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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535375/morc-1-integrates-nuclear-rnai-and-transgenerational-chromatin-architecture-to-promote-germline-immortality
#1
Natasha E Weiser, Danny X Yang, Suhua Feng, Natallia Kalinava, Kristen C Brown, Jayshree Khanikar, Mallory A Freeberg, Martha J Snyder, Györgyi Csankovszki, Raymond C Chan, Sam G Gu, Taiowa A Montgomery, Steven E Jacobsen, John K Kim
Germline-expressed endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) transmit multigenerational epigenetic information to ensure fertility in subsequent generations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nuclear RNAi ensures robust inheritance of endo-siRNAs and deposition of repressive H3K9me3 marks at target loci. How target silencing is maintained in subsequent generations is poorly understood. We discovered that morc-1 is essential for transgenerational fertility and acts as an effector of endo-siRNAs. Unexpectedly, morc-1 is dispensable for siRNA inheritance but is required for target silencing and maintenance of siRNA-dependent chromatin organization...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524769/machine-learning-for-epigenetics-and-future-medical-applications
#2
Lawrence B Holder, M Muksitul Haque, Michael K Skinner
Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems with ML to develop a more efficient feature selection process and address the imbalance problem in all genomic data sets...
May 19, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#3
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495853/transgenerational-transmission-of-asthma-risk-after-exposure-to-environmental-particles-during-pregnancy
#4
David J Gregory, Lester Kobzik, Zhiping Yang, Connor C McGuire, Alexey V Fedulov
Exposure to environmental particles during pregnancy increases asthma susceptibility of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that this transmission continues to F2 and F3 generations and occurs via epigenetic mechanisms. We compared allergic susceptibility of three generations of BALB/c offspring after a single maternal exposure during pregnancy to diesel exhaust particles or concentrated urban air particles. After pregnant dams received intranasal instillations of particle suspensions or control, their F1, F2 and F3 offspring were tested in a low-dose ovalbumin protocol for allergy sensitivity...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#5
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479992/pathogen-induced-maternal-effects-result-in-enhanced-immune-responsiveness-across-generations
#6
Rebeca B Rosengaus, Nicole Hays, Colette Biro, James Kemos, Muizz Zaman, Joseph Murray, Bruck Gezahegn, Wendy Smith
Parental investment theory postulates that adults can accurately perceive cues from their surroundings, anticipate the needs of future offspring based on those cues, and selectively allocate nongenetic resources to their progeny. Such context-dependent parental contributions can result in phenotypically variable offspring. Consistent with these predictions, we show that bacterially exposed Manduca sexta mothers oviposited significantly more variable embryos (as measured by mass, volume, hatching time, and hatching success) relative to naïve and control mothers...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472380/small-rnas-reflect-grandparental-environments-in-apomictic-dandelion
#7
Lionel Morgado, Veronica Preite, Carla Oplaat, Sarit Anava, Julie Ferreira de Carvalho, Oded Rechavi, Frank Johannes, Koen J F Verhoeven
Plants can show long-term effects of environmental stresses and in some cases a stress 'memory' has been reported to persist across generations, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. However, few documented cases exist of transgenerational effects that persist for multiple generations and it remains unclear if or how epigenetic mechanisms are involved. Here we show that the composition of small regulatory RNAs in apomictic dandelion lineages reveals a footprint of drought stress and salicylic acid treatment experienced two generations ago...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464002/mercury-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-abnormal-neurobehavior-is-correlated-with-sperm-epimutations-in-zebrafish
#8
Michael J Carvan, Thomas A Kalluvila, Rebekah H Klingler, Jeremy K Larson, Matthew Pickens, Francisco X Mora-Zamorano, Victoria P Connaughton, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Michael K Skinner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs]) and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion) in zebrafish, an established human health model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463237/epigenetic-and-transgenerational-mechanisms-in-infection-mediated-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
REVIEW
U Weber-Stadlbauer
Prenatal infection is an environmental risk factor for various brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Modeling this association in animals shows that maternal immune activation negatively affects fetal brain development and leads to the emergence of behavioral disturbances later in life. Recent discoveries in these preclinical models suggest that epigenetic modifications may be a critical molecular mechanism by which prenatal immune activation can mediate changes in brain development and functions, even across generations...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442628/papers-of-note-in-science356-6335
#10
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight a peptide that controls myoblast fusion; a metabolic adaptation that enables naked mole-rats to resist the detrimental effects of anoxia; a transcription factor that coordinates signaling in the mammary epithelial stem cell niche; and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of the response to an environmental stimulus.
