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Artificial vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055847/show-and-tell-lessons-learned-from-the-2015-mscoco-image-captioning-challenge
#1
Oriol Vinyals, Alexander Toshev, Samy Bengio, Dumitru Erhan
Automatically describing the content of an image is a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence that connects computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we present a generative model based on a deep recurrent architecture that combines recent advances in computer vision and machine translation and that can be used to generate natural sentences describing an image. The model is trained to maximize the likelihood of the target description sentence given the training image. Experiments on several datasets show the accuracy of the model and the fluency of the language it learns solely from image descriptions...
July 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050920/elderly-fall-risk-prediction-based-on-a-physiological-profile-approach-using-artificial-neural-networks
#2
Jafar Razmara, Mohammad Hassan Zaboli
Falls play a critical role in older people's life as it is an important source of morbidity and mortality in elders. In this article, elders fall risk is predicted based on a physiological profile approach using a multilayer neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm. The personal physiological profile of 200 elders was collected through a questionnaire and used as the experimental data for learning and testing the neural network. The profile contains a series of simple factors putting elders at risk for falls such as vision abilities, muscle forces, and some other daily activities and grouped into two sets: psychological factors and public factors...
November 1, 2016: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009399/multifocal-corneal-ablation-supracor-in-hyperopic-presbyopia-1-year-results-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Torsten Schlote, Alexander Heuberger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multifocal excimer laser corneal ablation profile (the Supracor procedure) in hyperopic presbyopia 1 year after laser treatment. METHODS: This prospective, consecutive, one-center, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with hyperopic presbyopia 1 year after treatment with the Supracor procedure. The main outcome measures were monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), photopic contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson charts), patient satisfaction, and functioning at 12 months...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989150/superlong-and-color-tunable-red-persistent-luminescence-and-photostimulated-luminescence-properties-of-naca2geo4f-mn-2-yb-3-phosphor
#4
Zhenbin Wang, Wenxiang Wang, Hui Zhou, Jiachi Zhang, Shanglong Peng, Zhengyan Zhao, Yuhua Wang
An excellent persistent luminescence (PersL) phosphor NaCa2GeO4F:Mn(2+),Yb(3+) has been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction. By controlling the occupation sites of Mn(2+) emitters, the PersL color of this phosphor can be optionally tuned in the red to green-yellow region, and the maximum spectral shift is more than 50 nm. Significantly, the red PersL can be measured for approximately 13 and 3 h (0.32 mcd/m(2)) and can be observed for more than 20 and 5 h with dark-adapted vision after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation and artificial sunlight, respectively...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984304/artificial-vision-principles-and-prospects
#5
Michael J Gilhooley, James Acheson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to give an overview of the strategies and technologies currently under development to return vision to blind patients and will answer the question: What options exist for artificial vision in patients blind from retinal disease; how close are these to clinical practice? RECENT FINDINGS: Retinal approaches will be the focus of this review as they are most advanced in terms not only of development, but entry into the imagination of the general public; they are technologies patients ask about, but may be less familiar to practicing neurologists...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983627/vision-based-corrosion-detection-assisted-by-a-micro-aerial-vehicle-in-a-vessel-inspection-application
#6
Alberto Ortiz, Francisco Bonnin-Pascual, Emilio Garcia-Fidalgo, Joan P Company-Corcoles
Vessel maintenance requires periodic visual inspection of the hull in order to detect typical defective situations of steel structures such as, among others, coating breakdown and corrosion. These inspections are typically performed by well-trained surveyors at great cost because of the need for providing access means (e.g., scaffolding and/or cherry pickers) that allow the inspector to be at arm's reach from the structure under inspection. This paper describes a defect detection approach comprising a micro-aerial vehicle which is used to collect images from the surfaces under inspection, particularly focusing on remote areas where the surveyor has no visual access, and a coating breakdown/corrosion detector based on a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network...
December 14, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942525/are-long-stimulus-pulse-durations-the-answer-to-improving-spatial-resolution-in-retinal-prostheses
#7
COMMENT
Matthew A Petoe, Mohit N Shivdasani
Retinal prostheses can provide artificial vision to patients with degenerate retinae by electrically stimulating the remaining inner retinal neurons. The evoked perception is generally adequate for light localization, but of limited spatial resolution owing to the indiscriminate activation of multiple retinal cell types, leading to distortions in the perceived image. Here we present a perspective on a recent work by Weitz and colleagues who demonstrate a focal confinement of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activation when using extended pulse durations in the stimulation waveform...
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941635/a-target-less-vision-based-displacement-sensor-based-on-image-convex-hull-optimization-for-measuring-the-dynamic-response-of-building-structures
#8
Insub Choi, JunHee Kim, Donghyun Kim
Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called "TVDS") is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point...
December 8, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928030/emerging-therapies-for-inherited-retinal-degeneration
#9
REVIEW
Hendrik P N Scholl, Rupert W Strauss, Mandeep S Singh, Deniz Dalkara, Botond Roska, Serge Picaud, José-Alain Sahel
Inherited retinal degenerative diseases, a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of disorders, affect the function of photoreceptor cells and are among the leading causes of blindness. Recent advances in molecular genetics and cell biology are elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders and are helping to identify new therapeutic approaches, such as gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and optogenetics. Several of these approaches have entered the clinical phase of development...
