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Artificial vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422669/bioinspired-approach-to-modeling-retinal-ganglion-cells-using-system-identification-techniques
#1
Philip J Vance, Gautham P Das, Dermot Kerr, Sonya A Coleman, T Martin McGinnity, Tim Gollisch, Jian K Liu
The processing capabilities of biological vision systems are still vastly superior to artificial vision, even though this has been an active area of research for over half a century. Current artificial vision techniques integrate many insights from biology yet they remain far-off the capabilities of animals and humans in terms of speed, power, and performance. A key aspect to modeling the human visual system is the ability to accurately model the behavior and computation within the retina. In particular, we focus on modeling the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as they convey the accumulated data of real world images as action potentials onto the visual cortex via the optic nerve...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406471/real-time-vision-based-road-sign-recognition-using-an-artificial-neural-network
#2
Kh Tohidul Islam, Ram Gopal Raj
Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406449/improved-object-detection-using-a-robotic-sensing-antenna-with-vibration-damping-control
#3
Vicente Feliu-Batlle, Daniel Feliu-Talegon, Claudia Fernanda Castillo-Berrio
Some insects or mammals use antennae or whiskers to detect by the sense of touch obstacles or recognize objects in environments in which other senses like vision cannot work. Artificial flexible antennae can be used in robotics to mimic this sense of touch in these recognition tasks. We have designed and built a two-degree of freedom (2DOF) flexible antenna sensor device to perform robot navigation tasks. This device is composed of a flexible beam, two servomotors that drive the beam and a load cell sensor that detects the contact of the beam with an object...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#4
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380004/evaluation-of-a-gaze-controlled-vision-enhancement-system-for-reading-in-visually-impaired-people
#5
Carlos Aguilar, Eric Castet
People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL), need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning). We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371430/the-cognitive-science-of-sketch-worksheets
#6
Kenneth D Forbus, Maria Chang, Matthew McLure, Madeline Usher
Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college...
March 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366364/efficacy-and-perioperative-timing-of-bromfenac-in-the-management-of-ocular-discomfort-after-femtosecond-laser-assisted-laser%C3%A2-in-situ-keratomileusis
#7
Nathan A Cleaveland, Derek W De Mann, Neil E Carlson, Michael L Keil
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and appropriate perioperative timing of the use of topical bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). SETTING: Keil LASIK Vision Center, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Ocular discomfort was assessed 1, 2, and 5 hours postoperatively and the following morning using the Ocular Comfort Grading Assessment in patients treated with topical bromfenac 0...
February 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363785/targeted-delivery-of-hyaluronic-acid-to-the-ocular-surface-by-a-polymer-peptide-conjugate-system-for-dry-eye-disease
#8
David Lee, Qiaozhi Lu, Sven D Sommerfeld, Amanda Chan, Nikhil G Menon, Tannin A Schmidt, Jennifer H Elisseeff, Anirudha Singh
Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix...
March 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359545/automated-identification-of-diabetic-retinopathy-using-deep-learning
#9
Rishab Gargeya, Theodore Leng
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness globally. Performing retinal screening examinations on all diabetic patients is an unmet need, and there are many undiagnosed and untreated cases of DR. The objective of this study was to develop robust diagnostic technology to automate DR screening. Referral of eyes with DR to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation and treatment would aid in reducing the rate of vision loss, enabling timely and accurate diagnoses...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358301/the-impact-of-pseudophakia-on-vision-related-quality-of-life-in-the-general-population-the-gutenberg-health-study
#10
Alexander K Schuster, Norbert Pfeiffer, Andreas Schulz, Stefan Nickels, René Höhn, Philipp S Wild, Maria Blettner, Thomas Münzel, Manfred E Beutel, Karl J Lackner, Urs Vossmerbaeumer
Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide. We aim to determine the prevalence of having implanted an artificial lens (pseudophakia) and of no lens (aphakia) and to compare visual function.As part of the Gutenberg Health study, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Germany. An ophthalmological examination including slit-lamp examination was conducted. Prevalence including 95% confidential intervals were calculated and analyses were conducted for systemic and ocular associated factors with pseudophakia using multivariable logistic regression models...
