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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432420/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-function-after-repeated-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensor-muscles
#1
Andrea Lee, Jake Baxter, Claire Eischer, Matt Gage, Sandra Hunter, Tejin Yoon
PURPOSE: This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. METHODS: 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s(-1). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425264/rho-rho-kinase-signalling-in-chronically-alcohol-fed-mice
#2
Havva Kubat, Ahmet Sencer Yurtsever, Kansu Büyükafşar
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of chronic ethanol consumption on male sexual function are debateable, and its effects on the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway are unknown. Therefore, we investigated smooth muscle reactivity and Rho/Rho-kinase signalling in the corpus cavernosum of ethanol-fed mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol was added to drinking water at 5% concentration in the first 2 days with 5% increment every subsequent 2 days, up to a final concentration of 20% for 45 days...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424583/a-rodent-model-of-dynamic-facial-reanimation-using-functional-electrical-stimulation
#3
Mark A Attiah, Julius de Vries, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy H Lucas
Facial paralysis can be a devastating condition, causing disfiguring facial droop, slurred speech, eye dryness, scarring and blindness. This study investigated the utility of closed-loop functional electric stimulation (FES) for reanimating paralyzed facial muscles in a quantitative rodent model. The right buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the rat facial nerve were transected for selective, unilateral paralysis of whisker muscles. Microwire electrodes were implanted bilaterally into the facial musculature for FES and electromyographic (EMG) recording...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423347/experimental-study-of-brachial-plexus-and-vessel-compression-evaluation-of-combined-central-and-peripheral-electrodiagnostic-approach
#4
Chaoqun Yang, Jianguang Xu, Jie Chen, Shulin Li, Yu Cao, Yi Zhu, Lei Xu
INTRODUCTION: We sought to investigate the reliability of a new electrodiagnostic method for identifying Electrodiagnosis of Brachial Plexus & Vessel Compression Syndrome (BPVCS) in rats that involves the application of transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) combined with peripheral nerve stimulation compound muscle action potentials (PNS-CMAPs). RESULTS: The latencies of the TES-MEP and PNS-CMAP were initially elongated in the 8-week group...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420761/in-situ-measurements-of-tensile-forces-in-the-tibialis-anterior-tendon-of-the-rat-in-concentric-isometric-and-resisted-co-contractions
#5
Martin Schmoll, Ewald Unger, Hazel Sutherland, Michael Haller, Manfred Bijak, Hermann Lanmüller, Jonathan C Jarvis
Tensile-force transmitted by the tibialis anterior (TA) tendon of 11 anesthetized adult male Wistar rats (body-mass: 360.6 ± 66.3 g) was measured in-situ within the intact biomechanical system of the hind-limb using a novel miniature in-line load-cell. The aim was to demonstrate the dependence of the loading-profile experienced by the muscle, on stimulation-frequency and the resistance to shortening in a group of control-animals. Data from these acute-experiments shows the type of loading achievable by means of implantable electrical stimulators activating agonists or agonist/antagonist groups of muscles during programmed resistance-training in freely moving healthy subjects...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#6
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417537/the-effects-and-mechanism-of-action-of-methane-on-ileal-motor-function
#7
Y M Park, Y J Lee, Z Hussain, Y H Lee, H Park
BACKGROUND: Methane has been associated with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, slowing intestinal transit time by augmenting contractile activity. However, the precise mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect of methane on contractile activity, and whether such effects are mediated by nerve impulses or muscular contraction. METHODS: We connected guinea pig ileal muscle strips to a force/tension transducer and measured amplitudes of contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1, 2, 8, 16 Hz) following methane infusion in the presence of tetradotoxin (TTX), atropine, guanethidine, or GR 113808...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413944/the-assessment-of-motor-fatigability-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#8
Deborah Severijns, Inge Zijdewind, Ulrik Dalgas, Ilse Lamers, Caroline Lismont, Peter Feys