December 7, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922974/training-and-validating-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-computer-aided-detection-and-classification-of-abnormalities-on-frontal-chest-radiographs
#10
Mark Cicero, Alexander Bilbily, Errol Colak, Tim Dowdell, Bruce Gray, Kuhan Perampaladas, Joseph Barfett
OBJECTIVES: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a subtype of artificial neural network that have shown strong performance in computer vision tasks including image classification. To date, there has been limited application of CNNs to chest radiographs, the most frequently performed medical imaging study. We hypothesize CNNs can learn to classify frontal chest radiographs according to common findings from a sufficiently large data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our institution's research ethics board approved a single-center retrospective review of 35,038 adult posterior-anterior chest radiographs and final reports performed between 2005 and 2015 (56% men, average age of 56, patient type: 24% inpatient, 39% outpatient, 37% emergency department) with a waiver for informed consent...
December 5, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920494/presence-or-absence-of-ocular-surface-inflammation-directs-clinical-and-therapeutic-management-of-dry-eye
#11
Robert Sambursky
BACKGROUND: The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%-65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919674/neural-adaptation-to-peripheral-blur-in-myopes-and-emmetropes
#12
Atanu Ghosh, Len Zheleznyak, Antoine Barbot, HaeWon Jung, Geunyoung Yoon
In the presence of optical blur at the fovea, blur adaptation can improve visual acuity (VA) and perceived image quality over time. However, little is known regarding blur adaptation in the peripheral retina. Here, we examined neural adaptation to myopic defocus at the fovea and parafovea (10° temporal retina) in both emmetropes and myopes. During a 60-min adaptation period, subjects (3 emmetropes and 3 myopes) watched movies with +2 diopters of defocus blur through a 6-mm artificial pupil in two separate, counter-balanced sessions for each retinal location...
December 17, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919101/the-risk-of-pedestrian-collisions-with-peripheral-visual-field-loss
#13
Eli Peli, Henry Apfelbaum, Eliot L Berson, Robert B Goldstein
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds...
1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877107/training-deep-spiking-neural-networks-using-backpropagation
#14
Jun Haeng Lee, Tobi Delbruck, Michael Pfeiffer
Deep spiking neural networks (SNNs) hold the potential for improving the latency and energy efficiency of deep neural networks through data-driven event-based computation. However, training such networks is difficult due to the non-differentiable nature of spike events. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, which treats the membrane potentials of spiking neurons as differentiable signals, where discontinuities at spike times are considered as noise. This enables an error backpropagation mechanism for deep SNNs that follows the same principles as in conventional deep networks, but works directly on spike signals and membrane potentials...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874058/perceptual-learning-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-artificial-vision
#15
Nathaniel J Killian, Milena Vurro, Sarah B Keith, Margee J Kyada, John S Pezaris
Visual perceptual grouping, the process of forming global percepts from discrete elements, is experience-dependent. Here we show that the learning time course in an animal model of artificial vision is predicted primarily from the density of visual elements. Three naïve adult non-human primates were tasked with recognizing the letters of the Roman alphabet presented at variable size and visualized through patterns of discrete visual elements, specifically, simulated phosphenes mimicking a thalamic visual prosthesis...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849539/affine-covariant-features-for-fisheye-distortion-local-modelling
#16
Antonino Furnari, Giovanni Farinella, Arcangelo Bruna, Sebastiano Battiato
Perspective cameras are the most popular imaging sensors used in Computer Vision. However, many application fields including automotive, surveillance and robotics, require the use of wide angle cameras (e.g., fisheye), which allow to acquire a larger portion of the scene using a single device at the cost of the introduction of noticeable radial distortion in the images. Affine covariant feature detectors have proven successful in a variety of Computer Vision applications including object recognition, image registration and visual search...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845565/broiler-weight-estimation-based-on-machine-vision-and-artificial-neural-network
#17
S Amraei, S A Mehdizadeh, S Salari
1. Machine vision and artificial neural network were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836334/enhanced-neural-function-in-highly-aberrated-eyes-following-perceptual-learning-with-adaptive-optics
#18
Ramkumar Sabesan, Antoine Barbot, Geunyoung Yoon
Highly aberrated keratoconic (KC) eyes do not elicit the expected visual advantage from customized optical corrections. This is attributed to the neural insensitivity arising from chronic visual experience with poor retinal image quality, dominated by low spatial frequencies. The goal of this study was to investigate if targeted perceptual learning with adaptive optics (AO) can stimulate neural plasticity in these highly aberrated eyes. The worse eye of 2 KC subjects was trained in a contrast threshold test under AO correction...
November 25, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#19
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807219/cataract-refractive-surgery-innovative-technology-provides-more-choices-for-canadian-cataract-patients
#20
REVIEW
Richard Potvin
Historically, cataract surgery was aimed at removing the clouded lens of the eye and replacing it with an artificial lens; this provided clear vision to patients but without regard to their refractive error-their need for spectacles or contact lenses after surgery. Modern diagnostic and surgical instrumentation now makes it possible to address these refractive errors at the time of surgery, introducing a new paradigm-cataract refractive surgery. Although not medically necessary, many patients appreciate the chance to reduce or eliminate their need for spectacles after surgery, even if some personal cost is involved...
November 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
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