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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918256/transgene-is-specifically-and-functionally-expressed-in-retinal-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-vgat-chr2-eyfp-mouse
#1
Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
Ectopic transgene expression in the retina has been reported in various transgenic mice, indicating the importance of characterizing retinal phenotypes. We examined transgene expression in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse retina by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology, with special emphasis on EYFP localization in retinal neuronal subtypes identified by specific markers. Strong EYFP signals were detected in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In addition, the ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was also expressed in somata of the great majority of inhibitory interneurons, including horizontal cells and GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#2
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915700/the-fat-and-the-bad-mature-adipocytes-key-actors-in-tumor-progression-and-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Minh Ngoc Duong, Aline Geneste, Frederique Fallone, Xia Li, Charles Dumontet, Catherine Muller
Growing evidence has raised the important roles of adipocytes as an active player in the tumor microenvironment. In many tumors adipocytes are in close contact with cancer cells. They secrete various factors that can mediate local and systemic effects. The adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk leads to phenotypical and functional changes of both cell types, which can further enhance tumor progression. Moreover, obesity, which is associated with an increase in adipose mass and an alteration of adipose tissue, has been established as a risk factor for cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915574/comparative-study-of-whole-genome-amplification-and-next-generation-sequencing-performance-of-single-cancer-cells
#4
Anna Babayan, Malik Alawi, Michael Gormley, Volkmar Müller, Harriet Wikman, Ryan P McMullin, Denis A Smirnov, Weimin Li, Maria Geffken, Klaus Pantel, Simon A Joosse
BACKGROUND: Whole genome amplification (WGA) is required for single cell genotyping. Effectiveness of currently available WGA technologies in combination with next generation sequencing (NGS) and material preservation is still elusive. RESULTS: In respect to the accuracy of SNP/mutation, indel, and copy number aberrations (CNA) calling, the HiSeq2000 platform outperformed IonProton in all aspects. Furthermore, more accurate SNP/mutation and indel calling was demonstrated using single tumor cells obtained from EDTA-collected blood in respect to CellSave-preserved blood, whereas CNA analysis in our study was not detectably affected by fixation...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915518/-primary-care-in-germany-equal-access-for-everyone
#5
Jan Bauer, Werner Maier, Ruth Müller, David A Groneberg
Background Access to primary care plays an important role in medical care provision in Germany. Therefore, current health care planning aims at providing equal access for every patient in Germany no matter where they live. Objective This study examined accessibility of primary care and compared the result with current primary care planning data. Materials and Methods Spatial accessibility to primary care was measured by the integrated Floating Catchment Area method ("accessibility index") using a geographical information system at the level of square kilometers cells (hectare grid cells for major urban areas)...
September 15, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915270/the-single-cyclic-nucleotide-specific-phosphodiesterase-of-the-intestinal-parasite-giardia-lamblia-represents-a-potential-drug-target
#6
Stefan Kunz, Vreni Balmer, Geert Jan Sterk, Michael P Pollastri, Rob Leurs, Norbert Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Cornelia Spycher
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912141/macropinocytosis-of-bevacizumab-by%C3%A2-glioblastoma-cells-in-the-perivascular-niche-affects-their-survival
#7
Gaëlle M Müller-Greven, Cathleen Carlin, Monica E Burgett, Manmeet Singh Ahluwalia, Adam Lauko, Amy S Nowacki, Cameron J Herting, Maha A Qadan, Markus Bredel, Steven A Toms, Justin D Lathia, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Jann N Sarkaria, Petra Hamerlik, Candece L Gladson
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF, is used routinely in the treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). However, very little is known regarding the effects of bevacizumab on the cells in the perivascular space in tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Established orthotopic xenograft and syngeneic models of GBM were used to determine entry of monoclonal anti-VEGF-A into, and uptake by cells in, the perivascular space. Based on the results, we examined CD133+ cells derived from GBM tumors in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911211/are-there-intracellular-ca2-oscillations-correlated-with-flagellar-beating-in-human-sperm-a-three-vs-two-dimensional-analysis
#8
G Corkidi, F Montoya, P Hernández-Herrera, W A Ríos-Herrera, M F Müller, C L Treviño, A Darszon
STUDY QUESTION: Are there intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) oscillations correlated with flagellar beating in human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: The results reveal statistically significant [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated with the human sperm flagellar beating frequency, when measured in three-dimensions (3D). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fast [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated to the beating flagellar frequency of cells swimming in a restricted volume have been detected in hamster sperm...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904264/zoonotic-potential-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-neonatal-calves-in-uruguay
#9
Ana Umpiérrez, Inés Bado, Martín Oliver, Sofía Acquistapace, Analía Etcheverría, Nora Lía Padola, Rafael Vignoli, Pablo Zunino
Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904224/targeted-inhibition-of-gq-signaling-induces-airway-relaxation-in-mouse-models-of-asthma
#10
Michaela Matthey, Richard Roberts, Alexander Seidinger, Annika Simon, Ralf Schröder, Markus Kuschak, Suvi Annala, Gabriele M König, Christa E Müller, Ian P Hall, Evi Kostenis, Bernd K Fleischmann, Daniela Wenzel
Obstructive lung diseases are common causes of disability and death worldwide. A hallmark feature is aberrant activation of Gq protein-dependent signaling cascades. Currently, drugs targeting single G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are used to reduce airway tone. However, therapeutic efficacy is often limited, because various GPCRs contribute to bronchoconstriction, and chronic exposure to receptor-activating medications results in desensitization. We therefore hypothesized that pharmacological Gq inhibition could serve as a central mechanism to achieve efficient therapeutic bronchorelaxation...
