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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326656/skin-cancer-diagnosed-by-using-artificial-intelligence-on-clinical-images
#1
Isaäc van der Waal
In a recent Research Letter in Nature an automated classification of a few selected skin lesions has been published, using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) (Esteva et al, 2017). Convolutional neural network is an important innovation in the field of computer vision. A popular use is for image processing, e.g. applied in face recognition. In the reported study CNN has been applied to a dataset of almost 130,000 clinical images, including some 3,000 dermoscopic images. This article is protected by copyright...
March 22, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320674/simulation-study-of-an-ultrasound-retinal-prosthesis-with-a-novel-contact-lens-array-for-noninvasive-retinal-stimulation
#2
Mengdi Gao, Yanyan Yu, Huixia Zhao, Guofeng Li, Hongyang Jiang, Congzhi Wang, Feiyan Cai, Leanne Chan, Bernard Chiu, Wei Qian, Weibao Qiu, Hairong Zheng
Millions of people around the world suffer from varying degrees of vision loss (including complete blindness) because of retinal degenerative diseases. Artificial retinal prosthesis, which is usually based on electrical neurostimulation, are the most advanced technology for different types of retinal degeneration. However, this technology involves placing a device into the eyeball, and such a highly invasive procedure is inevitably highly risk and expensive. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for noninvasive neurostimulation, making it possible to stimulate the retina and induce action potentials similar to those elicited by light stimulation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272810/deep-learning-for-computational-chemistry
#3
REVIEW
Garrett B Goh, Nathan O Hodas, Abhinav Vishnu
The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271538/the-lack-of-relation-between-straylight-and-visual-acuity-two-domains-of-the-point-spread-function
#4
Thomas J T P van den Berg
PURPOSE: The effect of cataract and other media opacities on functional vision is typically assessed clinically using visual acuity. In both clinical and basic research, straylight (the functional result of light scattering in the eye) is commonly measured. The purpose of the present study was to determine the link between these two measures: is visual acuity in cataract and other media opacities related to straylight? METHODS: Interdependence between acuity and straylight is addressed from three different points of view: (1) Methodological: can acuity differences affect the measurement value of straylight, and vice versa? (2) Basic optics: does the optical process of light scattering in the human eye affect both straylight and visual acuity? (3) Statistical: how strongly are acuity and straylight correlated in the practice of important clinical conditions? Experimental and theoretical aspects will be considered, with a focus on normal ageing and cataract formation...
March 8, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269486/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#5
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249306/mini-craniotomy-under-local-anesthesia-to-treat-acute-subdural-hematoma-in-deteriorating-elderly-patients
#6
Alessandro Di Rienzo, Maurizio Iacoangeli, Lorenzo Alvaro, Roberto Colasanti, Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma, Niccolo Nocchi, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati
Background and Study Aims Surgical treatment for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in elderly patients is still considered unsatisfactory. Series focusing on the use of conventional craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy in such patients report discouraging results. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission seems to be crucial in the decision-making process. Deteriorating patients with a GCS score between 9 and 11 are those who would benefit most from the surgical treatment. Unfortunately, elderly patients often present other comorbidities that greatly increase the risk of severe complications after major neurosurgical procedures under general anesthesia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#7
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245347/autologous-serum-eye-drops-for-dry-eye
#8
REVIEW
Qing Pan, Adla Angelina, Michael Marrone, Walter J Stark, Esen K Akpek
BACKGROUND: Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye...