BACKGROUND: Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are often characterized by increased motor fatigability, which is a performance change on an objectively measured criterion after any type of voluntary muscle contractions. This review summarizes the existing literature to determine which protocols and outcome measures are best to detect or study motor fatigability and the underlying mechanisms in MS. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science, were searched for relevant articles published until August 2016 with a combination of multiple sclerosis, fatigability, muscle fatigue, and motor fatigue...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409828/leucine-elicits-myotube-hypertrophy-and-enhances-maximal-contractile-force-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#9
N R W Martin, M C Turner, R Farrington, D J Player, M P Lewis
The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilised a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signalling, myotube growth and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1mM...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408640/long-term-but-not-short-term-high-fat-diet-induces-fiber-composition-changes-and-impaired-contractile-force-in-mouse-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#10
Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshifumi Tamura, Saori Kakehi, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takashi Murayama, Kyoko Nakamura, Ryo Kakigi, Takao Okada, Takashi Sakurai, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
In this study, we investigated the effects of a short-term and long-term high-fat diet (HFD) on morphological and functional features of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) for 4 weeks (4-week HFD) or 12 weeks (12-week HFD). Subsequently, the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle was isolated, and the composition of muscle fiber type, expression levels of proteins involved in muscle contraction, and force production on electrical stimulation were analyzed. The 12-week HFD, but not the 4-week HFD, resulted in a decreased muscle tetanic force on 100 Hz stimulation compared with control (5...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403681/atrophy-ultra-structural-disorders-severe-atrophy-and-degeneration-of-denervated-human-muscle-in-sci-and-aging-implications-for-their-recovery-by-functional-electrical-stimulation-updated-2017
#11
Helmut Kern, Cristian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri, Paolo Gargiulo, Alfonc Baba, Andrea Marcante, Francesco Piccione, Amber Pond, Ugo Carraro
OBJECTIVES: Long-term lower motor neuron denervation of skeletal muscle is known to result in degeneration of muscle with replacement by adipose and fibrotic tissues. However, long-term survival of a subset of skeletal myofibers also occurs. METHODS: We performed transverse and longitudinal studies of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), patients specifically complete Conus and Cauda Equina Syndrome and also of active and sedentary seniors which included analyses of muscle biopsies from the quadriceps m...
April 13, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403351/short-term-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-reduces-pain-and-improves-the-masticatory-muscle-activity-in-temporomandibular-disorder-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Ana Paula de Lima Ferreira, Dayse Regina Alves da Costa, Ana Izabela Sobral de Oliveira, Elyson Adam Nunes Carvalho, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Yuri Martins Costa, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim
Objective: To investigate the short-term effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) by examining pain intensity, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and electromyography (EMG) activity in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Material and Methods: Forty patients with myofascial TMD were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled trial and were divided into two groups: active (n=20) and placebo (n=20) TENS. Outcome variables assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after (T2) and 48 hours after treatment (T1) were: pain intensity with the aid of a visual analogue scale (VAS); PPT of masticatory and cervical structures; EMG activity during mandibular rest position (MR), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and habitual chewing (HC)...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395670/absence-of-physiological-ca-2-transients-is-an-initial-trigger-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle-following-denervation
#13
Chehade Karam, Jianxun Yi, Yajuan Xiao, Kamal Dhakal, Lin Zhang, Xuejun Li, Carlo Manno, Jiejia Xu, Kaitao Li, Heping Cheng, Jianjie Ma, Jingsong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Motor neurons control muscle contraction by initiating action potentials in muscle. Denervation of muscle from motor neurons leads to muscle atrophy, which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. It is known that denervation promotes mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in muscle, whereas the initial cause of mitochondrial ROS production in denervated muscle remains elusive. Since denervation isolates muscle from motor neurons and deprives it from any electric stimulation, no action potentials are initiated, and therefore, no physiological Ca(2+) transients are generated inside denervated muscle fibers...
