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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811580/%C3%AE-eta-2-glycoprotein-i-protects-mice-against-gram-negative-septicaemia-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-manner
#1
Fatima El-Assaad, Miao Qi, Alice Kizny Gordon, Jian Qi, Shangwen Dong, Freda Passam, James Crofton Weaver, Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven Anthony Krilis
The immune responses of males and females to bacterial infections display differences. The mechanisms that underlie this sexual dimorphism are multifactorial. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the pathogenesis of endotoxaemia. We have previously demonstrated that the plasma protein beta-2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GPI) reduces LPS-induced inflammation in male mice. In the present study using a more robust infection model of septicaemia the role of β2GPI is examined in both male and female wild type (WT) and β2GPI deficient (β2GPI(-/-)) mice challenged with Escherichia coli (E...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811502/sex-steroid-hormones-regulate-leptin-transcript-accumulation-and-protein-secretion-in-3t3-l1-cells
#2
Mónica Z Jenks, Heather E Fairfield, Erik C Johnson, Ron F Morrison, Gloria K Muday
Leptin is an adipokine produced by fat cells that regulates food consumption and metabolic activity. Sexual dimorphism in leptin and fat stores have been observed in humans and rodents with females having more leptin and greater levels of subcutaneous fat than males. One potential mechanism leading to this dimorphism is steroid hormone regulated synthesis of transcripts encoding leptin. Identification of direct regulatory mechanisms is difficult in animals or primary adipocytes due to these intertwined dimorphisms...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810709/parallel-evolution-of-sperm-hyper-activation-ca2-channels
#3
Jacob C Cooper, Nitin Phadnis
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809774/high-prevalence-of-concurrent-male-male-partnerships-in-the-context-of-low-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-bamako-mali
#4
Avi Hakim, Padmaja Patnaik, Nouhoum Telly, Tako Ballo, Bouyagui Traore, Seydou Doumbia, Maria Lahuerta
BACKGROUND: Concurrent male-male sexual partnerships have been understudied in sub-Saharan Africa and are especially important because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and acquisition probability are higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men and women. METHODS: We conducted a respondent-driven sampling survey of 552 men who have sex with men in Bamako, Mali from October 2014 to February 2015. Eligibility criteria included 18 years or older, history of oral or anal sex with another man in the last 6 months, residence in or around Bamako in the last 6 months, ability to communicate in French...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#5
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809771/efficacy-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-sexually-transmitted-infection-trial-on-condom-use-among-heterosexual-men-patronizing-entertainment-establishments-who-engaged-in-casual-or-paid-sex-in-singapore
#6
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Bee Choo Tai, P Ganesan Adaikan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: We assessed the efficacy of a multi-component sexual health promotion program on condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among heterosexual men (HSM) patronizing entertainment establishments who engaged in casual or paid sex in Singapore. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental trial with a comparison group using cross-sectional surveys at baseline and 6 months postintervention. A locality patronized by local HSM was assigned the intervention, a comparable and distant area served as the comparison site...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809770/uptake-of-home-based-syphilis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-among-male-partners-of-pregnant-women-in-western-kenya
#7
Jennifer Mark, John Kinuthia, Alison C Roxby, Daisy Krakowiak, Alfred Osoti, Barbra A Richardson, Molly Ann Gone, Victor Asila, Saloni Parikh, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Few men are tested for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their partner's pregnancy, a high-risk period for HIV and syphilis transmission. Offering home-based rapid testing of syphilis to couples during pregnancy can support prevention efforts to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We assessed men's uptake of paired (separate tests, single blood draw) point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests within a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women who received clinic or home partner HIV testing...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809479/natural-seminal-amyloids-as-targets-for-development-of-synthetic-inhibitors-of-hiv-transmission
#8
Daniel A Sheik, Stephen Dewhurst, Jerry Yang
Amyloids refer to a class of protein or peptide aggregates that are heterogeneous in size, morphology, and composition, and are implicated to play a central role in many neurodegenerative and systemic diseases. The strong correlation between biological activity and extent of aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins and peptides has led to an explosion of research efforts to target these materials with synthetic molecules or engineered antibodies to try to attenuate their function in disease pathology. Although many of these efforts to attenuate amyloid function have shown great promise in laboratory settings, the vast majority of work has been focused on targeting amyloids associated with neurologic diseases, which has been met with significant additional challenges that preclude clinical evaluation...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806741/risk-of-cancer-in-patients-with-genital-warts-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#9
Ching-Yi Cho, Yu-Cheng Lo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Chou-Cheng Lai, Chun-Jen Chen, Keh-Gong Wu
BACKGROUND: Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806354/trends-in-adult-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-prevalence-incidence-and-urethral-discharge-case-reporting-in-morocco-over-1995-2015-estimates-using-the-spectrum-sexually-transmitted-infection-model
#10
Amina El-Kettani, Guy Mahiané, Aziza Bennani, Laith Abu-Raddad, Alex Smolak, Jane Rowley, Nico Nagelkerke, Houssine El-Rhilani, Kamal Alami, Amina Hançali, Eline Korenromp
BACKGROUND: Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. METHODS: The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15- to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806269/affective-disorders-and-sexual-function-from-neuroscience-to-clinic
#11
Bernardo C de Abreu Barata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent issue in patients with affective disorders, affecting its quality of life and posing challenges to the approach of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, human sexuality has attracted interest from the scientific community, and today we have a much deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the sexual response. Paraphilias or sexual dysfunctions like low sexual desire, premature ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction, are frequent in affective disorders, and the frequency of each sexual problem varies according to the affective disorder...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805419/creating-space-for-relationships
#12
Susan L Maataoui, Jodi S Hardwick, Tessa S Lundquist
Sexuality is a key component of personality and behavior, encompassing basic human needs for touch, intimacy, love, affection, and sexual behavior. The design of long-term care facilities makes it almost impossible for a resident to be sexually intimate, to share romantic moments, or to have a meal in a private setting. This case study describes the rationale and process used to establish a private guestroom called the Family Room at Patriots Place, the specialized dementia unit in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Maine Healthcare System Community Living Center (CLC)...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803118/complex-interactions-between-the-subject-factors-of-biological-sex-and-prior-histories-of-binge-drinking-and-unpredictable-stress-influence-behavioral-sensitivity-to-alcohol-and-alcohol-intake
#13
Sema G Quadir, Eugenie Guzelian, Mason A Palmer, Douglas L Martin, Jennifer Kim, Karen K Szumlinski
Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking...
