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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426432/rehabilitation-of-lost-functional-vision-with-the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis
#1
Michelle Markowitz, Mark Rankin, Mohamed Mongy, Beatrice E Patino, Joshua Manusow, Robert G Devenyi, Samuel N Markowitz
The Argus II retinal prosthesis is the first commercially available device for restoration of vision in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa or with similar retinal pathology who still have minimal residual native vision. The technology is able to restore vision with production of artificial visual percepts which usually are given adequate useful interpretation by the visual system in most implanted patients. The technology usually produces visual perception at the level of shape identification or better in some cases enabling in many less dependence on vision substitution devices and skills...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416065/judging-the-position-of-the-artificial-hand-induces-a-visual-drift-towards-the-real-one-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#2
Roberto Erro, Angela Marotta, Michele Tinazzi, Elena Frera, Mirta Fiorio
When subjects look at a rubber hand being brush-stroked synchronously with their own hidden hand, they might feel a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The perceived mislocalization of the own hand towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) would reflect an implicit marker of this illusion occurring through the dominance of vision over proprioception. This account, however, contrasts with principles of multisensory integration whereby percepts result from a "statistical sum" of different sensory afferents...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415876/electric-stimulus-duration-alters-network-mediated-responses-depending-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-type
#3
Maesoon Im, Paul Werginz, Shelley Fried
To improve the quality of artificial vision that arises from retinal prostheses, it is important to bring electrically-elicited neural activity more in line with the physiological signaling patterns that arise normally in the healthy retina. Our previous study reported that indirect activation produces a closer match to physiological responses in ON retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) than in OFF cells . This suggests that a preferential activation of ON RGCs would shape the overall retinal response closer to natural signaling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393030/-cosmetic-iris-implantation-can-cause-irreversible-eye-complications
#4
Sasikala Thineshkumar, Daniel Nyborg, Peter Ruhlmann, Jakob Grauslund
Artificial iris implants were originally developed for therapeutic purposes but have recently been used for cosmetic alteration of the eye colour. A 21-year-old woman presented with bilateral eye redness, visual loss, raised intraocular pressure, corneal oedema and hyphaema following implantation of artificial irises in Tunisia. Combined medical and surgical management led to improvements, but reduced vision and photophobia persisted. Cosmetic iris implantation can lead to persistently sight-threatening eye complications, and we strongly advise against its use...
January 22, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389679/artificial-intelligence-in-surgery-promises-and-perils
#5
Daniel A Hashimoto, Guy Rosman, Daniela Rus, Ozanan R Meireles
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to summarize major topics in artificial intelligence (AI), including their applications and limitations in surgery. This paper reviews the key capabilities of AI to help surgeons understand and critically evaluate new AI applications and to contribute to new developments. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: AI is composed of various subfields that each provide potential solutions to clinical problems. Each of the core subfields of AI reviewed in this piece has also been used in other industries such as the autonomous car, social networks, and deep learning computers...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385749/a-brief-review-of-facial-emotion-recognition-based-on-visual-information
#6
Byoung Chul Ko
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is an important topic in the fields of computer vision and artificial intelligence owing to its significant academic and commercial potential. Although FER can be conducted using multiple sensors, this review focuses on studies that exclusively use facial images, because visual expressions are one of the main information channels in interpersonal communication. This paper provides a brief review of researches in the field of FER conducted over the past decades. First, conventional FER approaches are described along with a summary of the representative categories of FER systems and their main algorithms...
January 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384477/the-lawful-imprecision-of-human-surface-tilt-estimation-in-natural-scenes
#7
Seha Kim, Johannes Burge
Estimating local surface orientation (slant and tilt) is fundamental to recovering the three-dimensional structure of the environment. It is unknown how well humans perform this task in natural scenes. Here, with a database of natural stereo-images having groundtruth surface orientation at each pixel, we find dramatic differences in human tilt estimation with natural and artificial stimuli. Estimates are precise and unbiased with artificial stimuli and imprecise and strongly biased with natural stimuli. An image-computable Bayes optimal model grounded in natural scene statistics predicts human bias, precision, and trial-by-trial errors without fitting parameters to the human data...
January 31, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366588/comparison-of-objective-optical-quality-measured-by-double-pass-aberrometry-in-patients-with-moderate-dry-eye-normal-saline-vs-artificial-tears-a-pilot-study
#8
G Vandermeer, Y Chamy, P-J Pisella
Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics (OQAS). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome...
January 20, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350199/cortical-visual-prostheses-from-microstimulation-to-functional-percept
#9
Armin Najarpour Foroushani, Christopher Pack, Mohamad Sawan
Cortical visual prostheses are intended to restore vision by targeted electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. The perception of spots of light, called phosphenes, resulting from microstimulation of the visual pathway, suggests the possibility of creating meaningful percept made of phosphenes. However, to date electrical stimulation of V1 has still not resulted in perception of phosphenated images that goes beyond punctate spots of light. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental progress that has been made in generating phosphenes and modulating their associated perceptual characteristics in human and macaque primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328958/stdp-based-spiking-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-object-recognition
#10
Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh, Mohammad Ganjtabesh, Simon J Thorpe, Timothée Masquelier
Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers...
December 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316627/distance-calibration-between-reference-plane-and-screen-in-direct-phase-measuring-deflectometry
#11
Shujun Huang, Yue Liu, Nan Gao, Zonghua Zhang, Feng Gao, Xiangqian Jiang
The recently developed direct phase measuring deflectometry (DPMD) method can directly measure the three-dimensional (3D) shape of specular objects with discontinuous surfaces, but requires a calibrated distance between a reference plane and liquid crystal display screen. Because the plane and screen are different distances from the imaging device, they cannot be clearly captured given the limited depth of field (DOF) of the lens. Therefore, existing machine vision-based methods cannot be used to effectively calibrate a DPMD system...
