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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775798/to-detect-or-not-to-detect-a-replication-and-extension-of-the-three-stage-model
#1
Alexander B Swan, Dustin P Calvillo, Russell Revlin
When faced with a decision, people generally show a bias toward heuristic processing, even if it leads to the incorrect decision, such as in the base-rate neglect task. The crucial question is whether people know that they are biased. Recently, the three-stage model (Pennycook, Fugelsang, & Koehler, 2015) suggested that detecting this bias (conflict detection) is imperfect and a consistent source of bias because some people do not recognize that they are making biased decisions. In Experiment 1, participants completed a base-rate neglect task as replication of Pennycook et al...
May 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775774/hospital-admissions-2000-2014-a-retrospective-analysis-of-288-096-events-in-patients-with-dementia
#2
Catarina Bernardes, João Massano, Alberto Freitas
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, imposing a significant burden on healthcare systems. The evidence on the long-term evolution of this issue and broadly on healthcare systems is currently limited. This study aims to describe the hospitalizations of people who received a diagnosis of dementia admitted to public general hospitals in a western European country with universal health coverage, over more than a decade...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774530/cardiomyocyte-programmed-necrosis-mitochondria-death-receptor-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Junxia Zhang, Dairu Liu, Mao Zhang, Yan Zhang
Excessive death of cardiac myocytes leads to multiple cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. For the last several decades, most work on cell death has focused on apoptosis, which is generally considered as the only form of regulated cell death, whereas necrosis has been regarded to be an unregulated process. Recent findings reveal that necrosis also occurs in a regulated manner and that it is closely related to the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organs, including the heart...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774440/in-vivo-estimation-of-elastic-heterogeneity-in-an-infarcted-human-heart
#4
Gabriel Balaban, Henrik Finsberg, Simon Funke, Trine F Håland, Einar Hopp, Joakim Sundnes, Samuel Wall, Marie E Rognes
In myocardial infarction, muscle tissue of the heart is damaged as a result of ceased or severely impaired blood flow. Survivors have an increased risk of further complications, possibly leading to heart failure. Material properties play an important role in determining post-infarction outcome. Due to spatial variation in scarring, material properties can be expected to vary throughout the tissue of a heart after an infarction. In this study we propose a data assimilation technique that can efficiently estimate heterogeneous elastic material properties in a personalized model of cardiac mechanics...
May 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774097/natriuretic-peptides-system-in-the-pulmonary-tissue-of-rats-with-heart-failure-potential-involvement-in-lung-edema-and-inflammation
#5
Emad E Khoury, Safa Kinaneh, Doron Aronson, Offer Amir, Diab Ghanim, Natalia Volinsky, Zaher Azzam, Zaid Abassi
Congestive heart failure (CHF) often leads to progressive cardiac hypertrophy and salt/water retention as evident by peripheral and lung edema. Although the pathogenesis of CHF remains largely unclarified, it is widely accepted that neurohormonal changes and inflammatory processes are profoundly involved in structural and functional deterioration of vital organs including, heart, kidney and lungs. Corin, a cardiac serine protease, is responsible for converting pro-ANP and pro-BNP to biologically active natriuretic peptides (NPs)...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773993/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-impact-of-biological-sex-on-disease-development-and-molecular-signatures
#6
REVIEW
Ryan Toedebusch, Anthony Belenchia, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to a unique set of heart-specific pathological variables induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, and type 2 diabetes incidence continues to rise, understanding the complex interplay between these two morbidities and developing novel therapeutic strategies is vital. Two hallmark characteristics specific to diabetic cardiomyopathy are diastolic dysfunction and cardiac structural mal-adaptations, arising from cardiac cellular responses to the complex toxicity induced by hyperglycemia with or without hyperinsulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773466/in-vivo-morphologic-comparison-of-saphenous-vein-grafts-and-native-coronary-arteries-following-non-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#7
Tom Hsun-Wei Huang, Kalpa De Silva, Usaid K Allahwala, Edward J Danson, Pasi K Karjalainen, Olli A Kajander, Ravinay Bhindi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the pathophysiological differences between saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and native coronary arteries (NCA) following presentation with non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). BACKGROUND: There is accelerated pathogenesis of de novo coronary disease in harvested SVG following coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, which contributes to both early and late graft failure, and is also causal in adverse outcomes following vein graft PCI...
