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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626604/transgenerational-effects-of-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-spleen-immunity-of-broilers
#1
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Zhenchen Yin, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Xiaojun Yang
Our previous study indicated that paternal dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could induce endotoxin tolerance-like response in jejunum of offspring chickens. There exist positive interaction between intestinal mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. So we studied the transgenerational effect and nutri-epigenetic role of paternal dietary APS on spleen immunity. 64 one-day-old Avein breeder cocks were used in a single-factor design with 0 and 10 g/kg APS, respectively, 4 replicated cages each group, and 8 birds each cage...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617657/transgenerational-sterility-of-piwi-mutants-represents-a-dynamic-form-of-adult-reproductive-diapause
#2
Bree Heestand, Matt Simon, Stephen Frenk, Denis Titov, Shawn Ahmed
Environmental stress can induce adult reproductive diapause, a state of developmental arrest that temporarily suspends reproduction. Deficiency for C. elegans Piwi protein PRG-1 results in strains that reproduce for many generations but then become sterile. We found that sterile-generation prg-1/Piwi mutants typically displayed pronounced germ cell atrophy as L4 larvae matured into 1-day-old adults. Atrophied germlines spontaneously reproliferated across the first days of adulthood, and this was accompanied by fertility for day 2-4 adults...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614954/bs-seeker3-ultrafast-pipeline-for-bisulfite-sequencing
#3
Kevin Yu Yuan Huang, Yan-Jiun Huang, Pao-Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification critical in regulation and transgenerational inheritance. The methylation level can be estimated at single-nucleotide resolution by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq; WGBS). Current bisulfite aligners provide pipelines for processing the reads by WGBS; however, few are able to analyze the BS-seqs in a reasonable timeframe that meets the needs of the rapid expansion of epigenome sequencing in biomedical research...
April 3, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609831/birth-defects-in-children-of-men-exposed-in-utero-to-diethylstilbestrol-des
#4
Michel Tournaire, Emmanuel Devouche, Sylvie Epelboin, Anne Cabau, Annabel Dunbavand, Anne Levadou
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with adverse effects, including genital anomalies and cancers in men and women. Animal studies showed birth defects and tumors in the offspring of mice prenatally exposed to DES. In humans, birth defects, such as hypospadias were observed in children of prenatally exposed women. The aim of this research was to assess the birth defects in children of prenatally exposed men. METHODS: In a retrospective study conceived by a patients' association (Réseau DES France), the reports of men prenatally exposed to DES on adverse health effects in their children were compared with those of unexposed controls and general population...
March 3, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609558/epigenetics-and-early-domestication-differences-in-hypothalamic-dna-methylation-between-red-junglefowl-divergently-selected-for-high-or-low-fear-of-humans
#5
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Lejla Bektic, Andrey Höglund, Per Jensen, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
BACKGROUND: Domestication of animals leads to large phenotypic alterations within a short evolutionary time-period. Such alterations are caused by genomic variations, yet the prevalence of modified traits is higher than expected if they were caused only by classical genetics and mutations. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be important in driving domesticated phenotypes such as behavior traits. Gene expression can be modulated epigenetically by mechanisms such as DNA methylation, resulting in modifications that are not only variable and susceptible to environmental stimuli, but also sometimes transgenerationally stable...
April 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593303/epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-altered-sperm-histone-retention-sites
#6
Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Michael K Skinner
A variety of environmental toxicants and factors have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Epigenetic alterations in the germline (sperm or egg) are required to transmit transgenerational phenotypes. The current study was designed to investigate the potential role of histones in sperm to help mediate the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin and the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were independently used to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573427/transgenerational-phenotype-aggravation-in-caf-1-mutants-reveals-parent-of-origin-specific-epigenetic-inheritance
#7
Iva Mozgova, Thomas Wildhaber, Minerva S Trejo-Arellano, Jiri Fajkus, Pawel Roszak, Claudia Köhler, Lars Hennig
Chromatin is assembled by histone chaperones such as chromatin assembly factor CAF-1. We had noticed that vigor of Arabidopsis thaliana CAF-1 mutants decreased over several generations. Because changes in mutant phenotype severity over generations are unusual, we asked how repeated selfing of Arabidopsis CAF-1 mutants affects phenotype severity. CAF-1 mutant plants of various generations were grown, and developmental phenotypes, transcriptomes and DNA cytosine-methylation profiles were compared quantitatively...
March 24, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562866/effects-of-gravity-microgravity-or-microgravity-simulation-on-early-mammalian-development
#8
Douglas Ruden, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Gloria Perez, Elizabeth Ella Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Plant and animal life forms evolved mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity on Earth where homeo-static needs require responses. The lack of gravity, such as in the International Space Station (ISS), causes acute, intra-generational changes in the quality of life. These include maintaining calcium levels in bone, main-taining muscle tone, and disturbances in the vestibular apparatus in the ears. These problems decrease work efficiency and quality of life of humans not only during microgravity exposures but also after return to higher gravity on Earth or destinations such as Mars or the Moon...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533463/parturition-and-the-perinatal-period-can-mode-of-delivery-impact-on-the-future-health-of-the-neonate
#9
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world for a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology from those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and cardio-metabolic morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesized that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531716/increased-transgenerational-epigenetic-variation-but-not-predictable-epigenetic-variants-after-environmental-exposure-in-two-apomictic-dandelion-lineages
#10
Veronica Preite, Carla Oplaat, Arjen Biere, Jan Kirschner, Wim H van der Putten, Koen J F Verhoeven
DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic modifications. DNA methylations can be environmentally induced and such induced modifications can at times be transmitted to successive generations. However, it remains speculative how common such environmentally induced transgenerational DNA methylation changes are and if they persist for more than one offspring generation. We exposed multiple accessions of two different apomictic dandelion lineages of the Taraxacum officinale group ( Taraxacum alatum and T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525544/transposable-elements-genome-evolution-and-transgenerational-epigenetic-variation
#11
REVIEW
Aoi Hosaka, Tetsuji Kakutani
Although transposable elements (TEs) have been regarded as genomic parasites, accumulating evidence suggests that they can also have beneficial roles in evolution of diverse biological processes. In this review, we focus on epigenetic control of TEs as sources of selectable phenotypic variation, with an emphasis on their connections to defense responses.
