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Homero Martinez, Aliki P Weakland, Lynn B Bailey, Lorenzo D Botto, Luz Maria De-Regil, Kenneth H Brown
As infectious disease control programs achieve increasing success, further reductions in child mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will require focused prevention strategies for birth defects and other noninfectious diseases. Neural tube defects (NTDs) can cause early death or lifelong disability. Preventing NTDs provides a feasible, significant opportunity to decrease the toll of birth defects and contribute to further reducing child mortality globally. The Micronutrient Forum convened a technical consultation on Folate Status in Women and Neural Tube Defects Prevention to develop a roadmap to inform and prioritize investments in NTD prevention in LMICs; help guide implementation efforts in terms of the feasibility of interventions and the potential for acceleration; and identify research and knowledge gaps...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Cole S Bailey, Luke T Wooster, Mary Buswell, Sarvagna Patel, Paul P Pappagianopoulos, Kristian Bakken, Casey White, Melissa Tanguay, Jasmine B Blodgett, Aaron L Baggish, Rajeev Malhotra, Gregory D Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the functional and prognostic significance of oxygen uptake (VO2 ) kinetics following peak exercise in individuals with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent patterns of VO2 recovery following exercise reflect circulatory response during exercise in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We investigated patients (30 HFpEF, 20 HFrEF, and 22 control subjects) who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and a second distinct HF cohort (n = 106) who underwent noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing with assessment of long-term outcomes...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Jordana L Burdon Bailey, Luke Gamble, Andrew D Gibson, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Richard J Mellanby, Stella Mazeri
Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
E A Petzel, A J Smart, B St-Pierre, S L Selman, E A Bailey, E E Beck, J A Walker, C L Wright, J E Held, D W Brake
Six ruminally cannulated cows (570 ± 73 kg) fed corn residues were placed in a 6 × 6 Latin square to evaluate predictions of diet composition from ruminally collected diet samples. After complete ruminal evacuation, cows were fed 1-kg meals (DM-basis) containing different combinations of cornstalk and leaf and husk (LH) residues in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0. Diet samples from each meal were collected by removal of ruminal contents after 1-h and were either unrinsed, hand-rinsed or machine-rinsed to evaluate effects of endogenous compounds on predictions of diet composition...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jiao Wang, Jingjing Song, Shuimei Zhou, Yourong Fu, Jeffrey A Bailey, Changxin Shen
BACKGROUND: Identification of RhD antigen epitopes is a key component in understanding the pathogenesis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Research has indicated that phage display libraries are useful tools for identifying novel mimic epitopes (mimotopes) which may help to determine antigen specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected the mimotopes of blood group RhD antigen by affinity panning a phage display library using monoclonal anti-D. After three rounds of biopanning, positive phage clones were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then sent for sequencing and peptides synthesis...
January 16, 2018: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Paul T Morgan, Stephen J Bailey, Jonathan Fulford, Anni Vanhatalo
Purpose: To investigate the influence of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on muscle carnosine content, muscle pH and the power-duration relationship (i.e., critical power and W'). Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 recreationally-active males (22 ± 3 y, V°O2peak 3.73 ± 0.44 L·min-1 ) ingested either BA (6.4 g/d for 28 d) or placebo (PL) (6.4 g/d) for 28 d. Subjects completed an incremental test and two 3-min all-out tests separated by 1-min on a cycle ergometer pre- and post-supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hao D Cheng, Sebastian K Grimm, Morgan Sa Gilman, Luc Christian Gwom, Devin Sok, Christopher Sundling, Gina Donofrio, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F Haynes, Timothy P Lahey, Isaac Maro, C Fordham von Reyn, Miroslaw K Gorny, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Bruce D Walker, Galit Alter, Dennis R Burton, Merlin L Robb, Shelly J Krebs, Michael S Seaman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Margaret E Ackerman
Major advances in donor identification, antigen probe design, and experimental methods to clone pathogen-specific antibodies have led to an exponential growth in the number of newly characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Characterization of these bnAbs has defined new epitopes and novel modes of recognition that can result in potent neutralization of HIV-1. However, the translation of envelope recognition profiles in biophysical assays into an understanding of in vivo activity has lagged behind, and identification of subjects and mAbs with potent antiviral activity has remained reliant on empirical evaluation of neutralization potency and breadth...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Steven W Bailey, June E Ayling
Despite efforts to increase folic acid (FA) intake, even within countries mandating FA fortification, there remain pregnant women with folate levels inadequate to minimize congenital disorders (e.g., of the neural tube, heart, and lip/palate). The pharmacokinetics of FA and [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) were examined to find a reliable and minimal dose for rapidly rescuing folate status prior to critical periods of embryonic development. Serum total folate increased much more rapidly over the first four days in insufficient women given 7...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew S MacDougall, Eric Harvey, Jenny L McCune, Karin A Nilsson, Joseph Bennett, Jennifer Firn, Timothy Bartley, James B Grace, Jocelyn Kelly, Tyler D Tunney, Bailey McMeans, Shin-Ichiro S Matsuzaki, Taku Kadoya, Ellen Esch, Kevin Cazelles, Nigel Lester, Kevin S McCann
Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11o latitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Whitney E Zahnd, Wiley D Jenkins, Judy Shackelford, Rebecca Lobb, Jo Sanders, Angela Bailey
Rural populations often face higher cancer rates and have lower cancer screening rates than urban populations. Screening disparities may be mediated by limited access to care, less knowledge of screening, and psychosocial factors. While the improved insurance rates and more comprehensive coverage under the Affordable Care Act may address some of these barriers, rural-urban disparities in cancer screening may not be fully attenuated. Faith-based interventions have been an effective approach to improving cancer screening among rural and underserved populations...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Yahya Shehabi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Suhaini Kadiman, Lian Kah Ti, Belinda Howe, Michael C Reade, Tien Meng Khoo, Anita Alias, Yu-Lin Wong, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Colin McArthur, Ian Seppelt, Steven A Webb, Maja Green, Michael J Bailey
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of a universal definition of light or deep sedation, the level of sedation that conveys favorable outcomes is unknown. We quantified the relationship between escalating intensity of sedation in the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation and 180-day survival, time to extubation, and delirium. DESIGN: Harmonized data from prospective multicenter international longitudinal cohort studies SETTING:: Diverse mix of ICUs. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients expected to be ventilated for longer than 24 hours...