April 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#8
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773123/circumstances-of-child-deaths-in-mali-and-uganda-a-community-based-confidential-enquiry
#9
Merlin L Willcox, Elias Kumbakumba, Drissa Diallo, Vincent Mubangizi, Peter Kirabira, Florence Nakaggwa, Birungi Mutahunga, Chiaka Diakité, Eugene Dembélé, Mamadou Traoré, Pierre Daou, Drissa Bamba, Amadou Traoré, Diafara Berthé, Nick Wooding, Kieran Dinwoodie, Sarah Capewell, Hamish Foster, Rowena Neville, Joseph Ngonzi, Jerome Kabakyenga, David Mant, Anthony Harnden
BACKGROUND: Interventions to reduce child deaths in Africa have often underachieved, causing the Millennium Development Goal targets to be missed. We assessed whether a community enquiry into the circumstances of death could improve intervention effectiveness by identifying local avoidable factors and explaining implementation failures. METHODS: Deaths of children younger than 5 years were ascertained by community informants in two districts in Mali (762 deaths) and three districts in Uganda (442 deaths) in 2011-15...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773070/humoral-immunity-in-heart-failure
#10
Khadija Rafiq
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve disorders of heart and blood vessels, including: hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, which finally lead to heart failure (HF). There are several treatments available all over the world, but still CVD and heart failure became the number one problem causing death every year worldwide. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart failure...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773058/non-cardiomyocytes-in-heart-regeneration
#11
Jie Feng, Yandong Li, Yu Nie
Heart failure represents a challenging clinical and public health problem and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanistically, loss of cardiomyocytes leads to decompensated ventricular remodeling, which eventually progressed to cardiac failure. Regenerative medicine aimed to supplement functional cardiomyocytes is supposedly a promising approach for the effective treatment of heart failure. Over the past decades, investigations on heart regeneration have revealed the regulating networks of cardiomyocyte proliferation...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772915/a-comparison-of-the-antifouling-performance-of-air-plasma-spray-aps-ceramic-and-high-velocity-oxygen-fuel-hvof-coatings-for-use-in-marine-hydraulic-applications
#12
Richard Piola, Andrew S M Ang, Matthew Leigh, Scott A Wade
Maritime hydraulic components are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions which can lead to accelerated deterioration, reduced function, equipment failure and costly repair. Two leading causes of maritime hydraulic failure are biofouling accumulation and corrosion. This study examined the antifouling performance of three candidate replacement high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings relative to the performance of the current baseline air plasma spray (APS) ceramic coating for protection of hydraulic actuators...
May 18, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772649/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Norris S H Lan, Benjamin D Massam, Sandeep S Kulkarni, Chim C Lang
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the first category of pulmonary hypertension, is a chronic and progressive disorder characterised by angioproliferative vasculopathy in the pulmonary arterioles, leading to endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation and dysfunction, inflammation and thrombosis. These changes increase pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary arterial pressure, causing right ventricular failure which leads to eventual death if untreated. The management of PAH has advanced rapidly in recent years due to improved understanding of the condition's pathophysiology, specifically the nitric oxide, prostacyclin-thromboxane and endothelin-1 pathways...