August 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802692/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-rna-seq-expression-analysis-in-blood-from-beluga-whales-of-bristol-bay-ak
#14
Jeanine S Morey, Kathy A Burek Huntington, Michelle Campbell, Tonya M Clauss, Caroline E Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs, Denise Lunardi, Amanda J Moors, Marion G Neely, Lori H Schwacke, Frances M Van Dolah
Assessing the health of marine mammal sentinel species is crucial to understanding the impacts of environmental perturbations on marine ecosystems and human health. In Arctic regions, beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are upper level predators that may serve as a sentinel species, potentially forecasting impacts on human health. While gene expression profiling from blood transcriptomes has widely been used to assess health status and environmental exposures in human and veterinary medicine, its use in wildlife has been limited due to the lack of available genomes and baseline data...
August 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800735/life-span-of-in-vitro-differentiated-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes
#15
Tamirat Gebru, Albert Lalremruata, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: The sexual stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium falciparum do not directly contribute to the pathology of malaria but are essential for transmission of the parasite from the human host to the mosquito. Mature gametocytes circulate in infected human blood for several days and their circulation time has been modelled mathematically from data of previous in vivo studies. This is the first time that longevity of gametocytes is studied experimentally in vitro. METHODS: The in vitro longevity of P...
August 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800596/fungal-genome-and-mating-system-transitions-facilitated-by-chromosomal-translocations-involving-intercentromeric-recombination
#16
Sheng Sun, Vikas Yadav, R Blake Billmyre, Christina A Cuomo, Minou Nowrousian, Liuyang Wang, Jean-Luc Souciet, Teun Boekhout, Betina Porcel, Patrick Wincker, Joshua A Granek, Kaustuv Sanyal, Joseph Heitman
Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million infections globally annually. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799824/high-prevalence-of-asymptomatic-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pregnant-women-in-a-low-income-south-african-community
#17
Maanda Mudau, Remco P Peters, Lindsey De Vos, Dawie H Olivier, Dvora J Davey, Edwin S Mkwanazi, James A McIntyre, Jeffrey D Klausner, Andrew Medina-Marino
There is a lack of evidence on the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in two healthcare facilities in a South African township to determine the prevalence of CT, NG and TV. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during the first antenatal care visit for their current pregnancy and requested to self-collect vulvovaginal swab specimens...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799622/morphometric-variation-and-ray-allocation-of-human-proximal-hand-phalanges
#18
Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Carlos Lorenzo, Konstantinos Moraitis
In previous studies, the anatomy of proximal hand phalanges has been described and techniques of anatomical allocation have been developed. However, these rely on the observation of small phalangeal traits without providing a multivariate analysis of morphological variation. In bioarchaeological contexts, the form of these distinctive traits is often not clear and the use of alternative supplementary methods is vital. This study aims to conduct a multivariate analysis of proximal phalanges and introduce a new methodology of ray allocation for isolated proximal phalanges...
August 11, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799163/cost-analysis-and-performance-assessment-of-partner-services-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases-new-york-state-2014
#19
Britney L Johnson, James Tesoriero, Wenhui Feng, Feng Qian, Erika G Martin
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the programmatic costs of partner services for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. STUDY SETTING: New York State and local health departments conducting partner services activities in 2014. STUDY DESIGN: A cost analysis estimated, from the state perspective, total program costs and cost per case assignment, patient interview, partner notification, and disease-specific key performance indicator. DATA COLLECTION: Data came from contracts, a time study of staff effort, and statewide surveillance systems...
August 11, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797967/multipurpose-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-electrospun-fibers-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-infections-in-vitro
#20
Kevin M Tyo, Hung R Vuong, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Houda Alatassi, Jinghua Duan, Walter H Watson, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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