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A Supe
The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Takashi Shogimen
Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Matthias Bluemke, Jonathan Jong, Dennis Grevenstein, Igor Mikloušić, Jamin Halberstadt
Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts...
2016: PloS One
Ana Luiza Flores Saenger, Celia Pereira Caldas, Luciana Branco Motta
Screening with a simplified instrument is effective for identifying elderly at risk of functional decline, for more comprehensive subsequent evaluation. However, use of a measurement tool in a different sociocultural context from the original requires prior adaptation. The current article aims to describe the initial stages of a cross-cultural adaptation of PRISMA-7, a questionnaire developed to identify community-dwelling elderly at risk of functional decline. Evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences showed pertinence to the Brazilian context...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Stephen Shannon, Gavin Breslin, Ben Fitzpatrick, Donncha Hanna, Deirdre Brennan
BACKGROUND: Kidscreen-27 was developed as part of a cross-cultural European Union-funded project to standardise the measurement of children's health-related quality of life. Yet, research has reported mixed evidence for the hypothesised 5-factor model, and no confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been conducted on the instrument with children of low socio-economic status (SES) across Ireland (Northern and Republic). METHOD: The data for this study were collected as part of a clustered randomised controlled trial...
October 18, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Xiaodong Yue, Feng Jiang, Su Lu, Neelam Hiranandani
Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
W Wang, L Liu, X Chang, Z Y Jia, J Z Zhao, W D Xu
BACKGROUND: The Lysholm Knee Score (LKS) is widely used and is one of the most effective questionnaires employed to assess knee injuries. Although LKS has been translated into multiple languages, there is no Chinese version even though China has the largest population of patients with knee-joint injuries. The objective of our study was to develop the Chinese version of LKS (C-LKS) and assess its reliability, validity and responsiveness in Chinese patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries...
October 19, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
A M Acosta, M A D S Lima, G Q Marques, P F Levandovski, L A F Weber
AIM: To translate, adapt and evaluate psychometric properties of the complete (15 items) and reduced (three items) versions of the Care Transitions Measure into Brazilian Portuguese. INTRODUCTION: The Care Transitions Measure assesses the quality of care transitions, from the perspective of patients. As accomplishing effective transitions is a challenge to healthcare systems, the instrument provides an opportunity to assess care transitions and improve quality initiatives...
October 18, 2016: International Nursing Review
U Kiltz, D van der Heijde, A Boonen, W Bautista-Molano, R Burgos-Vargas, P Chiowchanwisawakit, T Duruoz, B El-Zorkany, I Essers, I Gaydukova, P Géher, L Gossec, S Grazio, J Gu, M A Khan, T J Kim, W P Maksymowych, H Marzo-Ortega, V Navarro-Compán, I Olivieri, D Patrikos, F M Pimentel-Santos, M Schirmer, F van den Bosch, U Weber, J Zochling, J Braun
INTRODUCTION: The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward-backward procedure...