May 16, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772352/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-hla-mismatched-donors-for-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-according-to-the-2003-bfm-and-2007-international-bfm-studies-impact-of-disease-risk-on-outcomes
#14
Jean-Hugues Dalle, Adriana Balduzzi, Peter Bader, Arjan Lankester, Isaac Yaniv, Jacek Wachowiak, Anna Pieczonka, Marc Bierings, Akif Yesilipek, Petr Sedlacek, Marianne Ifversen, Sabina Sufliarska, Jacek Toporski, Evgenia Glogova, Ulrike Poetschger, Christina Peters
RATIONAL: Allogeneic HSCT is beneficial for pediatric patients with relapsed or (very) high-risk ALL in remission. A total of 1115 consecutive patients were included in the ALL SCT 2003 BFM study and the ALL SCT 2007-International study and were stratified according to relapse risk (Standard vs. High vs. Very High Risk of Relapse) and donor type (Matched Sibling vs. Matched Donor vs. Mismatched Donor). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 148 patients (60% male, median age 8...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#15
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771977/studying-the-dynamics-of-interbeat-interval-time-series-of-healthy-and-congestive-heart-failure-subjects-using-scale-based-symbolic-entropy-analysis
#16
Imtiaz Awan, Wajid Aziz, Imran Hussain Shah, Nazneen Habib, Jalal S Alowibdi, Sharjil Saeed, Malik Sajjad Ahmed Nadeem, Syed Ahsin Ali Shah
Considerable interest has been devoted for developing a deeper understanding of the dynamics of healthy biological systems and how these dynamics are affected due to aging and disease. Entropy based complexity measures have widely been used for quantifying the dynamics of physical and biological systems. These techniques have provided valuable information leading to a fuller understanding of the dynamics of these systems and underlying stimuli that are responsible for anomalous behavior. The single scale based traditional entropy measures yielded contradictory results about the dynamics of real world time series data of healthy and pathological subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771975/development-and-characterization-of-an-oral-multispecies-biofilm-implant-flow-chamber-model
#17
Nadine Kommerein, Katharina Doll, Nico S Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771958/cooperation-of-bmp-and-ihh-signaling-in-interdigital-cell-fate-determination
#18
Arunima Murgai, Sara Altmeyer, Stephanie Wiegand, Przemko Tylzanowski, Sigmar Stricker
The elaborate anatomy of hands and feet is shaped by coordinated formation of digits and regression of the interdigital mesenchyme (IM). A failure of this process causes persistence of interdigital webbing and consequently cutaneous syndactyly. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key inductive factors for interdigital cell death (ICD) in vivo. NOGGIN (NOG) is a major BMP antagonist that can interfere with BMP-induced ICD when applied exogenously, but its in vivo role in this process is unknown. We investigated the physiological role of NOG in ICD and found that Noggin null mice display cutaneous syndactyly and impaired interdigital mesenchyme specification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771932/a-multi-center-preclinical-study-of-gadoxetate-dce-mri-in-rats-as-a-biomarker-of-drug-induced-inhibition-of-liver-transporter-function
#19
Anastassia Karageorgis, Stephen C Lenhard, Brittany Yerby, Mikael F Forsgren, Serguei Liachenko, Edvin Johansson, Mark A Pilling, Richard A Peterson, Xi Yang, Dominic P Williams, Sharon E Ungersma, Ryan E Morgan, Kim L R Brouwer, Beat M Jucker, Paul D Hockings
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. DILI can be the result of impaired hepatobiliary transporters, with altered bile formation, flow, and subsequent cholestasis. We used gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), combined with pharmacokinetic modelling, to measure hepatobiliary transporter function in vivo in rats. The sensitivity and robustness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of a clinical dose of the antibiotic rifampicin in four different preclinical imaging centers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771804/preemptive-analgesia-decreases-pain-following-anorectal-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Justin T Van Backer, Matthew R Jordan, Danielle T Leahy, Jesse S Moore, Peter Callas, Timothy Dominick, Peter A Cataldo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a frequent cause for delayed discharge following outpatient procedures, including anorectal surgery. Both central and peripheral pain receptor sensitization are thought to contribute to postoperative pain. Blocking these receptors and preempting sensitization prevents hyperalgesia leading to lower pain medication requirements. Studies in the orthopedic, urologic, and gynecologic literature support this practice, but the use of preemptive analgesia in anorectal surgery is understudied...
May 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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