March 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353045/artificial-intelligence-and-the-good-society-the-us-eu-and-uk-approach
#11
Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence (AI). In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a 'good AI society'. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: (a) the development of a 'good AI society'; (b) the role and responsibility of the government, the private sector, and the research community (including academia) in pursuing such a development; and (c) where the recommendations to support such a development may be in need of improvement...
March 28, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342174/modeling-vision-computational-science-for-understanding-human-visual-perception
#12
EDITORIAL
Ralf Mrowka, Alexander Freytag, Stefanie Reuter
Human visual perception system is complex and involves a considerable portion of the brain's cortex. Hence, the wish to understand complex neuronal function is obvious, and the idea to model this by means of artificial neuronal networks might have been born at the time when first computational machines were constructed (Alan Turing, Intelligent machinery, 1948, h t t p: //www.npl.co.uk/about/history/notable-individuals/turing/intelligent-machinery) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326656/skin-cancer-diagnosed-using-artificial-intelligence-on-clinical-images
#13
I van der Waal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320674/simulation-study-of-an-ultrasound-retinal-prosthesis-with-a-novel-contact-lens-array-for-noninvasive-retinal-stimulation
#14
Mengdi Gao, Yanyan Yu, Huixia Zhao, Guofeng Li, Hongyang Jiang, Congzhi Wang, Feiyan Cai, Leanne Chan, Bernard Chiu, Wei Qian, Weibao Qiu, Hairong Zheng
Millions of people around the world suffer from varying degrees of vision loss (including complete blindness) because of retinal degenerative diseases. Artificial retinal prosthesis, which is usually based on electrical neurostimulation, are the most advanced technology for different types of retinal degeneration. However, this technology involves placing a device into the eyeball, and such a highly invasive procedure is inevitably highly risk and expensive. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for noninvasive neurostimulation, making it possible to stimulate the retina and induce action potentials similar to those elicited by light stimulation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272810/deep-learning-for-computational-chemistry
#15
REVIEW
Garrett B Goh, Nathan O Hodas, Abhinav Vishnu
The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271538/the-lack-of-relation-between-straylight-and-visual-acuity-two-domains-of-the-point-spread-function
#16
Thomas J T P van den Berg
PURPOSE: The effect of cataract and other media opacities on functional vision is typically assessed clinically using visual acuity. In both clinical and basic research, straylight (the functional result of light scattering in the eye) is commonly measured. The purpose of the present study was to determine the link between these two measures: is visual acuity in cataract and other media opacities related to straylight? METHODS: Interdependence between acuity and straylight is addressed from three different points of view: (1) Methodological: can acuity differences affect the measurement value of straylight, and vice versa? (2) Basic optics: does the optical process of light scattering in the human eye affect both straylight and visual acuity? (3) Statistical: how strongly are acuity and straylight correlated in the practice of important clinical conditions? Experimental and theoretical aspects will be considered, with a focus on normal ageing and cataract formation...
March 8, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269486/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#17
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249306/mini-craniotomy-under-local-anesthesia-to-treat-acute-subdural-hematoma-in-deteriorating-elderly-patients
#18
Alessandro Di Rienzo, Maurizio Iacoangeli, Lorenzo Alvaro, Roberto Colasanti, Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma, Niccolo Nocchi, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati
Background and Study Aims Surgical treatment for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in elderly patients is still considered unsatisfactory. Series focusing on the use of conventional craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy in such patients report discouraging results. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission seems to be crucial in the decision-making process. Deteriorating patients with a GCS score between 9 and 11 are those who would benefit most from the surgical treatment. Unfortunately, elderly patients often present other comorbidities that greatly increase the risk of severe complications after major neurosurgical procedures under general anesthesia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#19
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245347/autologous-serum-eye-drops-for-dry-eye
#20
REVIEW
Qing Pan, Adla Angelina, Michael Marrone, Walter J Stark, Esen K Akpek
BACKGROUND: Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye...
February 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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