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Human sexuality

Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Valeria Messina, Mauro Valtieri, Mercedes Rubio, Mario Falchi, Francesca Mancini, Alfredo Mayor, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum , responsible for the transmission of this malaria parasite from humans to mosquitoes, accumulate and mature preferentially in the human bone marrow. In the 10 day long sexual development of P. falciparum , the immature gametocytes reach and localize in the extravascular compartment of this organ, in contact with several bone marrow stroma cell types, prior to traversing the endothelial lining and re-entering in circulation at maturity. To investigate the host parasite interplay underlying this still obscure process, we developed an in vitro tridimensional co-culture system in a Matrigel scaffold with P...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Ersheng Gao, Qiguo Lian, Iqbal H Shah
BACKGROUND: Non-consensual sex (NCS) among young people, an important subject with public health and human rights implications, was less studied in China. This study is to investigate the NCS awareness and victimization of university students in Shanghai, China and whether they were associated with adolescent gender-role attitudes. METHODS: Gender-role attitudes, awareness and victimization of different forms of NCS were examined among 1099 undergraduates (430 males and 669 females) in four universities in Shanghai using computer-assisted self-interview approach...
March 15, 2018: Reproductive Health
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Amy Y Carney
Public Health Nurses are the largest group of public health practitioners in both local and state health departments across the United States. Essential for the delivery of health services in the community, Public Health Nurses frequently provide care for underserved and vulnerable populations. Among these populations are the victims of campus sexual assault, a growing problem on college and university campuses. Both nationally and internationally, sexual assault has been described as a public health and human rights concern...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Natane Barbosa Barcelos, Lorena de Freitas E Silva, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães Dias, Hélio Ranes de Menezes Filho, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues
Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Marie-Laure Amram, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Florence Rochon, Mylène Bolmont, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Cancer itself and its treatments can result in physical and/or psychological adverse events which include disorders of sexual health. Both clinicians and patients are reluctant to talk about sexual issues, body image or intimacy between partners. Barriers from the clinician's perspective include feeling inadequately trained, lack of time or privacy. On the patients' side, embarrassment or belief that their sexual health are an untreatable complication of their disease and its treatment are the main barriers...
March 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Q Zhong, K Li, D Chen, H Wang, Q Lin, W Liu
Objective Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a common, viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping has important clinical implications for the treatment of CA. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of HPV. Methods We collected 294 cervical scrape samples, including 30 HPV-6-positive, 30 HPV-11-positive, 22 HPV-16-positive, 20 HPV-42-positve, 30 HPV-43-positive, 20 HPV-44-positive and 142 HPV-negative samples. Tissues from 40 patients with a pathological diagnosis of CA were paraffin-embedded and analyzed by LAMP and Luminex...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Clarence S Yah, Geoffrey S Simate, Percy Hlangothi, Benesh M Somai
Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Cynthia Kanagaratham, Victoria Chiwara, Bianca Ho, Sanny Moussette, Mina Youssef, David Venuto, Lucie Jeannotte, Guillaume Bourque, Juan Bautista de Sanctis, Danuta Radzioch, Anna K Naumova
The human chromosomal region 17q12-q21 is one of the best replicated genome-wide association study loci for childhood asthma. The associated SNPs span a large genomic interval that includes several protein-coding genes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) gene residing in this region contributes to asthma pathogenesis using a mouse model. We tested the lung phenotypes of knock-out (KO) mice that carry a deletion of the Zpbp2 gene. The deletion attenuated airway hypersensitivity (AHR) in female, but not male, mice in the absence of allergic sensitization...
March 13, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Steven Arnocky
Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Takumi Oti, Keiko Takanami, Saya Ito, Takashi Ueda, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Jintetsu Soh, Osamu Ukimura, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we have generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line, and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence...
March 8, 2018: Endocrinology
Mimi Ghosh, Mariel Jais, Roshni Biswas, Jason Jarin, Jason Daniels, Christopher Joy, Monika Juzumaite, Vanessa Emmanuel, Veronica Gomez-Lobo
PROBLEM: Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. METHODS: Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Miranda Håkansson, Monica Oguttu, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Marlene Makenzius
Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya. Methods: A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Carolina Mondillo, María Luisa Varela, Adriana María Belén Abiuso, Ramiro Vázquez
Histamine (HA) is a pleiotropic biogenic amine synthesized exclusively by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in most mammalian tissues. The literature on the role of HA within the male gonad has expanded over the last years, attracting attention to potential unexpected side-effects of anti-histamines on testicular function. In this regard, HA receptors (HRH1, HRH2 and HRH4) have been described in Leydig cells of different species, including human. Via these receptors, HA has been reported to trigger positive or negative interactions with the LH/hCG signaling pathway depending upon its concentration, thereby contributing to the local control of testicular androgen levels...
March 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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