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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166662/detection-of-hbsag-mutants-in-the-blood-donor-population-of-pakistan
#1
Ahmad Farooq, Usman Waheed, Hasan Abbas Zaheer, Fahad Aldakheel, Shatha Alduraywish, Muhammad Arshad
BACKGROUND: Infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be one of the leading healthcare issues in Pakistan, affecting over 6 million people. The existence of HBsAg mutants is well documented in many countries. In Pakistan, HBV screening in the majority of the blood banks is performed by Rapid Detection Devices or ELISA tests. These tests are designed to detect HBsAg, but may not detect the mutant HBsAg. Failure to detect the HBsAg mutant may result in the transmission of HBV infection from donor to recipient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165654/infusions-of-nerve-growth-factor-into-the-developing-frontal-cortex-leads-to-deficits-in-behavioral-flexibility-and-increased-perseverance
#2
Sagar J Desai, Brian L Allman, Nagalingam Rajakumar
In the pursuit of further establishing a neurodevelopmental animal model to investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired executive function, a core and severely debilitating symptom of schizophrenia, we sought to characterize the deficits in behavioral flexibility in adult rats following neonatal infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the medial part of the developing frontal cortex. Our previous studies using this neonatal frontal cortical lesion model have shown that it leads to adult-onset positive and negative symptom-like features, and several neuropathological abnormalities of schizophrenia...
November 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164735/substituting-the-target-after-unsatisfactory-outcome-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-cases-from-the-nstaps-trial-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Timo R Ten Brinke, Vincent J J Odekerken, Teus van Laar, J Marc C van Dijk, Joke M Dijk, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P Rick Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are established treatment option in Parkinson's disease (PD). If DBS does not provide the desired effect, re-operation to the alternative target is a treatment option, but data on the effect of re-operation are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect of re-operation the alternative target after failure of initial STN or GPi DBS for Parkinson's disease...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164593/immune-correlates-of-clinical-outcome-in-melanoma
#4
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
Melanoma has long been recognized as a potentially immunogenic tumour, but only recently has it become clear that the reason for this resides in its many UV-induced mutations and expression of multiple autoantigens which can be targeted by the immune system. The first successful applications of immune-based treatments included passive immunotherapy using high-dose IL-2 and/or adoptive transfer of NK-cells, as well as active immunotherapy using whole cell-derived or peptide vaccines. In the intervening decades, it has become clear that these approaches can lead to durable responses in stage III/IV melanoma, and even to functional cures - but only in a vanishingly small fraction of patients...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164400/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-an-archipelago-of-the-amazon
#5
Fabricio Q Silva, Francisco J A Santos, Andreia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Benedikt Fischer, João Renato R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically exposes them to risks of viral infection. In the Brazilian Amazon region, a number of studies have identified high rates of drug use among adolescents, and a high prevalence of HBV infection in DUs, disseminated by sexual and parenteral activities. However, the epidemiological scenario of HCV infection in the region is still poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163960/when-to-let-the-fellow-do-the-procedure
#6
Amnon Sonnenberg
Background and aims: In complex endoscopies, the initial attempt is often associated with the highest success and subsequent attempts to achieve the same outcome have a higher failure rate. An attending physician needs to decide how the ultimate success may become compromised by letting a fellow start the procedure. A decision analysis is aimed to shed light on this issue. Methods: A formula is derived to calculate the point in time when to switch the instrument between an attending and fellow physician...
November 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163531/impaired-resolution-of-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Robert A Whittington, Emmanuel Planel, Niccolò Terrando
Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and over the last several decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has been increasingly elucidated. The initiation of the acute inflammatory response is counterbalanced by an active process termed resolution. This process is designed to restore homeostasis and promote tissue healing by the activation of neutrophilic apoptosis, promotion of neutrophil clearance by macrophages, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, while concurrently leading to a diminution in pro-inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163313/intuitive-choices-lead-to-intensified-positive-emotions-an-overlooked-reason-for-intuition-bias
#8
Geir Kirkebøen, Gro H H Nordbye
People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163188/elevated-levels-of-peripheral-kynurenine-decrease-bone-strength-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Beata Znorko, Alicja Roszczenko, Joanna Rogalska, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Pawel Lipowicz, Michal Doroszko, Anna Pryczynicz, Dariusz Pawlak
The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162952/oral-health-status-and-fertility-treatment-including-ivf
#10
REVIEW
Sunali Sundeep Khanna, Prita A Dhaimade, Shalini Malhotra
Oral health is extremely important for the general wellbeing of the individual. From a number of research articles, it is established that there is a definitive connection between periodontal health and many systemic diseases, like type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and even preterm labor and low birth weight of babies. The significant rate of failure in the treatment of infertility and IVF (in vitro fertilization) even with multiple advancements in the last decade has made scientist take interest in newer parameters of health, an important one among them being periodontal health...
