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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216432/epigenetic-modification-by-dietary-factors-implications-in-metabolic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Dietary factors play a role in normal biological processes and are involved in the regulation of pathological progression over a lifetime. Evidence has emerged indicating that dietary factor-dependent epigenetic modifications can significantly affect genome stability and the expression of mRNA and proteins, which are involved in metabolic dysfunction. Since metabolic syndrome is a progressive phenotype characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, gene-diet interactions are important processes involved in the initiation of particular symptoms of metabolic syndrome and their progression...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212751/stable-heritable-germline-silencing-directs-somatic-silencing-at-an-endogenous-locus
#2
Olga Minkina, Craig P Hunter
The importance of transgenerationally inherited epigenetic states to organismal fitness remains unknown as well-documented examples are often not amenable to mechanistic analysis or rely on artificial reporter loci. Here we describe an induced silenced state at an endogenous locus that persists, at 100% transmission without selection, for up to 13 generations. This unusually persistent silencing enables a detailed molecular genetic analysis of an inherited epigenetic state. We find that silencing is dependent on germline nuclear RNAi factors and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202385/long-term-consequences-of-disrupting-adenosine-signaling-during-embryonic-development
#3
REVIEW
Scott A Rivkees, Christopher C Wendler
There is growing evidence that disruption in the prenatal environment can have long-lasting effects on an individual's health in adulthood. Research on the fetal programming of adult diseases, including cardiovascular disease, focuses on epi-mutations, which alter the normal pattern of epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, miRNA expression, or chromatin modification, rather than traditional genetic alteration. Thus, understanding how in utero chemical exposures alter epigenetics and lead to adult disease is of considerable public health concern...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202230/intergenerational-transmission-of-enhanced-seizure-susceptibility-after-febrile-seizures
#4
Dengchang Wu, Bo Feng, Yunjian Dai, Xiaohua Wu, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Yangshun Tang, Kang Wang, Shihong Zhang, Shuang Wang, Benyan Luo, Zhong Chen
Environmental exposure early in development plays a role in susceptibility to disease in later life. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged febrile seizures induced by exposure of rat pups to a hyperthermic environment enhance seizure susceptibility not only in these hyperthermia-treated rats but also in their future offspring, even if the offspring never experience febrile seizures. This transgenerational transmission was intensity-dependent and was mainly from mothers to their offspring. The transmission was associated with DNA methylation...
February 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#5
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186187/factors-associated-with-aberrant-imprint-methylation-and-oligozoospermia
#6
Norio Kobayashi, Naoko Miyauchi, Nozomi Tatsuta, Akane Kitamura, Hiroaki Okae, Hitoshi Hiura, Akiko Sato, Takafumi Utsunomiya, Nobuo Yaegashi, Kunihiko Nakai, Takahiro Arima
Disturbingly, the number of patients with oligozoospermia (low sperm count) has been gradually increasing in industrialized countries. Epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in this condition. Recent studies have clarified that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes through apparent reprogramming of the male germ line. Here we examined DNA methylation levels of 22 human imprinted loci in a total of 221 purified sperm samples from infertile couples and found methylation alterations in 24...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183434/multigenerational-cohorts-in-patients-with-asthma-and-allergy
#7
S Hasan Arshad, Wilfried Karmaus, Hongmei Zhang, John W Holloway
Recent observations that disease risk can be transmitted across generations without the need for direct exposure of the child to the index environmental insult has sparked interest in transgenerational inheritance. Epigenetics describes processes that modify gene expression without a change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic processes can be induced in response to environmental exposures, can influence disease risk, and might explain these multigenerational effects. In experimental models a number of epigenetic mechanisms have been identified that could mediate vertical transmission of epigenetic inheritance...
February 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#8
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130550/control-of-demeter-dna-demethylase-gene-transcription-in-male-and-female-gamete-companion-cells-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Jin-Sup Park, Jennifer M Frost, Kyunghyuk Park, Hyonhwa Ohr, Guen Tae Park, Seohyun Kim, Hyunjoo Eom, Ilha Lee, Janie S Brooks, Robert L Fischer, Yeonhee Choi
The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell...
January 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125975/embryonic-environment-and-transgenerational-effects-in-quail
#10
Sophie Leroux, David Gourichon, Christine Leterrier, Yann Labrune, Vincent Coustham, Sandrine Rivière, Tatiana Zerjal, Jean-Luc Coville, Mireille Morisson, Francis Minvielle, Frédérique Pitel
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures, for instance to chemicals, are known to impact plant and animal phenotypes on the long term, sometimes across several generations. Such transgenerational phenotypes were shown to be promoted by epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is yet unknown whether transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of altered phenotypes exists in birds. The purpose of this study was to develop an avian model to investigate whether changes to the embryonic environment had a transgenerational effect that could alter the phenotypes of third-generation offspring...
26, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115992/sex-specific-chromatin-landscapes-in-an-ultra-compact-chordate-genome
#11
Pavla Navratilova, Gemma Barbara Danks, Abby Long, Stephen Butcher, John Robert Manak, Eric M Thompson
BACKGROUND: In multicellular organisms, epigenome dynamics are associated with transitions in the cell cycle, development, germline specification, gametogenesis and inheritance. Evolutionarily, regulatory space has increased in complex metazoans to accommodate these functions. In tunicates, the sister lineage to vertebrates, we examine epigenome adaptations to strong secondary genome compaction, sex chromosome evolution and cell cycle modes. RESULTS: Across the 70 MB Oikopleura dioica genome, we profiled 19 histone modifications, and RNA polymerase II, CTCF and p300 occupancies, to define chromatin states within two homogeneous tissues with distinct cell cycle modes: ovarian endocycling nurse nuclei and mitotically proliferating germ nuclei in testes...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115468/live-cell-analysis-of-dna-methylation-during-sexual-reproduction-in-arabidopsis-reveals-context-and-sex-specific-dynamics-controlled-by-noncanonical-rddm
#12
Mathieu Ingouff, Benjamin Selles, Caroline Michaud, Thiet M Vu, Frédéric Berger, Andrea J Schorn, Daphné Autran, Matthias Van Durme, Moritz K Nowack, Robert A Martienssen, Daniel Grimanelli
Cytosine methylation is a key epigenetic mark in many organisms, important for both transcriptional control and genome integrity. While relatively stable during somatic growth, DNA methylation is reprogrammed genome-wide during mammalian reproduction. Reprogramming is essential for zygotic totipotency and to prevent transgenerational inheritance of epimutations. However, the extent of DNA methylation reprogramming in plants remains unclear. Here, we developed sensors reporting with single-cell resolution CG and non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis...
January 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093237/transgenerational-epigenetics-integrating-soma-to-germline-communication-with-gametic-inheritance
#13
REVIEW
Abhay Sharma
Evidence supporting germline mediated epigenetic inheritance of environmentally induced traits has increasingly emerged over the past several years. Although the mechanisms underlying this inheritance remain unclear, recent findings suggest that parental gamete-borne epigenetic factors, particularly RNAs, affect post-fertilization and developmental gene regulation, ultimately leading to phenotypic appearance in the offspring. Complex processes involving gene expression and epigenetic regulation are considered to perpetuate across generations...
January 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#14
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077626/low-dose-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation-induced-bioeffects-in-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069706/dna-sequence-properties-that-predict-susceptibility-to-epiallelic-switching
#16
Marco Catoni, Jayne Griffiths, Claude Becker, Nicolae Radu Zabet, Carlos Bayon, Mélanie Dapp, Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich, Detlef Weigel, Jerzy Paszkowski
Transgenerationally heritable epialleles are defined by the stable propagation of alternative transcriptional states through mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Given that the propagation of DNA methylation at CpG sites, mediated in Arabidopsis by MET1, plays a central role in epigenetic inheritance, we examined genomewide DNA methylation in partial and complete loss-of-function met1 mutants. We interpreted the data in relation to transgenerational epiallelic stability, which allowed us to classify chromosomal targets of epigenetic regulation into (i) single copy and methylated exclusively at CpGs, readily forming epialleles, and (ii) transposon-derived, methylated at all cytosines, which may or may not form epialleles...
January 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067237/environmental-stresses-induce-transgenerationally-inheritable-survival-advantages-via-germline-to-soma-communication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Saya Kishimoto, Masaharu Uno, Emiko Okabe, Masanori Nono, Eisuke Nishida
Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059593/clinical-relevance-of-epigenetics-in-the-onset-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Linda Sommese, Alberto Zullo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Rossella Fabbricini, Andrea Soricelli, Claudio Napoli
Epigenetics is involved in the altered expression of gene networks that underlie insulin resistance and insufficiency. Major genes controlling β-cell differentiation and function, such as PAX4, PDX1, and GLP1 receptor, are epigenetically controlled. Epigenetics can cause insulin resistance through immunomediated pro-inflammatory actions related to several factors, such as NF-kB, osteopontin, and Toll-like receptors. Hereafter, we provide a critical and comprehensive summary on this topic with a particular emphasis on translational and clinical aspects...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#19
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051176/transgenerational-epimutations-induced-by-multi-generation-drought-imposition-mediate-rice-plant-s-adaptation-to-drought-condition
#20
Xiaoguo Zheng, Liang Chen, Hui Xia, Haibin Wei, Qiaojun Lou, Mingshou Li, Tiemei Li, Lijun Luo
Epigenetic mechanisms are crucial mediators of appropriate plant reactions to adverse environments, but their involvement in long-term adaptation is less clear. Here, we established two rice epimutation accumulation lines by applying drought conditions to 11 successive generations of two rice varieties. We took advantage of recent technical advances to examine the role of DNA methylation variations on rice adaptation to drought stress. We found that multi-generational drought improved the drought adaptability of offspring in upland fields...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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