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Artificial vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732233/piecewise-convexity-of-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Blaine Rister, Daniel L Rubin
Although artificial neural networks have shown great promise in applications including computer vision and speech recognition, there remains considerable practical and theoretical difficulty in optimizing their parameters. The seemingly unreasonable success of gradient descent methods in minimizing these non-convex functions remains poorly understood. In this work we offer some theoretical guarantees for networks with piecewise affine activation functions, which have in recent years become the norm. We prove three main results...
July 3, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#2
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701559/optimal-background-matching-camouflage
#3
Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, David P Gibson, Innes C Cuthill
Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689314/overview-of-deep-learning-in-medical-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Kenji Suzuki
The use of machine learning (ML) has been increasing rapidly in the medical imaging field, including computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), radiomics, and medical image analysis. Recently, an ML area called deep learning emerged in the computer vision field and became very popular in many fields. It started from an event in late 2012, when a deep-learning approach based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) won an overwhelming victory in the best-known worldwide computer vision competition, ImageNet Classification...
July 8, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664995/assessment-of-beer-quality-based-on-foamability-and-chemical-composition-using-computer-vision-algorithms-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-artificial-neural-networks-modelling-techniques
#5
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Damir Torrico, Kate Howell, Frank R Dunshea
BACKGROUND: Beer quality is mainly defined by its color, foamability and foam stability, which are influenced by the chemical composition of the product such as proteins, carbohydrates, pH and alcohol. Traditional methods to assess specific chemical compounds are usually time-consuming and costly. This study used rapid methods to evaluate 15 foam and color-related parameters using a robotic pourer (RoboBEER) and chemical fingerprinting using near infrared spectrometry (NIR) from six replicates of 21 beers from three types of fermentation...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649802/punctal-occlusion-for-dry-eye-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Ann-Margret Ervin, Andrew Law, Andrew D Pucker
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film that is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment that blocks the tear drainage system in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of punctal plugs versus no punctal plugs, different types of punctal plugs, and other interventions for managing dry eye. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase...
June 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624710/role-of-impaired-vision-during-dual-task-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#7
Vennila Krishnan, Young-Hee Cho, Olfat Mohamed
While cognitive-motor interference in dual-task activities is well established, it is still unknown how such interference is influenced by concurrent visual challenges. Nineteen community-dwelling healthy, cognitively intact, older adults (Mean±SD=71.45±1.25years, 6 males) and nineteen young adults (Mean±SD=22.25±0.68years, 4 males) performed a cognitive-single-task (serial subtraction by 3), a walking-single-task and a cognitive-walking-dual-task under normal, blurred and peripheral-vision-loss conditions (artificially imposed using goggles)...
June 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622318/characteristics-of-symptoms-experienced-by-persons-with-dry-eye-disease-while-driving-in-china
#8
Y Wang, H Lv, Y Liu, X Jiang, M Zhang, X Li, W Wang
PurposeTo assess the vision-related quality of life and self-reported driving performance of patients with dry eye disease (DED).Patients and methodsThe study was performed in the eye centre of Peking University Third Hospital, China. In total, 87 dry eye patients and 42 controls were enroled, including 49 patients without any treatment (group A), 38 patients treated with artificial tears (group B) and 42 controls without DED (group C). The participants had no eye disease other than DED. Scores of a vision-related quality-of-life questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)), a daily life-related visual function questionnaire and a questionnaire about performance during driving were collected...
June 16, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617724/intracorneal-inlays-for-the-correction-of-presbyopia
#9
Perry S Binder
The current nonsurgical approaches for the correction of presbyopia are spectacles or contact lenses or the use of pharmaceuticals to create an artificial pupil and/or to stimulate residual accommodation. Refractive surgical procedures use a monovision approach and/or a multifocal corneal laser ablation with or without the induction of negative spherical aberration to improve near vision. More recently, new surgical approaches include intracorneal inlays. Inlay approaches include increasing corneal curvature alone, implanting a multifocal inlay, or by implanting a small aperture device that functions as a pinhole to restore unaided near and intermediate visual acuity...
June 14, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612282/probing-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-anchoring-on-tnf-alpha-challenged-vascular-endothelia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-retinal-microvascular
#10
Yuan Li, Yao Lu, Qiong Chen, Yuejun Kang, Ling Yu
Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina's microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina's microvasculature was developed...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611460/chlorophyll-derivatives-enhance-invertebrate-red-light-and-ultraviolet-phototaxis
#11
Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Leonardo Rossi, Alessandra Salvetti, Attilio Marino, Gabriella Meloni, Barbara Mazzolai, Gianni Ciofani
Chlorophyll derivatives are known to enhance vision in vertebrates. They are thought to bind visual pigments (i.e., opsins apoproteins bound to retinal chromophores) directly within the retina. Consistent with previous findings in vertebrates, here we show that chlorin e6 - a chlorophyll derivative - enhances photophobicity in a flatworm (Dugesia japonica), specifically when exposed to UV radiation (λ = 405 nm) or red light (λ = 660 nm). This is the first report of chlorophyll derivatives acting as modulators of invertebrate phototaxis, and in general the first account demonstrating that they can artificially alter animal response to light at a behavioral level...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602017/design-and-evaluation-of-artificial-cornea-with-core-skirt-design-using-polyhydroxyethyl-methacrylate-and-graphite
#12
Mukty Sinha, Tanvi Gupte
PURPOSE: Artificial cornea is the effective treatment option for corneal blindness. One of the challenges with the artificial cornea is limited, or no tissue integration necessitates reimplantation due to necrosis or corneal melting. We propose here a new formulation approach for core-skirt incorporating graphite in the outer skirt region to improve cell adhesion. METHODS: Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were procured from Sigma-Aldrich...