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520039/transgenerational-epigenetic-influences-of-paternal-environmental-exposures-on-brain-function-and-predisposition-to-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Shlomo Yeshurun, Anthony J Hannan
In recent years, striking new evidence has demonstrated non-genetic inheritance of acquired traits associated with parental environmental exposures. In particular, this transgenerational modulation of phenotypic traits is of direct relevance to psychiatric disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Here we review the recent progress in this field, with an emphasis on acquired traits of psychiatric illnesses transmitted epigenetically via the male lineage. We discuss the transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to stress vs...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507096/not-just-heads-and-tails-the-complexity-of-the-sperm-epigenome
#13
Hannah B Gold, Yoon Hee Jung, Victor G Corces
Transgenerational inheritance requires mechanisms by which epigenetic information is transferred via gametes. Canonical thought holds that mammalian sperm chromatin would be incapable of carrying epigenetic information as post-translational modifications of histones because of their replacement with protamine proteins. Further, compaction of the sperm genome would hinder DNA accessibility of proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and genome architecture. In this review, we delineate the paternal chromatin remodeling events during spermatogenesis and fertilization...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506130/a-single-cell-epigenetic-model-for-parental-psychological-stress-induced-transgenerational-reprogramming-in-offspring
#14
Jinzhi Lei, Qing Nie, Dong-Bao Chen
Experimental evidence shows that parental psychological stress affects the long-term health of offspring in an inheritable fashion. Although epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, are involved in transgenerational programming, the underlining mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance remain unsolved. Here, we present a single-cell based computational model for transgenerational inheritance for investigating the long-term dynamics of phenotype changes in response to parental stress...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499450/epigenetics-as-a-mechanism-linking-developmental-exposures-to-long-term-toxicity
#15
REVIEW
R Barouki, E Melén, Z Herceg, J Beckers, J Chen, M Karagas, A Puga, Y Xia, L Chadwick, W Yan, K Audouze, R Slama, J Heindel, P Grandjean, T Kawamoto, K Nohara
A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494917/histone-methylation-associated-transgenerational-inheritance-of-reproductive-defects-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-crude-oil-under-various-exposure-scenarios
#16
Jisu Yang, Nivedita Chatterjee, Youngho Kim, Ji-Yeon Roh, Jung-Hwan Kwon, Myung-Sook Park, Jinhee Choi
As part of a study to explore the long-term effects of the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident, transgenerational toxicity and associated epigenetic changes were investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Under experimental conditions, worms were exposed to Iranian heavy crude oil (IHC) under three different scenarios: partial early-life exposure (PE), partial late-life exposure (PL), and whole-life exposure (WE). Growth, reproduction, and histone methylation were monitored in the exposed parental worms (P0) and in three consecutive unexposed offspring generations (F1-3 )...
February 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492317/multigenerational-analysis-of-sex-specific-phenotypic-differences-at-midgestation-caused-by-abnormal-folate-metabolism
#17
Nisha Padmanabhan, Joanna Rakoczy, Monika Kondratowicz, Katerina Menelaou, Georgina E T Blake, Erica D Watson
The exposure to adverse environmental conditions (e.g. poor nutrition) may lead to increased disease risk in an individual and their descendants. In some cases, the results may be sexually dimorphic. A range of phenotypes has been associated with deficiency in or defective metabolism of the vitamin folate. However, the molecular mechanism linking folate metabolism to development is still not well defined nor is it clear whether phenotypes are sex-specific. The enzyme methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is required for the progression of folate metabolism and the utilization of methyl groups from the folate cycle...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492313/transgenerational-epigenetics-and-environmental-justice
#18
REVIEW
Mark A Rothstein, Heather L Harrell, Gary E Marchant
Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486114/transgenerational-dna-methylation-changes-in-daphnia-magna-exposed-to-chronic-gamma-irradiation
#19
Marie Trijau, Jana Asselman, Olivier Armant, Christelle Adam-Guillermin, Karel Ac De Schamphelaere, Frédéric Alonzo
Our aim was to investigate epigenetic changes in Daphnia magna after a 25-day chronic external gamma irradiation (generation F0 exposed to 6.5 µGy h-1 or 41.3 mGy h-1) and their potential inheritance by subsequent recovering generations, namely F2 (exposed as germline cells in F1 embryos) and F3 (the first truly unexposed generation). Effects on survival, growth and reproduction were observed and DNA was extracted for whole genome bisulfite sequencing in all generations. Results showed effects on reproduction in F0 but no effect in the subsequent generations F1, F2 and F3...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485126/investigating-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-big-biological-questions-with-the-parthenogenetic-marbled-crayfish-a-review-and-perspectives
#20
Gunter Vogt
In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
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