2016: RMD Open
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Alex Cohen, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz
The main goal of the present study was to test the measurement equivalence of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) scores in a large sample of Spanish and American non-clinical young adults. The sample was made up of 5,625 young adults (M = 19.65 years; SD = 2.53; 38.5% males). Study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealed that SPQ-BR items were grouped in a theoretical internal structure of nine first-order factors. Moreover, three or four second-order factor and bifactor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Wilfred F Peter, Henrika Cw de Vet, Maarten Boers, Jaap Harlaar, Leo D Roorda, Rudolf W Poolman, Vanessa Ab Scholtes, Martijn Steultjens, Gordon J Hendry, Ewa M Roos, Francis Guillemin, Maria G Benedetti, Lorenzo Cavazzuti, Antonio Escobar, Hanne Dagfinrud, Caroline B Terwee
OBJECTIVE: The Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) assesses activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (HKOA), and consisting video animations of which patients choose the animation that best matches their own performance. The AAQ has shown good validity and reliability. This study aims to evaluate cross-cultural and construct validity of the AAQ. Methods Cross-cultural validity was assessed using ordinal logistic regression analysis to evaluate Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across 7 languages...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Mark D Griffiths, Robert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics, Mia B Lichtenstein, Ricardo de la Vega, Bernadette Kun, Roberto Ruiz-Barquín, Jason Youngman, Attila Szabo
Research into the detrimental effects of excessive exercise has been conceptualized in a number of similar ways, including 'exercise addiction', 'exercise dependence', 'obligatory exercising', 'exercise abuse', and 'compulsive exercise'. Among the most currently used (and psychometrically valid and reliable) instruments is the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). The present study aimed to further explore the psychometric properties of the EAI by combining the datasets of a number of surveys carried out in five different countries (Denmark, Hungary, Spain, UK, and US) that have used the EAI with a total sample size of 6,031 participants...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Rita Cardoso, Isabel Guimarães, Helena Santos, Rita Loureiro, Josefa Domingos, Daisy de Abreu, Nilza Gonçalves, Serge Pinto, Joaquim Ferreira
Hypokinetic dysarthria is a common symptom in those with Parkinson's disease (PD); there is currently no standardized or validated tool for assessing speech in this population. To translate into European Portuguese (EP) the FDA-2 and perform a cultural adaptation followed by an evaluation of its psychometric properties in PD in a sample of people with PD in different stages of disease progression. Translation, back-translation, experts' analysis, pre-test and final version test were performed. The EP version of the FDA-2 was administered to 80 people with PD (PwP) with dysarthria, feasibility and acceptability, reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater reliability) and validity (face and convergent) were measured...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Toru Akiyama, Kosuke Uehara, Koichi Ogura, Yusuke Shinoda, Shintaro Iwata, Kazuo Saita, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Fumihiko Nakatani, Tsukasa Yonemoto, Hirotaka Kawano, Aileen M Davis, Akira Kawai
BACKGROUND: The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is a widely used disease-specific patient-completed questionnaire for the assessment of physical function in patients with musculoskeletal tumors; however, there had not been the validated Japanese version of the TESS. The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the TESS in patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremity. METHODS: After developing a Japanese version of the TESS, the questionnaire was administered to 53 patients to examine its reliability and validity in comparison with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Short Form-36 (SF-36)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Sheng-Shiung Huang, Hao-Jan Yang
In this study we examine whether there is healthy immigrant effect among women immigrated to Taiwan through transnational marriage. A sample of immigrant women (N = 246) with original nativity of Southeast Asian countries and Taiwanese-born women sample (N = 201) was recruited from December 2008 to December 2009. Their depressive symptoms, acculturative stresses and family functioning were assessed by a series of questionnaires. Immigrant women had lower depressive scores than their native-born counterparts when other potential confounders were controlled for in the multiple regression model...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Steve Kisely, Karolina Katarzyna Alichniewicz, Emma B Black, Dan Siskind, Geoffrey Spurling, Maree Toombs
Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Johis Ortega, Emma McKim Mitchell, Nilda Peragallo
Most articles on nursing student study abroad experiences are one-sided case studies focusing on students and faculty from developed countries who travel to less developed countries. This article presents the perspectives of students from theUnited States, Chile, Mexico, and Taiwan, both sides of the international exchange experience. Students described the real-world, hands-on experience of immersion in a different health system and professional culture as transformational and having a significant impact on their nursing career goals...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jing Xu, Tunong Chen, Aiping Sui
The contemporary knowledge of the construct and operationalization of psychopathy in East Asian countries is still limited. The present paper examines the validity and applicability of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) based on the triarchic model of psychopathy in Chinese clinical and nonclinical samples. The results of Study 1 using a psychiatric patient sample (N = 193) showed that the pattern of associations between the TriPM scales (Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition) and the 3 factors (Egocentricity, Callous, and Antisocial) of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were similar to previous studies using English-speaking samples...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Yongfu Zhang, Yuan Yang, Wing Yt Lau, Samradhvi Garg, Jianxin Lao
AIM: This study aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge available on the effectiveness of pre-operative clown intervention on psychological distress in children and parents. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Systematic review procedures were followed including a quality assessment. Meta-analysis of suitable studies was conducted. RESULTS: Eight studies were included; six reported that clown intervention reduced children's pre-operative anxiety, while one found that children's pre-operative distress levels were unchanged...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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