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Artificial vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920494/presence-or-absence-of-ocular-surface-inflammation-directs-clinical-and-therapeutic-management-of-dry-eye
#1
Robert Sambursky
BACKGROUND: The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%-65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919674/neural-adaptation-to-peripheral-blur-in-myopes-and-emmetropes
#2
Atanu Ghosh, Len Zheleznyak, Antoine Barbot, HaeWon Jung, Geunyoung Yoon
In the presence of optical blur at the fovea, blur adaptation can improve visual acuity (VA) and perceived image quality over time. However, little is known regarding blur adaptation in the peripheral retina. Here, we examined neural adaptation to myopic defocus at the fovea and parafovea (10° temporal retina) in both emmetropes and myopes. During the 60-min adaptation period, subjects (3 emmetropes and 3 myopes) watched movies with +2 diopters of defocus blur through a 6-mm artificial pupil in two separate, counter balanced sessions for each retinal location...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919101/the-risk-of-pedestrian-collisions-with-peripheral-visual-field-loss
#3
Eli Peli, Henry Apfelbaum, Eliot L Berson, Robert B Goldstein
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877107/training-deep-spiking-neural-networks-using-backpropagation
#4
Jun Haeng Lee, Tobi Delbruck, Michael Pfeiffer
Deep spiking neural networks (SNNs) hold the potential for improving the latency and energy efficiency of deep neural networks through data-driven event-based computation. However, training such networks is difficult due to the non-differentiable nature of spike events. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, which treats the membrane potentials of spiking neurons as differentiable signals, where discontinuities at spike times are considered as noise. This enables an error backpropagation mechanism for deep SNNs that follows the same principles as in conventional deep networks, but works directly on spike signals and membrane potentials...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874058/perceptual-learning-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-artificial-vision
#5
Nathaniel J Killian, Milena Vurro, Sarah B Keith, Margee J Kyada, John S Pezaris
Visual perceptual grouping, the process of forming global percepts from discrete elements, is experience-dependent. Here we show that the learning time course in an animal model of artificial vision is predicted primarily from the density of visual elements. Three naïve adult non-human primates were tasked with recognizing the letters of the Roman alphabet presented at variable size and visualized through patterns of discrete visual elements, specifically, simulated phosphenes mimicking a thalamic visual prosthesis...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849539/affine-covariant-features-for-fisheye-distortion-local-modelling
#6
Antonino Furnari, Giovanni Farinella, Arcangelo Bruna, Sebastiano Battiato
Perspective cameras are the most popular imaging sensors used in Computer Vision. However, many application fields including automotive, surveillance and robotics, require the use of wide angle cameras (e.g., fisheye), which allow to acquire a larger portion of the scene using a single device at the cost of the introduction of noticeable radial distortion in the images. Affine covariant feature detectors have proven successful in a variety of Computer Vision applications including object recognition, image registration and visual search...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845565/broiler-weight-estimation-based-on-machine-vision-and-artificial-neural-network
#7
S Amraei, S A Mehdizadeh, S Salari
1. Machine vision and artificial neural network were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836334/neural-adaptation-to-peripheral-blur-in-myopes-and-emmetropes
#8
Atanu Ghosh, Len Zheleznyak, Antoine Barbot, HaeWon Jung, Geunyoung Yoon
In the presence of optical blur at the fovea, blur adaptation can improve visual acuity (VA) and perceived image quality over time. However, little is known regarding blur adaptation in the peripheral retina. Here, we examined neural adaptation to myopic defocus at the fovea and parafovea (10° temporal retina) in both emmetropes and myopes. During the 60-min adaptation period, subjects (3 emmetropes and 3 myopes) watched movies with +2 diopters of defocus blur through a 6-mm artificial pupil in two separate, counter balanced sessions for each retinal location...
November 8, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#9
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807219/cataract-refractive-surgery-innovative-technology-provides-more-choices-for-canadian-cataract-patients
#10
REVIEW
Richard Potvin
Historically, cataract surgery was aimed at removing the clouded lens of the eye and replacing it with an artificial lens; this provided clear vision to patients but without regard to their refractive error-their need for spectacles or contact lenses after surgery. Modern diagnostic and surgical instrumentation now makes it possible to address these refractive errors at the time of surgery, introducing a new paradigm-cataract refractive surgery. Although not medically necessary, many patients appreciate the chance to reduce or eliminate their need for spectacles after surgery, even if some personal cost is involved...