April 25, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436983/stable-polycomb-dependent-transgenerational-inheritance-of-chromatin-states-in-drosophila
#11
Filippo Ciabrelli, Federico Comoglio, Simon Fellous, Boyan Bonev, Maria Ninova, Quentin Szabo, Anne Xuéreb, Christophe Klopp, Alexei Aravin, Renato Paro, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI) describes the transmission of alternative functional states through multiple generations in the presence of the same genomic DNA sequence. Very little is known about the principles and the molecular mechanisms governing this type of inheritance. Here, by transiently enhancing 3D chromatin interactions, we established stable and isogenic Drosophila epilines that carry alternative epialleles, as defined by differential levels of Polycomb-dependent trimethylation of histone H3 Lys27 (forming H3K27me3)...
April 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431793/alcohol-effects-on-the-epigenome-in-the-germline-role-in-the-inheritance-of-alcohol-related-pathology
#12
REVIEW
Lucy G Chastain, Dipak K Sarkar
Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428426/transgenerational-transmission-of-environmental-information-in-c-elegans
#13
Adam Klosin, Eduard Casas, Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo, Tanya Vavouri, Ben Lehner
The environment experienced by an animal can sometimes influence gene expression for one or a few subsequent generations. Here, we report the observation that a temperature-induced change in expression from a Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatic gene array can endure for at least 14 generations. Inheritance is primarily in cis with the locus, occurs through both oocytes and sperm, and is associated with altered trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) before the onset of zygotic transcription. Expression profiling reveals that temperature-induced expression from endogenous repressed repeats can also be inherited for multiple generations...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410129/epigenetics-of-reproductive-infertility
#14
Laxmidhar Das, Sabnam Parbin, Nibedita Pradhan, Chahat Kausar, Samir K Patra
Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409405/transgenerational-loss-and-recovery-of-early-learning-ability-in-foraging-predatory-mites
#15
Marliza B Reichert, Inga C Christiansen, Michael Seiter, Peter Schausberger
The ability to learn is ubiquitous in animals but highly variable within and between species, populations and individuals. Diet-related circumstances, such as diet quantity and quality can influence both long-term constitutive (genetic; by selection) and short-term operational (non-genetic; by the immediate circumstances) learning performance. Here, we scrutinized the causes of loss of learning ability, following multi-generational feeding on pollen, in a line of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, which was previously well able to learn prey during early life, enhancing foraging later in life...
March 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396211/cold-tolerance-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-and-its-response-to-epigenetic-alterations
#16
Aljoscha Kreß, Ann-Marie Oppold, Ulrich Kuch, Jörg Oehlmann, Ruth Müller
Phenotypic plasticity is considered as one of the key traits responsible for the establishment of populations of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, an important vector of viral and parasitic pathogens. The successful spread of this species to higher altitudes and latitudes may be explained by its ability to rapidly induce a heritable low-temperature phenotype (cold hardiness in eggs). As a result of the low genetic diversity of founder populations, an epigenetic short-term mechanism has been suggested as the driver of this diversification...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381639/gestational-exposure-to-sidestream-secondhand-cigarette-smoke-promotes-transgenerational-epigenetic-transmission-of-exacerbated-allergic-asthma-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#17
Shashi P Singh, Hitendra S Chand, Raymond J Langley, Neerad Mishra, Ted Barrett, Karin Rudolph, Carmen Tellez, Piotr T Filipczak, Steve Belinsky, Ali I Saeed, Aryaz Sheybani, Vernat Exil, Hemant Agarwal, Venkataramana K Sidhaye, Thomas Sussan, Shyam Biswal, Mohan Sopori
Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371392/exercise-and-epigenetic-inheritance-of-disease-risk
#18
REVIEW
Joshua Denham
Epigenetics is the study of gene expression changes that occur in the absence of altered genotype. Current evidence indicates a role for environmentally induced alterations to epigenetic modifications leading to health and diseases changes across multiple generations. This phenomenon is called intergenerational or transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of health or disease. Environmental insults, in the form of toxins, plastics and particular dietary interventions, perturb the epigenetic landscape and influence the health of F1 through to F4 generations in rodents...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361901/parental-exposure-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating-alters-offspring-adaptive-immunity
#19
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts natural light/dark cycles and impairs endogenous circadian rhythms necessary to maintain optimal biological function, including the endocrine and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that white dLAN compromises innate and cell mediated immune responses in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). We hypothesized that dLAN has transgenerational influences on immune function. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 9 weeks, then paired in full factorial design, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343968/met-2-dependent-h3k9-methylation-suppresses-transgenerational-small-rna-inheritance
#20
Itamar Lev, Uri Seroussi, Hila Gingold, Roberta Bril, Sarit Anava, Oded Rechavi
In C. elegans, alterations to chromatin produce transgenerational effects, such as inherited increase in lifespan and gradual loss of fertility. Inheritance of histone modifications can be induced by double-stranded RNA-derived heritable small RNAs. Here, we show that the mortal germline phenotype, which is typical of met-2 mutants, defective in H3K9 methylation, depends on HRDE-1, an argonaute that carries small RNAs across generations, and is accompanied by accumulated transgenerational misexpression of heritable small RNAs...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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