September 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904131/superior-properties-of-fc-comprising-sctrail-fusion-proteins
#11
Meike Hutt, Lisa Marquardt, Oliver Seifert, Martin Siegemund, Ines Müller, Dagmar Kulms, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Roland E Kontermann
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been considered as a promising molecule for cancer treatment. However, clinical studies with soluble TRAIL failed to show therapeutic activity, which resulted in subsequent development of more potent TRAIL-based therapeutics. In the present study, we applied defined oligomerization and tumor targeting as strategies to further improve the activity of a single-chain version of TRAIL (scTRAIL). We compared three different formats of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting dimeric scTRAIL fusion proteins (Diabody (Db)-scTRAIL, scFv-IgE heavy chain domain 2 (EHD2)-scTRAIL, scFv-Fc-scTRAIL) as well as two non-targeted dimeric scTRAIL molecules (EHD2-scTRAIL, Fc-scTRAIL) to reveal the influence of targeting and protein format on anti-tumor activity...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904069/disturbed-placental-imprinting-in-preeclampsia-leads-to-altered-expression-of-dlx5-a-human-specific-early-trophoblast-marker
#12
Julianna Zadora, Manvendra Singh, Florian Herse, Lukasz Przybyl, Nadine Haase, Michaela Golic, Hong Wa Yung, Berthold Huppertz, Judith E Cartwright, Guy S Whitley, Guro M Johnsen, Giovanni Levi, Annette Isbruch, Herbert Schulz, Friedrich C Luft, Dominik N Müller, Anne C Staff, Laurence D Hurst, Ralf Dechend, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
Background -Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human-specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in PE. Our study aims at investigating whether disturbed imprinting contributes to PE...
September 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901286/biochemical-adaptations-of-the-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-support-a-metabolic-ecosystem-in-the-vertebrate-eye
#13
Mark A Kanow, Michelle M Giarmarco, Connor Sr Jankowski, Kristine Tsantilas, Abbi L Engel, Jianhai Du, Jonathan D Linton, Christopher C Farnsworth, Stephanie R Sloat, Austin Rountree, Ian R Sweet, Ken J Lindsay, Edward D Parker, Susan E Brockerhoff, Martin Sadilek, Jennifer R Chao, James B Hurley
Here we report multiple lines of evidence for a comprehensive model of energy metabolism in the vertebrate eye. Metabolic flux, locations of key enzymes, and our finding that glucose enters mouse and zebrafish retinas mostly through photoreceptors support a conceptually new model for retinal metabolism. In this model, glucose from the choroidal blood passes through the retinal pigment epithelium to the retina where photoreceptors convert it to lactate. Photoreceptors then export the lactate as fuel for the retinal pigment epithelium and for neighboring Müller glial cells...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900179/microrna-28-potentially-regulates-the-photoreceptor-lineage-commitment-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-derived-progenitors
#14
Hong-Pei Ji, Yu Xiong, Wei-Tao Song, En-Dong Zhang, Zhao-Lin Gao, Fei Yao, Tao Su, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
Retinal degenerative diseases ultimately result into irreversible photoreceptor death or loss. At present, the most promising treatment for these diseases is cell replacement therapy. Müller glia are the major glia in the retina, displaying cardinal features of retinal progenitor cells, and can be candidate of seed cells for retinal degenerative diseases. Here, mouse retinal Müller glia dissociated and cultured in vitro amplified and were dedifferentiated into Müller glia-derived progenitors (MGDPs), demonstrating expression of stem/progenitor cell markers Nestin, Sox2 and self-renewal capacity...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899994/heterodimeric-capping-protein-is-required-for-stereocilia-length-and-width-regulation
#15