February 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227738/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#9
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212435/colour-preferences-of-uk-garden-birds-at-supplementary-seed-feeders
#10
Luke Rothery, Graham W Scott, Lesley J Morrell
Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193823/stellar-performance-mechanisms-underlying-milky-way-orientation-in-dung-beetles
#11
James J Foster, Basil El Jundi, Jochen Smolka, Lana Khaldy, Dan-Eric Nilsson, Marcus J Byrne, Marie Dacke
Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193813/subtle-changes-in-the-landmark-panorama-disrupt-visual-navigation-in-a-nocturnal-bull-ant
#12
Ajay Narendra, Fiorella Ramirez-Esquivel
The ability of ants to navigate when the visual landmark information is altered has often been tested by creating large and artificial discrepancies in their visual environment. Here, we had an opportunity to slightly modify the natural visual environment around the nest of the nocturnal bull ant Myrmecia pyriformis We achieved this by felling three dead trees, two located along the typical route followed by the foragers of that particular nest and one in a direction perpendicular to their foraging direction...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174613/banknote-recognition-investigating-processing-and-cognition-framework-using-competitive-neural-network
#13
Oyebade K Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman
Humans are apt at recognizing patterns and discovering even abstract features which are sometimes embedded therein. Our ability to use the banknotes in circulation for business transactions lies in the effortlessness with which we can recognize the different banknote denominations after seeing them over a period of time. More significant is that we can usually recognize these banknote denominations irrespective of what parts of the banknotes are exposed to us visually. Furthermore, our recognition ability is largely unaffected even when these banknotes are partially occluded...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141829/vehicle-autonomous-localization-in-local-area-of-coal-mine-tunnel-based-on-vision-sensors-and-ultrasonic-sensors
#14
Zirui Xu, Wei Yang, Kaiming You, Wei Li, Young-Il Kim
This paper presents a vehicle autonomous localization method in local area of coal mine tunnel based on vision sensors and ultrasonic sensors. Barcode tags are deployed in pairs on both sides of the tunnel walls at certain intervals as artificial landmarks. The barcode coding is designed based on UPC-A code. The global coordinates of the upper left inner corner point of the feature frame of each barcode tag deployed in the tunnel are uniquely represented by the barcode. Two on-board vision sensors are used to recognize each pair of barcode tags on both sides of the tunnel walls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114567/retinotopic-to-spatiotopic-mapping-in-blind-patients-implanted-with-the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis
#15
Avi Caspi, Arup Roy, Jessy D Dorn, Robert J Greenberg
Purpose: To quantify the precision of mapping from retinotopic (retina-centered) to spatiotopic (world-centered) coordinates in blind humans implanted with a retinal prosthesis device. Additionally, to demonstrate that an eye tracker can be calibrated on sightless patients based on the percept from a visual implant. Methods: We directly activated epiretinal electrodes to create retinotopic stimuli and recorded the location of the percept at world-based coordinates...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113586/a-robust-approach-for-the-background-subtraction-based-on-multi-layered-self-organizing-maps
#16
Giorgio Gemignani, Alessandro Rozza
Motion detection in video streams is a challenging task for several computer vision applications. Indeed, segmentation of moving and static elements in the scene allows to increase the efficiency of several challenging tasks such as human computer interface (HCI), robot visions, and intelligent surveillance systems. In this paper, we approach motion detection through a multilayered artificial neural network, which is able to build for each background pixel a multi-modal color distribution evolving over time through self organization...
August 31, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106594/big-data-and-nursing-implications-for-the-future
#17
Maxim Topaz, Lisiane Pruinelli
Big data is becoming increasingly more prevalent and it affects the way nurses learn, practice, conduct research and develop policy. The discipline of nursing needs to maximize the benefits of big data to advance the vision of promoting human health and wellbeing. However, current practicing nurses, educators and nurse scientists often lack the required skills and competencies necessary for meaningful use of big data. Some of the key skills for further development include the ability to mine narrative and structured data for new care or outcome patterns, effective data visualization techniques, and further integration of nursing sensitive data into artificial intelligence systems for better clinical decision support...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105741/potential-use-of-cubic-phase-masks-for-extending-the-range-of-clear-vision-in-presbyopes-initial-calculation-and-simulation-studies
#18
Justo Arines, Citlalli Almaguer, Eva Acosta
PURPOSE: In this paper we analyse the potential use of a non-symmetrical optical element, a cubic phase mask, for extending the range of clear vision of presbyopic eyes. Additionally, we will discuss the appropriateness of the visual Strehl ratio to analyse this sort of presbyopic solution based on non-symmetrical phase masks contrasted with through-focus retinal images. METHODS: In order to evaluate the performance of the cubic phase mask we employed computational Fourier Optics to compute the different visual Strehl criteria as well as simulate the retinal images...
January 20, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055847/show-and-tell-lessons-learned-from-the-2015-mscoco-image-captioning-challenge
#19
Oriol Vinyals, Alexander Toshev, Samy Bengio, Dumitru Erhan
Automatically describing the content of an image is a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence that connects computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we present a generative model based on a deep recurrent architecture that combines recent advances in computer vision and machine translation and that can be used to generate natural sentences describing an image. The model is trained to maximize the likelihood of the target description sentence given the training image. Experiments on several datasets show the accuracy of the model and the fluency of the language it learns solely from image descriptions...
July 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050920/elderly-fall-risk-prediction-based-on-a-physiological-profile-approach-using-artificial-neural-networks
#20
Jafar Razmara, Mohammad Hassan Zaboli
Falls play a critical role in older people's life as it is an important source of morbidity and mortality in elders. In this article, elders fall risk is predicted based on a physiological profile approach using a multilayer neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm. The personal physiological profile of 200 elders was collected through a questionnaire and used as the experimental data for learning and testing the neural network. The profile contains a series of simple factors putting elders at risk for falls such as vision abilities, muscle forces, and some other daily activities and grouped into two sets: psychological factors and public factors...
November 1, 2016: Health Informatics Journal
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