November 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751886/photoreceptor-spectral-sensitivity-of-the-compound-eyes-of-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-informing-the-design-of-led-based-illumination-to-enhance-indoor-reproduction
#11
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731346/head-mounted-dmd-based-projection-system-for-natural-and-prosthetic-visual-stimulation-in-freely-moving-rats
#12
Tamar Arens-Arad, Nairouz Farah, Shai Ben-Yaish, Alex Zlotnik, Zeev Zalevsky, Yossi Mandel
Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal's retina...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722048/human-motion-segmentation-and-recognition-using-machine-vision-for-mechanical-assembly-operation
#13
Qiannan Jiang, Mingzhou Liu, Xiaoqiao Wang, Maogen Ge, Ling Lin
The observation, decomposition and record of motion are usually accomplished through artificial means during the process of motion analysis. This method not only has a heavy workload, its efficiency is also very low. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel method to segment and recognize continuous human motion automatically based on machine vision for mechanical assembly operation. First, the content-based dynamic key frame extraction technology was utilized to extract key frames from video stream, and then automatic segmentation of action was implemented...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718230/computer-vision-based-method-for-classification-of-wheat-grains-using-artificial-neural-network
#14
Kadir Sabanci, Ahmet Kayabasi, Abdurrahim Toktas
BACKGROUND: A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708481/avoidance-of-an-aposematically-coloured-butterfly-by-wild-birds-in-a-tropical-forest
#15
Denise D Dell'aglio, Martin Stevens, Chris D Jiggins
1. Birds are considered to be the primary selective agents for warning colouration in butterflies, and select for aposematic mimicry by learning to avoid brightly coloured prey after unpleasant experiences. It has long been thought that bright colouration plays an important role in promoting the avoidance of distasteful prey by birds. 2. The hypothesis that warning colouration facilitates memorability and promotes predator avoidance was tested by means of a field experiment using distasteful model butterflies...
October 2016: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668496/five-year-prose-treatment-for-aniridic-keratopathy
#16
Takashi Kojima, Asato Hasegawa, Tomoaki Nakamura, Naoki Isogai, Takahiro Kataoka, Kazuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: Aniridic keratopathy is vision-threatening condition in patients with aniridia. The keratopathy occurs due to limbal stem cell deficiency. When conventional treatments fail, surgical treatments such as corneal limbal transplantation or cultivated oral mucosal epithelium transplantation are the alternatives. Here, we report our experience with the management and monitoring of the progress of a case with aniridic keratopathy treated with a scleral lens. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman with aniridic keratopathy in both eyes...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640345/assimilation-of-virtual-legs-and-perception-of-floor-texture-by-complete-paraplegic-patients-receiving-artificial-tactile-feedback
#17
Solaiman Shokur, Simone Gallo, Renan C Moioli, Ana Rita C Donati, Edgard Morya, Hannes Bleuler, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619326/maze-learning-by-a-hybrid-brain-computer-system
#18
Zhaohui Wu, Nenggan Zheng, Shaowu Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Liqiang Gao, Lijuan Su
The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609339/accommodation-of-the-human-lens-capsule-using-a-finite-element-model-based-on-nonlinear-regionally-anisotropic-biomembranes
#19
G David, R M Pedrigi, J D Humphrey
Accommodation of the eyes, the mechanism that allows humans to focus their vision on near objects, naturally diminishes with age via presbyopia. People who have undergone cataract surgery, using current surgical methods and artificial lens implants, are also left without the ability to accommodate. The process of accommodation is generally well known; however the specific mechanical details have not been adequately explained due to difficulties and consequences of performing in vivo studies. Most studies have modeled the mechanics of accommodation under assumptions of a linearly elastic, isotropic, homogenous lens and lens capsule...
September 9, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608458/a-robust-approach-for-the-background-subtraction-based-on-multi-layered-self-organizing-maps
#20
Giorgio Gemignani, Alessandro Rozza
Motion detection in video streams is a challenging task for several computer vision applications. Indeed, segmentation of moving and static elements in the scene allows to increase the efficiency of several challenging tasks, such as human-computer interface, robot visions, and intelligent surveillance systems. In this paper, we approach motion detection through a multi-layered artificial neural network, which is able to build for each background pixel a multi-modal color distribution evolving over time through self-organization...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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