December 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162680/peritoneal-dialysis-in-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-recipients
#11
Nalinee Saiprasertkit, Camila Nihei, Joanne M Bargman
BACKGROUND: In many dialysis programs, there is resistance to initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD) in liver transplant patients needing renal replacement therapy. This retrospective study reviews the outcome of PD in liver transplant patients at a major transplantation and dialysis center. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients who underwent liver transplants and received PD between 1991 and 2016. Patient demographics, laboratory parameters, and adverse events were collected from our electronic database...
November 21, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162339/acute-kidney-injury-and-risk-of-incident-heart-failure-among-us-veterans
#12
Nisha Bansal, Michael E Matheny, Robert A Greevy, Svetlana K Eden, Amy M Perkins, Sharidan K Parr, James Fly, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Adriana M Hung, Theodore Speroff, T Alp Ikizler, Edward D Siew
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161932/current-trends-in-in-silico-in-vitro-toxicology-and-safety-biomarkers-in-early-drug-development
#13
Simon Loiodice, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Atienzar
The development of new medicines is a long and expensive process. Despite growing efforts in R&D over the last decades, attrition rate due to safety issues (especially cardiac and hepatic toxicity) remains a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. This may lead to market withdrawal or late stage halting of a drug development program. Consequently, early detection of toxicity issues is critical to avoid late-stage failures. To this end, development of predictive toxicology assays and models have become a strategic matter for drug makers...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#14
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160901/dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-have-sex-and-age-dependent-effects-on-vertebral-bone-microstructure-and-mechanical-function-in-mice
#15
Svenja Illien-Jünger, Paolo Palacio-Mancheno, William F Kindschuh, Xue Chen, Grazyna E Sroga, Deepak Vashishth, James C Iatridis
Back pain is a leading cause of global disability that can arise from vertebral fracture and osteoporosis. While poor general health and obesity are among the strongest risk factors for back pain, there is remarkably little known about how diet influences spinal diseases. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are implicated in increased fracture risk, yet no studies investigated how dietary AGEs affect spinal health. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary AGE ingestion will diminish vertebral structure and function in a sex- and age-dependent manner...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160717/reprogramming-tumor-associated-macrophages-to-reverse-egfr-t790m-resistance-by-dual-targeting-codelivery-of-gefitinib-vorinostat
#16
Huige Peng, Binfan Chen, Wei Huang, Yubo Tang, Yifan Jiang, Wenyuan Zhang, Yongzhuo Huang
Gefitinib is a first-line therapy in the EGFR-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of drug resistance is almost unavoidable, thus leading to an unsustainable regimen. EGFR(T790M) mutation is the major cause responsible for the molecular-targeting therapy failure in NSCLC. Although the recently approved osimertinib is effective for the EGFR(T790M)-positive NSCLC, the osimertinib-resistant EGFR mutation is rapidly developed, too. In this study, we proposed a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) reprogramming strategy for overcoming the EGFR(T790M)-associated drug resistance via a dual-targeting codelivery system of gefitinib/vorinostat that acted on both TAM with overexpression of mannose receptors and the HER-2 positive NSCLC cells...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160639/predictors-of-mortality-in-neonates-with-giant-omphaloceles
#17
Amulya K Saxena, Maja Raicevic
INTRODUCTION: This analysis was performed a review of giant-omphaloceles to determine the predictors of mortality. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Pubmed® and KoBson databases were searched for terms "giant" "omphalocele" and "mortality". Primary end points included mortality correlation with gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), eviscerated organs, associated anomalies and management. To calculate mean and median values IBM SPSS version 23.0 was used. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After de-duplication and review search revealed 42 articles of which 23 met our inclusion criteria with 396 giant-omphaloceles for this analysis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160225/phosphatidylserine-targeted-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-photothermal-ablation-of-bladder-cancer
#18
Needa A Virani, Carole Davis, Patrick McKernan, Paul Hauser, Robert E Hurst, Joel Slaton, Ricardo P Silvy, Daniel E Resasco, Roger G Harrison
Bladder cancer has a 60-70% recurrence rate most likely due to residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159789/heart-failure-and-kidney-disease
#19
Dario Grande, Margherita Ilaria Gioia, Paola Terlizzese, Massimo Iacoviello
Kidney disease is commonly found in heart failure (HF) patients. They share many risk factors and common pathophysiological pathways which often lead to mutual dysfunction. Both haemodynamic and non-haemodynamic mechanisms are involved in the development of renal impairment in heart failure patients. Moreover, the presence of a chronic kidney disease is a significant independent predictor of worse outcome in chronic as well as in acute decompensated HF. As a consequence, an accurate evaluation of renal function plays a key role in the management of HF patients...
November 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159718/genetics-and-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#20
REVIEW
Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, slowly progressive cholestatic autoimmune liver disease predominantly afflicting women. PBC is characterized by the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial antibodies and the histological destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, which eventually lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Fortunately, ursodeoxycholic acid therapy has improved the outcome of the vast majority of PBC cases. Although the etiology of PBC has not yet been elucidated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been consistently associated with disease onset for decades...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
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