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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719883/sublethal-insecticide-exposure-affects-reproduction-chemical-phenotype-as-well-as-offspring-development-and-antennae-symmetry-of-a-leaf-beetle
#1
Thorben Müller, Alexander Prosche, Caroline Müller
The area of agriculturally used land and following to that the use of pesticides are steadily increasing. Insecticides do not only reduce pest organisms on crops but can also affect non-target organisms when present in sublethal concentrations in the environment. We investigated the effects of an exposure to sublethal pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) concentrations, at doses 20 and 60 times lower than the LC50, respectively, on reproductive traits and adult cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of a leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae Fabricius)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#2
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702320/parental-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-changes-in-the-f2-generation-in-drosophila
#3
Rebecca A S Palu, Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
OBJECTIVE: A significant portion of the heritable risk for complex metabolic disorders cannot be attributed to classic Mendelian genetic factors. At least some of this missing heritability is thought to be due to the epigenetic influence of parental and grandparental metabolic state on offspring health. Previous work suggests that this transgenerational phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. These studies, however, have all depended on dietary paradigms to alter parental metabolic state, which can have inconsistent heritable effects on the metabolism of offspring...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694462/transgenerational-inheritance-of-susceptibility-to-diabetes-induced-male-subfertility
#4
Gabriela Pavlinkova, Hasmik Margaryan, Eva Zatecka, Eliska Valaskova, Fatima Elzeinova, Alena Kubatova, Romana Bohuslavova, Jana Peknicova
Male infertility is a worldwide problem associated with genetic background, environmental factors, and diseases. One of the suspected contributing factors to male infertility is diabetes mellitus. We investigated the molecular and morphological changes in sperms and testicular tissue of diabetic males. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model. Diabetes decreased sperm concentration and viability and increased sperm apoptosis. Changes in protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio indicated reduced sperm quality...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689743/insights-into-transgenerational-epigenetics-from-studies-of-ciliates
#5
REVIEW
Olivia A Pilling, Anna J Rogers, Bethaney Gulla-Devaney, Laura A Katz
Epigenetics, a term with many meanings, can be broadly defined as the study of dynamic states of the genome. Ciliates, a clade of unicellular eukaryotes, can teach us about the intersection of epigenetics and evolution due to the advantages of working with cultivable ciliate lineages, plus their tendency to express extreme phenotypes such as heritable doublet morphology. Moreover, ciliates provide a powerful model for studying epigenetics given the presence of dimorphic nuclei - a somatic macronucleus and germline micronucleus - within each cell...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683715/plant-rrbs-a-bisulfite-and-next-generation-sequencing-based-methylome-profiling-method-enriching-for-coverage-of-cytosine-positions
#6
Martin Schmidt, Michiel Van Bel, Magdalena Woloszynska, Bram Slabbinck, Cindy Martens, Marc De Block, Frederik Coppens, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation in plant genomes is important for the regulation of gene transcription and transposon activity. Genome-wide methylomes are studied upon mutation of the DNA methyltransferases, adaptation to environmental stresses or during development. However, from basic biology to breeding programs, there is a need to monitor multiple samples to determine transgenerational methylation inheritance or differential cytosine methylation. Methylome data obtained by sodium hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)-conversion and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide genome-wide information on cytosine methylation...
July 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659598/differential-effects-of-developmental-thermal-plasticity-across-three-generations-of-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-canalization-and-anticipatory-matching
#7
Amélie Le Roy, Isabella Loughland, Frank Seebacher
Developmental plasticity can match offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions experienced by parents. Such epigenetic modifications are advantageous when parental conditions anticipate offspring environments. Here we show firstly, that developmental plasticity manifests differently in males and females. Secondly, that under stable conditions, phenotypic responses (metabolism and locomotion) accumulate across several generations. Metabolic scope in males was greater at warmer test temperatures (26-36 °C) in offspring bred at warm temperatures (29-30 °C) compared to those bred at cooler temperatures (22-23 °C), lending support to the predictive adaptive hypothesis...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655328/epigenetic-and-chromatin-based-mechanisms-in-environmental-stress-adaptation-and-stress-memory-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Jörn Lämke, Isabel Bäurle
Plants frequently have to weather both biotic and abiotic stressors, and have evolved sophisticated adaptation and defense mechanisms. In recent years, chromatin modifications, nucleosome positioning, and DNA methylation have been recognized as important components in these adaptations. Given their potential epigenetic nature, such modifications may provide a mechanistic basis for a stress memory, enabling plants to respond more efficiently to recurring stress or even to prepare their offspring for potential future assaults...
