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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474484/transgenerational-effects-of-prenatal-restricted-diet-on-gene-expression-and-histone-modifications-in-the-rat
#1
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Anna M Malinowska, Agata Chmurzynska
Dietary triggers acting on a developing fetus can affect the functioning of the body in later life; this can be observed on various levels, including epigenetic modifications and gene expression. Early-life programmed changes may be transmitted to successive generations. In this study, the impact of prenatal restricted diet was studied in four generations of rats. We hypothesized that this diet can induce changes in the expression of major genes involved in two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and histone modifications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468522/mechanism-of-evolution-by-genetic-assimilation-equivalence-and-independence-of-genetic-mutation-and-epigenetic-modulation-in-phenotypic-expression
#2
REVIEW
Ken Nishikawa, Akira R Kinjo
Conrad H. Waddington discovered the phenomenon of genetic assimilation through a series of experiments on fruit flies. In those experiments, artificially exerted environmental stress induced plastic phenotypic changes in the fruit flies, but after some generations, the same phenotypic variant started to appear without the environmental stress. Both the initial state (where the phenotypic changes were environmentally induced and plastic) and the final state (where the phenotypic changes were genetically fixed and constitutive) are experimental facts...
February 21, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458364/transgenerational-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-1-development-and-physiology-across-3-generations-of-rats
#3
Jan A Mennigen, Lindsay M Thompson, Mandee Bell, Marlen Tellez Santos, Andrea C Gore
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic environmental contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous studies demonstrated that developmental exposure to the weakly estrogenic PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221) in Sprague-Dawley rats altered sexual development, adult reproductive physiology and body weight. The current study tested the hypothesis that prenatal A1221 exposure not only disrupts these endpoints within an exposed individual's (F1 generation) lifespan, but may also affect subsequent generations (F2 -F3 )...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456083/placeholder-nucleosomes-underlie-germline-to-embryo-dna-methylation-reprogramming
#4
Patrick J Murphy, Shan Fu Wu, Cody R James, Candice L Wike, Bradley R Cairns
The fate and function of epigenetic marks during the germline-to-embryo transition is a key issue in developmental biology, with relevance to stem cell programming and transgenerational inheritance. In zebrafish, DNA methylation patterns are programmed in transcriptionally quiescent cleavage embryos; paternally inherited patterns are maintained, whereas maternal patterns are reprogrammed to match the paternal. Here, we provide the mechanism by demonstrating that "Placeholder" nucleosomes, containing histone H2A variant H2A...
February 9, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#5
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430674/surviving-starvation-ampk-protects-germ-cell-integrity-by-targeting-multiple-epigenetic-effectors
#6
REVIEW
Emilie Demoinet, Richard Roy
Acute starvation can have long-term consequences that are mediated through epigenetic change. Some of these changes are affected by the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the absence of AMPK during a period of starvation in an early larval stage results in developmental defects following their recovery on food, while many of them become sterile. Moreover, the loss of AMPK during this quiescent period results in transgenerational phenotypes that can become progressively worse with each successive generation...
February 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#7
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420841/daphnia-magna-micrornas-respond-to-nutritional-stress-and-ageing-but-are-not-transgenerational
#8
Jack Hearn, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Harriet Barton, Matthew Tung, Phil Wilson, Mark Blaxter, Amy Buck, Tom J Little
Maternal effects, where the performance of offspring is determined by the condition of their mother, are widespread and may in some cases be adaptive. The crustacean Daphnia magna shows strong maternal effects: offspring size at birth and other proxies for fitness are altered when their mothers are older or when mothers have experienced dietary restriction. The mechanisms for this transgenerational transmission of maternal experience are unknown, but could include changes in epigenetic patterning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been shown to play roles in intergenerational information transfer, and here we test whether miRNAs are involved in D...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402920/parental-age-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-individual-human-blastocysts
#9
Kiyotaka Kawai, Tatsuya Harada, Tomonori Ishikawa, Rikikazu Sugiyama, Toshihiro Kawamura, Atsumi Yoshida, Osamu Tsutsumi, Fumitoshi Ishino, Toshiro Kubota, Takashi Kohda
The epigenetic status of the genome changes dynamically from fertilization to implantation. In addition, the physiological environment during the process of gametogenesis, including parental age, may affect the epigenome of the embryo after fertilization. It is important to clarify the influence of parental age on gene expression in the embryo in terms of transgenerational epigenetics to improve the techniques currently used in assisted reproductive medicine. Here, we performed single-embryo RNA-seq analysis on human blastocysts fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, including from relatively elderly mothers, to elucidate the effects of parental age on the embryonic gene expression profile...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378808/protecting-and-diversifying-the-germline
#10
Ryan J Gleason, Amit Anand, Toshie Kai, Xin Chen
Gametogenesis represents the most dramatic cellular differentiation pathways in both female and male flies. At the genome level, meiosis ensures that diploid germ cells become haploid gametes. At the epigenome level, extensive changes are required to turn on and shut off gene expression in a precise spatiotemporally controlled manner. Research applying conventional molecular genetics and cell biology, in combination with rapidly advancing genomic tools have helped us to investigate (1) how germ cells maintain lineage specificity throughout their adult reproductive lifetime; (2) what molecular mechanisms ensure proper oogenesis and spermatogenesis, as well as protect genome integrity of the germline; (3) how signaling pathways contribute to germline-soma communication; and (4) if such communication is important...