June 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591156/dark-eyes-in-female-sand-gobies-indicate-readiness-to-spawn
#13
Karin H Olsson, Sandra Johansson, Eva-Lotta Blom, Kai Lindström, Ola Svensson, Helen Nilsson Sköld, Charlotta Kvarnemo
In animals, colorful and conspicuous ornaments enhance individual attractiveness to potential mates, but are typically tempered by natural selection for crypsis and predator protection. In species where males compete for females, this can lead to highly ornamented males competing for mating opportunities with choosy females, and vice versa. However, even where males compete for mating opportunities, females may exhibit conspicuous displays. These female displays are often poorly understood and it may be unclear whether they declare mating intent, signal intrasexual aggression or form a target for male mate preference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587275/a-high-speed-target-free-vision-based-sensor-for-bus-rapid-transit-viaduct-vibration-measurements-using-cmt-and-orb-algorithms
#14
Qijun Hu, Songsheng He, Shilong Wang, Yugang Liu, Zutao Zhang, Leping He, Fubin Wang, Qijie Cai, Rendan Shi, Yuan Yang
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic...
June 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566464/activation-of-ganglion-cells-and-axon-bundles-using-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation
#15
Lauren E Grosberg, Karthik Ganesan, Georges A Goetz, Sasidhar S Madugula, Nandita Bhaskhar, Victoria Fan, Peter Li, Pawel Hottowy, Wladyslaw Dabrowski, Alexander Sher, Alan M Litke, Subhasish Mitra, E J Chichilnisky
Epiretinal prostheses for treating blindness activate axon bundles, causing large, arc-shaped visual percepts that limit the quality of artificial vision. Improving the function of epiretinal prostheses therefore requires understanding and avoiding axon bundle activation. This paper introduces a method to detect axon bundle activation based on its electrical signature, and uses the method to test whether epiretinal stimulation can directly elicit spikes in individual retinal ganglion cells without activating nearby axon bundles...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559327/deformable-and-conformal-silk-hydrogel-inverse-opal
#16
Kyungtaek Min, Sookyoung Kim, Sunghwan Kim
Photonic crystals (PhCs) efficiently manipulate photons at the nanoscale. Applying these crystals to biological tissue that has been subjected to large deformation and humid environments can lead to fascinating bioapplications such as in vivo biosensors and artificial ocular prostheses. These applications require that these PhCs have mechanical durability, deformability, and biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce a deformable and conformal silk hydrogel inverse opal (SHIO); the photonic lattice of this 3D PhC can be deformed by mechanical strain...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548648/electronic-retinal-implants-and-artificial-vision-journey-and-present
#17
REVIEW
J O Mills, A Jalil, P E Stanga
Retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are two significant causes of severe visual dysfunction. In both, the retinal photoreceptors degenerate, preventing successful conversion of light into electrical energy that is interpreted in the visual cortex as visual function. Artificial vision or visual function began over two centuries ago with the idea of creating artificial light pulses, or phosphenes, through cortical stimulation. The pursuit is now on to improve artificial visual function. Two retinal implants appear the most likely to succeed in the future having undergone multicentre human trials: the Argus II electronic epiretinal device (Second Sight Medical Products, CA, USA) and Alpha-IMS electronic subretinal device (Retina Implant AG, Germany)...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541930/progress-in-artificial-vision-through-suprachoroidal-retinal-implants
#18
Lilach Bareket, Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Marc Patrick Zapf, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Retinal implants have proven their ability to restore visual sensation to people with degenerative retinopathy, characterized by photoreceptor cell death and the retina's inability to sense light. Retinal bionics operate by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons in the retina, thus triggering the transfer of visual sensory information to the brain. Suprachoroidal implants were first investigated in Australia in the 1950s. In this approach, the neuromodulation hardware is positioned between the sclera and the choroid, thus providing significant surgical and safety benefits for patients, with the potential to maintain residual vision combined with the artificial input from the device...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532361/electrical-stimulation-of-the-retina-to-produce-artificial-vision
#19
James D Weiland, Steven T Walston, Mark S Humayun
Retinal prostheses aim to restore vision to blind individuals suffering from retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. These devices function by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons, whose activation is interpreted by the brain as a visual percept. Many prostheses are currently under development. They are categorized as epiretinal, subretinal, and suprachoroidal prostheses on the basis of the placement of the stimulating microelectrode array. Each can activate ganglion cells through direct or indirect stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532357/visual-object-recognition-do-we-finally-know-more-now-than-we-did
#20
Isabel Gauthier, Michael J Tarr
How do we recognize objects despite changes in their appearance? The past three decades have been witness to intense debates regarding both whether objects are encoded invariantly with respect to viewing conditions and whether specialized, separable mechanisms are used for the recognition of different object categories. We argue that such dichotomous debates ask the wrong question. Much more important is the nature of object representations: What are features that enable invariance or differential processing between categories? Although the nature of object features is still an unanswered question, new methods for connecting data to models show significant potential for helping us to better understand neural codes for objects...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
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