April 10, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394724/a-multimodal-nonpharmacologic-intervention-improves-mood-and-cognitive-function-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Jennifer E Lee, Babita Bisht, Michael J Hall, Linda M Rubenstein, Rebecca Louison, Danielle T Klein, Terry L Wahls
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether participation in a 12-month multimodal intervention would improve mood and cognitive function in adults with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this one-arm, open-label feasibility trial, participants were prescribed a home-based multimodal intervention, including (1) a modified Paleolithic diet; (2) an exercise program (stretching and strengthening of the trunk and lower limb muscles); (3) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EStim) of trunk and lower limb muscles; and (4) stress management (meditation and self-massage)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393668/evaluation-of-functional-mobility-outcomes-following-electrical-stimulation-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#15
Rupsha Mukhopadhyay, Prasanna K Lenka, Abhishek Biswas, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
This study investigated the clinical feasibility of electrical stimulation in enhancing ankle dorsiflexion of the tibialis anterior muscle to improve mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy. The intervention group received electrical stimulation therapy for 30 minutes and physiotherapy for another 30 minutes for 5 days a week, up to 12 weeks. Gait parameters, Gross Motor Function Measure, Physiological Cost Index, surface electromyogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded pre- and posttreatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392769/force-depression-in-plantar-flexors-exists-equally-in-plantar-flexed-and-dorsiflexed-regions
#16
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
Isometric muscle force attained during isometric contractions decreases after active shortening compared to that attained during purely isometric contractions. This phenomenon is called residual force depression. The aim of this study was to examine whether residual force depression occurs in human plantar flexors in both plantar flexed and dorsiflexed region. In addition, the magnitude of fascicle shortening was evaluated because not only muscle force but also fascicle shortening during active shortening are considered to affect force depression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392766/presence-and-absence-of-muscle-contraction-elicited-by-peripheral-nerve-electrical-stimulation-differentially-modulate-primary-motor-cortex-excitability
#17
Ryoki Sasaki, Shinichi Kotan, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Hideaki Onishi
Modulation of cortical excitability by sensory inputs is a critical component of sensorimotor integration. Sensory afferents, including muscle and joint afferents, to somatosensory cortex (S1) modulate primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, but the effects of muscle and joint afferents specifically activated by muscle contraction are unknown. We compared motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following median nerve stimulation (MNS) above and below the contraction threshold based on the persistence of M-waves. Peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) conditions, including right MNS at the wrist at 110% motor threshold (MT; 110% MNS condition), right MNS at the index finger (sensory digit nerve stimulation [DNS]) with stimulus intensity approximately 110% MNS (DNS condition), and right MNS at the wrist at 90% MT (90% MNS condition) were applied...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392307/electrically-responsive-core-shell-hybrid-microfibers-for-controlled-drug-release-and-cell-culture
#18
Chuntao Chen, Xiao Chen, Heng Zhang, Qi Zhang, Li Wang, Chenxi Li, Beibei Dai, Jiazhi Yang, Jian Liu, Dongping Sun
It is an active research field to develop fiber-shaped smart materials for biomedical applications. Here we report the development of the multifunctional core-shell hybrid microfibers with excellent mechanical and electrical performance as a new smart biomaterial. The microfibers were synthesized using a combination of co-axial spinning with a microfluidic device and subsequent dip-coating, containing a hydrogel core of bacterial cellulose (BC) and a conductive polymer shell layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)...
April 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389378/sympathetic-regulation-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-volume-are-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-back-pain
#19
Sara Touj, Sébastien Houle, Djamel Ramla, Renaud Jeffrey-Gauthier, Harumi Hotta, Gilles Bronchti, Maria-Grazia Martinoli, Mathieu Piché
Chronic pain is associated with autonomic disturbance. However, specific effects of chronic back pain on sympathetic regulation remain unknown. Chronic pain is also associated with structural changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may be linked to sympathetic dysregulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether sympathetic regulation and ACC surface and volume are affected in a rat model of chronic back pain, in which complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) is injected in back muscles. Sympathetic regulation was assessed with renal blood flow (RBF) changes induced by electrical stimulation of a hind paw, while ACC structure was examined by measuring cortical surface and volume...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#20
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
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