February 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355626/transgenerational-endotoxin-tolerance-like-effect-caused-by-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-in-broilers-jejunum
#11
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Yulan Duan, Xin Yang, Xiaojun Yang
To learn the nutri-epigenetics role of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), we designed and studied the transgenerational effect of paternal dietary APS supplementation in chickens. 160 Avein breeder cocks were randomly allocated into 5 groups and fed with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg APS supplement, respectively. Sperm of breeder cocks was collected and used for hatching experiment to get broiler chickens when the cocks at 40-weeks-old. It showed that the paternal dietary 10 g/kg APS could transgenerational promote growth performance and jejunal tissue morphology of chickens...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349272/why-is-parental-lifespan-linked-to-children-s-chances-of-reaching-a-high-age-a-transgenerational-hypothesis
#12
Denny Vågerö, Vanda Aronsson, Bitte Modin
Purpose: Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue. Methods: Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961-2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents' (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1's birth order and adult social class...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348834/activity-strengths-of-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-are-correlated-with-transgenerational-inheritance-of-learning-ability
#13
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345184/temperature-dependent-small-rna-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Isabel Fast, David Rosenkranz
Temperature has a major impact on gene expression in ectotherms. But until recently, it was not clear in which way, if any, small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs or piRNAs contribute to thermosensitive gene regulation. We have recently shown that temperature-responsive miRNAs in Drosophila drive adaptation to different ambient temperatures on the transcriptome level. Moreover, we demonstrated that higher temperatures lead to a more efficient piRNA-dependent transposon silencing, possibly due to heat-induced unfolding of RNA secondary structures...
January 18, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#15
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310578/a-to-i-rna-editing-in-the-rat-brain-is-age-dependent-region-specific-and-sensitive-to-environmental-stress-across-generations
#16
Hiba Zaidan, Gokul Ramaswami, Yaela N Golumbic, Noa Sher, Assaf Malik, Michal Barak, Dalia Galiani, Nava Dekel, Jin B Li, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an epigenetic modification catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), and is especially prevalent in the brain. We used the highly accurate microfluidics-based multiplex PCR sequencing (mmPCR-seq) technique to assess the effects of development and environmental stress on A-to-I editing at 146 pre-selected, conserved sites in the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we asked whether changes in editing can be observed in offspring of stress-exposed rats...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276994/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-transgenerational-effect-of-hypoxia-on-the-neural-control-of-testicular-functions
#17
Keng Po Lai, Jing Woei Li, Simon Yuan Wang, Miles Teng Wan, Ting Fung Chan, Wing Yee Lui, Doris Wai-Ting Au, Rudolf Shiu-Sun Wu, Richard Yuen-Chong Kong
There are over 400 hypoxic zones in the ocean worldwide. Both laboratory and field studies have shown that hypoxia causes endocrine disruption and reproductive impairments in vertebrates. More importantly, our recent study discovered that parental (F0) hypoxia exposure resulted in the transgenerational impairment of sperm quality in the F2 generation through the epigenetic regulation of germ cells. In the present study, we aim to test the hypothesis that the brain, as the major regulator of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, is also involved in the observed transgenerational effect...
December 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242626/stable-transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-requires-a-dna-methylation-sensing-circuit
#18
Ben P Williams, Mary Gehring
Epigenetic states are stably propagated in eukaryotes. In plants, DNA methylation patterns are faithfully inherited over many generations but it is unknown how the dynamic activities of cytosine DNA methyltransferases and 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases interact to maintain epigenetic homeostasis. Here we show that a methylation-sensing gene regulatory circuit centered on a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase gene is required for long-term epigenetic fidelity in Arabidopsis. Disrupting this circuit causes widespread methylation losses and abnormal phenotypes that progressively worsen over generations...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230532/rna-mediated-transgenerational-inheritance-in-ciliates-and-plants
#19
REVIEW
Zachary T Neeb, Mariusz Nowacki
In the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and with the availability of whole sequenced genomes and epigenomes, some attention has shifted from purely sequence-based studies to those of heritable epigenetic modifications. Transgenerational inheritance can be defined as heritable changes to the state of DNA that may be passed on to subsequent generations without alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in many systems, studies of transgenerational inheritance in mammals and other higher-level eukaryotes may be complicated by the fact that many epigenetic marks are reprogrammed during sexual reproduction...
December 11, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
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