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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532361/electrical-stimulation-of-the-retina-to-produce-artificial-vision
#1
James D Weiland, Steven T Walston, Mark S Humayun
Retinal prostheses aim to restore vision to blind individuals suffering from retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. These devices function by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons, whose activation is interpreted by the brain as a visual percept. Many prostheses are currently under development. They are categorized as epiretinal, subretinal, and suprachoroidal prostheses on the basis of the placement of the stimulating microelectrode array. Each can activate ganglion cells through direct or indirect stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532357/visual-object-recognition-do-we-finally-know-more-now-than-we-did
#2
Isabel Gauthier, Michael J Tarr
How do we recognize objects despite changes in their appearance? The past three decades have been witness to intense debates regarding both whether objects are encoded invariantly with respect to viewing conditions and whether specialized, separable mechanisms are used for the recognition of different object categories. We argue that such dichotomous debates ask the wrong question. Much more important is the nature of object representations: What are features that enable invariance or differential processing between categories? Although the nature of object features is still an unanswered question, new methods for connecting data to models show significant potential for helping us to better understand neural codes for objects...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513500/rescue-vitrectomy-with-blocked-artery-massage-and-bloodletting-for-branch-retinal-artery-occlusion
#3
Chun-Ju Lin, Cheng-Wen Su, Huan-Sheng Chen, Wen-Lu Chen, Jane-Ming Lin, Yi-Yu Tsai
A 61-year-old male suffered from sudden blurred vision and superior visual field defect oculus dexter. His vision was counting fingers at 20 cm. Fundoscopy demonstrated inferior pale retina and a large embolus located at the proximal inferior retinal artery. Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) was diagnosed. Initial paracentesis, topical brimonidine tartrate, oral pentoxifylline, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy were performed but showed limited improvement. Hence, he received 25-gauge vitrectomy, artificial posterior vitreous detachment, blocked retinal artery massage, and bloodletting 5 days after onset...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484851/-long-term-outcome-of-keratoprosthesis-with-biological-support
#4
K Hille
BACKGROUND: In severe Sicca syndrome and limbal stem cell deficiency, vision can be restored by an artificial optical implant into the cornea (keratoprosthesis, KPro). After multiple efforts to achieve long-lasting corneal fixation of such an optical implant, two methods have become established: KPro with biological support, such as osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) made from the root of patient's own tooth or osteo-keratoprosthesis (OKP), made from cortical bone of the patient's tibia; and the Boston KPro...
May 8, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480157/object-recognition-combining-vision-and-touch
#5
Tadeo Corradi, Peter Hall, Pejman Iravani
This paper explores ways of combining vision and touch for the purpose of object recognition. In particular, it focuses on scenarios when there are few tactile training samples (as these are usually costly to obtain) and when vision is artificially impaired. Whilst machine vision is a widely studied field, and machine touch has received some attention recently, the fusion of both modalities remains a relatively unexplored area. It has been suggested that, in the human brain, there exist shared multi-sensorial representations of objects...
2017: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467317/deep-learning-based-artificial-vision-for-grasp-classification-in-myoelectric-hands
#6
Ghazal Ghazaei, Ali Alameer, Patrick Degenaar, Graham Morgan, Kianoush Nazarpour
OBJECTIVE: Computer vision-based assistive technology solutions can revolutionise the quality of care for people with sensorimotor disorders. The goal of this work was to enable trans-radial amputees to use a simple, yet efficient, computer vision system to grasp and move common household objects with a two-channel myoelectric prosthetic hand. APPROACH: We developed a deep learning-based artificial vision system to augment the grasp functionality of a commercial prosthesis...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460945/development-of-a-robotic-pourer-constructed-with-ubiquitous-materials-open-hardware-and-sensors-to-assess-beer-foam-quality-using-computer-vision-and-pattern-recognition-algorithms-robobeer
#7
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, GuangJun Li, Richard Collmann, Bruna Condé, Damir Torrico
There are currently no standardized objective measures to assess beer quality based on the most significant parameters related to the first impression from consumers, which are visual characteristics of foamability, beer color and bubble size. This study describes the development of an affordable and robust robotic beer pourer using low-cost sensors, Arduino® boards, Lego® building blocks and servo motors for prototyping. The RoboBEER is also coupled with video capture capabilities (iPhone 5S) and automated post hoc computer vision analysis algorithms to assess different parameters based on foamability, bubble size, alcohol content, temperature, carbon dioxide release and beer color...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451994/3d-stacked-construct-a-novel-substitute-for-corneal-tissue-engineering
#8
Shrestha Priyadarsini, Sarah E Nicholas, Dimitrios Karamichos
Corneal trauma/injury often results in serious complications including permanent vision loss or loss of visual acuity which demands corneal transplantations or treatment with allogenic graft tissues. There is currently a huge shortage of donor tissue worldwide and the need for human corneal equivalents increases annually. In order to meet such demand the current clinical approach of treating corneal injuries is limited and involves synthetic and allogenic materials which have various shortcomings when it comes to actual transplantations...
