. SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital and university-based pediatric speech/language/hearing center. INTERVENTION(S): ABI implantation and postsurgical programming...
November 24, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895605/social-cognition-in-preschoolers-effects-of-early-experience-and-individual-differences
#16
Daniela Bulgarelli, Paola Molina
Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others. Children's social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of type of early care (0-3 years of age), maternal education, parents' country of birth, and child's language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894912/hearing-thresholds-at-high-frequency-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-systematic-review
#17
Debora T M Caumo, Lúcia B Geyer, Adriana R Teixeira, Sérgio S M Barreto
INTRODUCTION: High-frequency audiometry may contribute to the early detection of hearing loss caused by ototoxic medications. Many ototoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis. Early detection of hearing loss should allow known harmful drugs to be identified before the damage affects speech frequencies. The damage caused by ototoxicity is irreversible, resulting in important social and psychological consequences. In children, hearing loss, even when restricted to high frequencies, can affect the development of language...
November 9, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893252/developing-knowledge-of-nonadjacent-dependencies
#18
Jennifer Culbertson, Elena Koulaguina, Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez, Géraldine Legendre, Thierry Nazzi
Characterizing the nature of linguistic representations and how they emerge during early development is a central goal in the cognitive science of language. One area in which this development plays out is in the acquisition of dependencies-relationships between co-occurring elements in a word, phrase, or sentence. These dependencies often involve multiple levels of representation and abstraction, built up as infants gain experience with their native language. The authors used the Headturn Preference Procedure to systematically investigate the early acquisition of 1 such dependency, the agreement between a subject and verb in French, at 6 different ages between 14 and 24 months...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893086/the-composition-of-early-vocabulary-in-spanish-children-with-down-syndrome-and-their-peers-with-typical-development
#19
Elena Checa, Miguel Galeote, Pilar Soto
Purpose: There are very few studies, and at present none in Spanish, on vocabulary composition in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nor has the topic been widely assessed in Spanish-speaking children with typical development (TD). This study analyzed the composition of early vocabularies in a large sample of Spanish-speaking children with DS and compared it with that of children with TD. Method: We studied 108 children with DS and 108 children with TD with mental ages between 8 and 29 months, matched for size of productive vocabulary and gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892807/the-effect-of-early-life-stress-on-the-cognitive-phenotype-of-children-with-an-extra-x-chromosome-47-xxy-47-xxx
#20
Sophie van Rijn, Petra Barneveld, Mie-Jef Descheemaeker, Jacques Giltay, Hanna Swaab
Studies on gene-environment interactions suggest that some individuals may be more susceptible to life adversities than others due to their genetic profile. This study assesses whether or not children with an extra X chromosome are more vulnerable to the negative impact of early life stress on cognitive functioning than typically-developing children. A total of 50 children with an extra X chromosome and 103 non-clinical controls aged 9 to 18 years participated in the study. Cognitive functioning in domains of language, social cognition and executive functioning were assessed...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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