March 1, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Satya Surbhi, Ilana Graetz, Jim Y Wan, Justin Gatwood, James E Bailey
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to essential chronic medications has been identified as a potential driver of high health care costs in superutilizers of inpatient services. Few studies, however, have documented the levels of nonadherence and factors associated with nonadherence in this high-cost, vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with nonadherence to essential chronic medications, with special emphasis on mental illness and use of opioid medications...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
A R Last, H Pickering, C H Roberts, F Coll, J Phelan, S E Burr, E Cassama, M Nabicassa, H M B Seth-Smith, J Hadfield, L T Cutcliffe, I N Clarke, D C W Mabey, R L Bailey, T G Clark, N R Thomson, M J Holland
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common infectious cause of blindness and bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Ct strain-specific differences in clinical trachoma suggest that genetic polymorphisms in Ct may contribute to the observed variability in severity of clinical disease. METHODS: Using Ct whole genome sequences obtained directly from conjunctival swabs, we studied Ct genomic diversity and associations between Ct genetic polymorphisms with ocular localization and disease severity in a treatment-naïve trachoma-endemic population in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa...
February 26, 2018: Genome Medicine
Emily S Bailey, Lisa M Casanova, Otto D Simmons, Mark D Sobsey
Treated wastewater is increasingly of interest for either nonpotable purposes, such as agriculture and industrial use, or as source water for drinking water supplies; however, this type of advanced treatment for water supply is not always possible for many low resource settings. As an alternative, multiple barriers of physical, chemical and biological treatment with lower cost and simpler operation and maintenance have been proposed as more globally applicable. One such water reclamation system for both non-potable and potable reuse, is that approved by the State of North Carolina "for Type 2" reclaimed water (NCT2RW)...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A Benjamin Srivastava, Alex T Ramsey, Leslie D McIntosh, Thomas C Bailey, Sherri L Fisher, Louis Fox, Mario Castro, Yinjiao Ma, Timothy B Baker, Li-Shiun Chen, Laura J Bierut
Introduction: Effective smoking cessation medications are readily available but may be underutilized in hospital settings. In our large, tertiary care hospital, we aimed to: 1) characterize patient tobacco use prevalence across medical specialties, 2) determine smoking cessation pharmacotherapy prescription variation across specialties, and 3) identify opportunities for improvement in practice. Methods: Using electronic health records at Barnes Jewish Hospital (BJH), we gathered demographic data, admitting service, admission route, length of stay, self-reported tobacco use, and smoking cessation prescriptions over a 6-year period, from 2010 to 2016...
February 22, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jill D Nault Connors, Bonnie L Binkley, J Carolyn Graff, Satya Surbhi, James E Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Healthcare
Ari L Mendell, Beryl Y T Chung, Carolyn E Creighton, Bettina E Kalisch, Craig D C Bailey, Neil J MacLusky
Gonadal steroid hormones exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on the brain. Recent work suggests potential neuroprotective roles for the 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced metabolites of these hormones. Two such metabolites are 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone; Allo), which may contribute to the overall protection conferred by their precursors (testosterone and progesterone, respectively) through mechanisms including potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor (GABAA R) activity...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research
Sharna D Jamadar, Francesco Sforazzini, Parnesh Raniga, Nicholas J Ferris, Bryan Paton, Michael J Bailey, Amy Brodtmann, Paul A Yates, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephanie A Ward, Robyn L Woods, Elsdon Storey, John J McNeil, Gary F Egan
Objectives: The onset of many illnesses is confounded with age and sex. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of many illnesses, and sexual dimorphism influences brain anatomy, function, and cognition. Here, we examine frequency-specific connectivity in resting-state networks in a large sample (n = 406) of healthy aged adults. Method: We quantify frequency-specific connectivity in three resting-state networks known to be implicated in age-related decline: the default mode, dorsal attention, and salience networks, using multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Regan L Bailey, Howard D Sesso, Cornelia M Ulrich
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Ayeswarya Ravikumar, Julia S Benoit, Kelsie B Morrison, Jason D Marsack, Heather A Anderson
PURPOSE: Individuals with Down syndrome may experience greater difficulty reliably performing visual acuity (VA) tests because of intellectual disability and limitations in visual quality. This study evaluated the repeatability of acuity (Bailey-Lovie [BL] and HOTV) in subjects with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: High-contrast VA was measured in both eyes of 30 subjects with Down syndrome (mean, 30 years; range, 18 to 50 years) and 24 control subjects without Down syndrome (mean, 29 years; range, 18 to 50 years)...
February 15, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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