April 28, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449714/detecting-central-fixation-by-means-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-a-pediatric-vision-screener-using-retinal-birefringence-scanning
#9
Boris I Gramatikov
BACKGROUND: Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation...
April 27, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422669/bioinspired-approach-to-modeling-retinal-ganglion-cells-using-system-identification-techniques
#10
Philip J Vance, Gautham P Das, Dermot Kerr, Sonya A Coleman, T Martin McGinnity, Tim Gollisch, Jian K Liu
The processing capabilities of biological vision systems are still vastly superior to artificial vision, even though this has been an active area of research for over half a century. Current artificial vision techniques integrate many insights from biology yet they remain far-off the capabilities of animals and humans in terms of speed, power, and performance. A key aspect to modeling the human visual system is the ability to accurately model the behavior and computation within the retina. In particular, we focus on modeling the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as they convey the accumulated data of real world images as action potentials onto the visual cortex via the optic nerve...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406471/real-time-vision-based-road-sign-recognition-using-an-artificial-neural-network
#11
Kh Tohidul Islam, Ram Gopal Raj
Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406449/improved-object-detection-using-a-robotic-sensing-antenna-with-vibration-damping-control
#12
Vicente Feliu-Batlle, Daniel Feliu-Talegon, Claudia Fernanda Castillo-Berrio
Some insects or mammals use antennae or whiskers to detect by the sense of touch obstacles or recognize objects in environments in which other senses like vision cannot work. Artificial flexible antennae can be used in robotics to mimic this sense of touch in these recognition tasks. We have designed and built a two-degree of freedom (2DOF) flexible antenna sensor device to perform robot navigation tasks. This device is composed of a flexible beam, two servomotors that drive the beam and a load cell sensor that detects the contact of the beam with an object...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#13
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380004/evaluation-of-a-gaze-controlled-vision-enhancement-system-for-reading-in-visually-impaired-people
#14
Carlos Aguilar, Eric Castet
People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL), need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning). We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371430/the-cognitive-science-of-sketch-worksheets
#15
Kenneth D Forbus, Maria Chang, Matthew McLure, Madeline Usher
Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college...
March 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366364/efficacy-and-perioperative-timing-of-bromfenac-in-the-management-of-ocular-discomfort-after-femtosecond-laser-assisted-laser%C3%A2-in-situ-keratomileusis
#16
Nathan A Cleaveland, Derek W De Mann, Neil E Carlson, Michael L Keil
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and appropriate perioperative timing of the use of topical bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). SETTING: Keil LASIK Vision Center, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Ocular discomfort was assessed 1, 2, and 5 hours postoperatively and the following morning using the Ocular Comfort Grading Assessment in patients treated with topical bromfenac 0...
February 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363785/targeted-delivery-of-hyaluronic-acid-to-the-ocular-surface-by-a-polymer-peptide-conjugate-system-for-dry-eye-disease
#17
David Lee, Qiaozhi Lu, Sven D Sommerfeld, Amanda Chan, Nikhil G Menon, Tannin A Schmidt, Jennifer H Elisseeff, Anirudha Singh
Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix...
March 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359545/automated-identification-of-diabetic-retinopathy-using-deep-learning
#18
Rishab Gargeya, Theodore Leng
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness globally. Performing retinal screening examinations on all diabetic patients is an unmet need, and there are many undiagnosed and untreated cases of DR. The objective of this study was to develop robust diagnostic technology to automate DR screening. Referral of eyes with DR to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation and treatment would aid in reducing the rate of vision loss, enabling timely and accurate diagnoses...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358301/the-impact-of-pseudophakia-on-vision-related-quality-of-life-in-the-general-population-the-gutenberg-health-study
#19
Alexander K Schuster, Norbert Pfeiffer, Andreas Schulz, Stefan Nickels, René Höhn, Philipp S Wild, Maria Blettner, Thomas Münzel, Manfred E Beutel, Karl J Lackner, Urs Vossmerbaeumer
Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide. We aim to determine the prevalence of having implanted an artificial lens (pseudophakia) and of no lens (aphakia) and to compare visual function.As part of the Gutenberg Health study, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Germany. An ophthalmological examination including slit-lamp examination was conducted. Prevalence including 95% confidential intervals were calculated and analyses were conducted for systemic and ocular associated factors with pseudophakia using multivariable logistic regression models...
March 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353045/artificial-intelligence-and-the-good-society-the-us-eu-and-uk-approach
#20
Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence (AI). In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a 'good AI society'. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: (a) the development of a 'good AI society'; (b) the role and responsibility of the government, the private sector, and the research community (including academia) in pursuing such a development; and (c) where the recommendations to support such a development may be in need of improvement...
March 28, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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