June 27, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#9
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#10
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583304/transgenerational-inheritance-of-neurobehavioral-and-physiological-deficits-from-developmental-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-in-zebrafish
#11
Andrea L Knecht, Lisa Truong, Skylar W Marvel, David M Reif, Abraham Garcia, Catherine Lu, Michael T Simonich, Justin G Teeguarden, Robert L Tanguay
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0)...
June 3, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576881/assessing-elements-of-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-for-plant-domestication-and-agricultural-origin-research
#12
Dolores R Piperno
The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000-10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571876/experience-induced-transgenerational-re-programming-of-neuronal-structure-and-functions-impact-of-stress-prior-and-during-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Katharina Braun, Jörg Bock, Tamar Wainstock, Emmanuel Matas, Inna Gaisler-Salomon, Jörg Fegert, Ute Ziegenhain, Menahem Segal
This review focuses on the inter- and transgenerational effects of stress experience prior to and during gestation. We provide an overview of findings from studies in humans as well as in animal models on brain structural and physiological functions and on the development of cognitive and executive functions. We also discuss the concept of stress-induced (re-)programming in more detail by highlighting epigenetic mechanisms and particularly those affecting the development of monoaminergic transmitter systems, which constitute the braińs reward system...
May 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554167/elevated-paternal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-memory-retention-in-female-offspring
#14
Shlomo Yeshurun, Jake Rogers, Annabel K Short, Thibault Renoir, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring...
May 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535375/morc-1-integrates-nuclear-rnai-and-transgenerational-chromatin-architecture-to-promote-germline-immortality
#15
Natasha E Weiser, Danny X Yang, Suhua Feng, Natallia Kalinava, Kristen C Brown, Jayshree Khanikar, Mallory A Freeberg, Martha J Snyder, Györgyi Csankovszki, Raymond C Chan, Sam G Gu, Taiowa A Montgomery, Steven E Jacobsen, John K Kim
Germline-expressed endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) transmit multigenerational epigenetic information to ensure fertility in subsequent generations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nuclear RNAi ensures robust inheritance of endo-siRNAs and deposition of repressive H3K9me3 marks at target loci. How target silencing is maintained in subsequent generations is poorly understood. We discovered that morc-1 is essential for transgenerational fertility and acts as an effector of endo-siRNAs. Unexpectedly, morc-1 is dispensable for siRNA inheritance but is required for target silencing and maintenance of siRNA-dependent chromatin organization...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524769/machine-learning-for-epigenetics-and-future-medical-applications
#16
Lawrence B Holder, M Muksitul Haque, Michael K Skinner
Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems with ML to develop a more efficient feature selection process and address the imbalance problem in all genomic data sets...
May 19, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#17
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495853/transgenerational-transmission-of-asthma-risk-after-exposure-to-environmental-particles-during-pregnancy
#18
David J Gregory, Lester Kobzik, Zhiping Yang, Connor C McGuire, Alexey V Fedulov
Exposure to environmental particles during pregnancy increases asthma susceptibility of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that this transmission continues to F2 and F3 generations and occurs via epigenetic mechanisms. We compared allergic susceptibility of three generations of BALB/c offspring after a single maternal exposure during pregnancy to diesel exhaust particles or concentrated urban air particles. After pregnant dams received intranasal instillations of particle suspensions or control, their F1, F2 and F3 offspring were tested in a low-dose ovalbumin protocol for allergy sensitivity...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#19
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479992/pathogen-induced-maternal-effects-result-in-enhanced-immune-responsiveness-across-generations
#20
Rebeca B Rosengaus, Nicole Hays, Colette Biro, James Kemos, Muizz Zaman, Joseph Murray, Bruck Gezahegn, Wendy Smith
Parental investment theory postulates that adults can accurately perceive cues from their surroundings, anticipate the needs of future offspring based on those cues, and selectively allocate nongenetic resources to their progeny. Such context-dependent parental contributions can result in phenotypically variable offspring. Consistent with these predictions, we show that bacterially exposed Manduca sexta mothers oviposited significantly more variable embryos (as measured by mass, volume, hatching time, and hatching success) relative to naïve and control mothers...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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