Matthew R Avenarius, Jocelyn F Krey, Rachel A Dumont, Clive P Morgan, Connor B Benson, Sarath Vijayakumar, Christopher L Cunningham, Deborah I Scheffer, David P Corey, Ulrich Müller, Sherri M Jones, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Control of the dimensions of actin-rich processes like filopodia, lamellipodia, microvilli, and stereocilia requires the coordinated activity of many proteins. Each of these actin structures relies on heterodimeric capping protein (CAPZ), which blocks actin polymerization at barbed ends. Because dimension control of the inner ear's stereocilia is particularly precise, we studied the CAPZB subunit in hair cells. CAPZB, present at ∼100 copies per stereocilium, concentrated at stereocilia tips as hair cell development progressed, similar to the CAPZB-interacting protein TWF2...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899503/salicylate-based-phytopharmaceuticals-induce-adaptive-cytokine-and-chemokine-network-responses-in-human-fibroblast-cultures
#16
Gudrun Ulrich-Merzenich, Frederik Hartbrod, Olaf Kelber, Jürgen Müller, Anna Koptina, Heike Zeitler
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines (CC) play a central role in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Neutralising antibodies for single proinflammatory cytokines have developed into a powerful, though expensive and not always curative therapeutic strategy for severe diseases. Considering the redundancy of CC functions, network (N) rather than single target approaches are essential. Phytopharmaceuticals, common adjuvant therapies, are known modulators of a broad spectrum of CCs, but as complex mixtures with multiple targets they have not been systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899400/impact-of-combined-sodium-chloride-and-saturated-long-chain-fatty-acid-challenge-on-the-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-in-neuroinflammation
#17
Anna Hammer, Anne Schliep, Stefanie Jörg, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895214/highly-k-selective-fluorescent-probes-for-lifetime-sensing-of-k-in-living-cells
#18
Hans-Jürgen Holdt, Thomas Schwarze, Monique Mertens, Peter Müller, Janine Riemer, Pablo Wessig
The new K+ selective fluorescent probes 1 and 2 were obtained by CuAAC reactions of an alkyne substituted DBD ester fluorophore with azido functionalized N-phenylaza-18-crown-6 ether and N-(o-isopropoxy)-phenylaza-18-crown-6 ether, respectively. Probes 1 and 2 allow the detection of K+ in the presence of Na+ in water by fluorescence enhancement (2.2 for 1 at 2000 mM K+ and 2.5 for 2 at 160 mM K+). Fluorescence life time measurements in the absence and presence of K+ revealed bi-exponential decay kinetics with similar life times, however with different proportions changing the averaged fluorescence decay times (τf(av))...
September 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894505/increased-mitochondrial-mass-and-cytosolic-redox-imbalance-in-hippocampal-astrocytes-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-subcellular-changes-revealed-by-ratiometric-imaging-of-jc-1-and-rogfp1-fluorescence
#19
Dörthe F Bebensee, Karolina Can, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Mostly girls are affected, and an apparently normal development is followed by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, epilepsy, and irregular breathing. Various indications suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In Rett mice, brain ATP levels are reduced, mitochondria are leaking protons, and respiratory complexes are dysregulated. Furthermore, we found in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2(-/y) ) hippocampus an intensified mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894173/lipidomes-of-lung-cancer-and-tumour-free-lung-tissues-reveal-distinct-molecular-signatures-for-cancer-differentiation-age-inflammation-and-pulmonary-emphysema
#20
Lars F Eggers, Julia Müller, Chakravarthy Marella, Verena Scholz, Henrik Watz, Christian Kugler, Klaus F Rabe, Torsten Goldmann, Dominik Schwudke
Little is known about the human lung lipidome, its variability in different physiological states, its alterations during carcinogenesis and the development of pulmonary emphysema. We investigated how health status might be mirrored in the lung lipidome. Tissues were sampled for both lipidomic and histological analysis. Using a screening approach, we characterised lipidomes of lung cancer tissues and corresponding tumour-free alveolar tissues. We quantified 311 lipids from 11 classes in 43 tissue samples from 26 patients...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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