January 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286422/methodology-for-biomimetic-chemical-neuromodulation-of-rat-retinas-with-the-neurotransmitter-glutamate-in-vitro
#12
Corey M Rountree, John B Troy, Laxman Saggere
Photoreceptor degenerative diseases cause irreparable blindness through the progressive loss of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Retinal prostheses are an emerging treatment for photoreceptor degenerative diseases that seek to restore vision by artificially stimulating the surviving retinal neurons in the hope of eliciting comprehensible visual perception in patients. Current retinal prostheses have demonstrated success in restoring limited vision to patients using an array of electrodes to electrically stimulate the retina but face substantial physical barriers in restoring high acuity, natural vision to patients...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284427/study-design-and-baseline-findings-from-the-progression-of-ocular-findings-proof-natural-history-study-of-dry-eye
#13
Peter J McDonnell, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Michael E Stern, David R Hardten, Taryn Conway, Linda Villanueva, David A Hollander
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life)...
December 28, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249348/automated-pterygium-detection-method-of-anterior-segment-photographed-images
#14
REVIEW
Wan Mimi Diyana Wan Zaki, Marizuana Mat Daud, Siti Raihanah Abdani, Aini Hussain, Haliza Abdul Mutalib
BACKGROUND AND BJECTIVE: Pterygium is an ocular disease caused by fibrovascular tissue encroachment onto the corneal region. The tissue may cause vision blurring if it grows into the pupil region. In this study, we propose an automatic detection method to differentiate pterygium from non-pterygium (normal) cases on the basis of frontal eye photographed images, also known as anterior segment photographed images. METHODS: The pterygium screening system was tested on two normal eye databases (UBIRIS and MILES) and two pterygium databases (Australia Pterygium and Brazil Pterygium)...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232846/home-camera-based-fall-detection-system-for-the-elderly
#15
Koldo de Miguel, Alberto Brunete, Miguel Hernando, Ernesto Gambao
Falls are the leading cause of injury and death in elderly individuals. Unfortunately, fall detectors are typically based on wearable devices, and the elderly often forget to wear them. In addition, fall detectors based on artificial vision are not yet available on the market. In this paper, we present a new low-cost fall detector for smart homes based on artificial vision algorithms. Our detector combines several algorithms (background subtraction, Kalman filtering and optical flow) as input to a machine learning algorithm with high detection accuracy...
December 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212065/development-of-the-visual-system-in-a-burrow-nesting-seabird-leach-s-storm-petrel
#16
Mindaugas Mitkus, Gabrielle A Nevitt, Almut Kelber
Little is known about the development of vision in wild birds. It is unknown, for example, whether the ability to see can be predicted by the level of prenatal growth or whether the eyes are open at hatching in a particular species. In this study, we investigated the growth of eyes, the formation of retinal ganglion cell topography, and the appearance of simple, visually guided behaviours in chicks of a small procellariiform seabird, Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). This semi-precocial species, which has a well-developed sense of smell, nests in underground burrows where adults provision chicks for 6-8 weeks in the dark before fledging...
December 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190383/bionic-vision-social-work-and-community-development-a-research-participant-s-reflections
#17
Dianne Ashworth
This article discusses bionic vision through the author's experiences as Australia's first research participant in an early prototype bionic eye trial. During her two-year participation, she drew on various theoretical perspectives, including critical and community development approaches that not only influence her professional social work perspective, but extend to her personal worldview. In a rapidly emerging biotechnological age, this article contributes a holistic perspective, bringing into focus theory and practice; issues of human experience, human rights, and oppressive relationships; tensions between agency and structure (particularly relating to disability from a social model of disability and the medical model); and practical applications of artificial vision...
November 28, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156465/-pseudophacic-additive-lenses
#18
Fritz H Hengerer, Ina Conrad-Hengerer
Implantation of artificial intraocular lenses (IOL) after cataract removal today represents the standard of care in the field of anterior segment surgery. In refractive lens exchange cases the natural lens is replaced by an IOL to correct different types of refractive situations. In the majority of the operations the refractive result is satisfying with only few deviations from target refraction.But daily practice reveals some outliers from the intended corrections with the need for further refractive enhancements, respectively...
November 20, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150284/the-displacing-foods-of-modern-commerce-are-the-primary-and-proximate-cause-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-unifying-singular-hypothesis
#19
Chris A Knobbe, Marija Stojanoska
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in developed nations. AMD is anticipated to affect 196 million people worldwide, by 2020. However, the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Aging, genetic, and environmental influences have generally been implicated as major etiologic factors. We sought to examine the hypothesis that consumption of the 'displacing foods of modern commerce,' which equate to processed, nutrient-deficient and potentially toxic foods, may be the primary and proximate cause of AMD...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140328/retina-simulating-phantom-produced-by-photolithography
#20
Denise Valente, Brian Vohnsen
Cone photoreceptors have a narrow acceptance angle that is well matched to the size of the eye pupil and dampens the visual impact of aberrations and scattering. However, the structure of the human retina is not replicated in existing eye models used to test refractive designs or retinal implants that restore partial vision to the blind. Here, we report on an artificial waveguide-based retinal phantom manufactured by photolithography in photoresist film with dimensions and refractive index contrast similar to the retinal receptor layer...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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