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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230532/rna-mediated-transgenerational-inheritance-in-ciliates-and-plants
#1
REVIEW
Zachary T Neeb, Mariusz Nowacki
In the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and with the availability of whole sequenced genomes and epigenomes, some attention has shifted from purely sequence-based studies to those of heritable epigenetic modifications. Transgenerational inheritance can be defined as heritable changes to the state of DNA that may be passed on to subsequent generations without alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in many systems, studies of transgenerational inheritance in mammals and other higher-level eukaryotes may be complicated by the fact that many epigenetic marks are reprogrammed during sexual reproduction...
December 11, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223657/the-evolutionary-field-hypothesis-non-mendelian-transgenerational-inheritance-mediates-diversification-and-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Corrado Spadafora
Epigenetics is increasingly regarded as a potential contributing factor to evolution. Building on apparently unrelated results, here I propose that RNA-containing nanovesicles, predominantly small regulatory RNAs, are released from somatic tissues in the bloodstream, cross the Weismann barrier, reach the epididymis, and are eventually taken up by spermatozoa; henceforth the information is delivered to oocytes at fertilization. In the model, a LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase activity, present in spermatozoa and early embryos, plays a key role in amplifying and propagating these RNAs as extrachromosomal structures...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221677/epigenetic-regulation-of-biological-rhythms-an-evolutionary-ancient-molecular-timer
#4
REVIEW
Tyler J Stevenson
Biological rhythms are pervasive in nature, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern timing is far from complete. The rapidly emerging research focus on epigenetic plasticity has revealed a system that is highly dynamic and reversible. In this Opinion, I propose an epigenetic clock model that outlines how molecular modifications, such as DNA methylation, are integral components for timing endogenous biological rhythms. The hypothesis proposed is that an epigenetic clock serves to maintain the period of molecular rhythms via control over the phase of gene transcription and this timing mechanism resides in all cells, from unicellular to complex organisms...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218402/linking-inter-individual-variability-to-endocrine-disruptors-insights-for-epigenetic-inheritance
#5
Sarah E Latchney, Ashley M Fields, Martha Susiarjo
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce a myriad of adverse health effects. An area of active investigation is the multi- and transgenerational inheritance of EDC-induced adverse health effects referring to the transmission of phenotypes across multiple generations via the germline. The inheritance of EDC-induced adverse health effects across multiple generations can occur independent of genetics, spurring much research into the transmission of underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the development of an organism and are responsive to environmental exposures...
December 7, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209738/the-impact-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-cancer-progression
#6
REVIEW
Chon-Kit Chou, Ya-Ting Yang, Ho-Chun Yang, Shih-Shin Liang, Tsu-Nai Wang, Po-Lin Kuo, Hui-Min David Wang, Eing-Mei Tsai, Chien-Chih Chiu
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, mainly serves as an additive to render polyvinyl chloride (PVC) soft and flexible. PVC plastics have become ubiquitous in our modern society. Yet, the leaching of DEHP from PVC-based consumables ultimately results in the deposition in certain tissues via inadvertent applications. Health risks for human populations exposed to DEHP has been assumed by studies on rodents and other species, including the DEHP-induced developmental dysregulation, reproductive impairments, tumorigenesis, and diseases in a transgenerational manner...
December 5, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203518/dna-methylation-in-epigenetic-inheritance-of-metabolic-diseases-through-the-male-germ-line
#7
Louise Rh Illum, Stine T Bak, Sten Lund, Anders Lade Nielsen
The global rise in metabolic diseases can be attributed to a complex interplay between biology, behavior and environmental factors. This article reviews the current literature concerning DNA methylation-based epigenetic inheritance (intergenerational and transgenerational) of metabolic diseases through the male germ line. Included are a presentation of the basic principles for DNA methylation in developmental programming, and a description of windows of susceptibility for the inheritance of environmentally induced aberrations in DNA methylation and their associated metabolic disease phenotypes...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172130/multigenerational-effects-of-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor-4-mbc-on-the-survival-development-and-reproduction-of-the-marine-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#8
Leyun Chen, Xiaolin Li, Haizheng Hong, Dalin Shi
One of the most widely used organic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), is present at high concentrations in offshore waters. The marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different concentrations of 4-MBC (i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10μgL(-1)) for 4 consecutive generations (F0-F3) to evaluate the impact of 4-MBC on marine ecosystems. The results showed that in the F0 generation, 4-MBC caused significant lethal toxicity in T. japonicas at concentrations of 5 and 10μgL(-1) and the nauplii were more sensitive to 4-MBC toxicity than the adults...
November 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168895/epigenetics-as-a-driver-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-did-we-forget-the-fathers
#9
REVIEW
Adelheid Soubry
What are the effects of our environment on human development and the next generation? Numerous studies have provided ample evidence that a healthy environment and lifestyle of the mother is important for her offspring. Biological mechanisms underlying these environmental influences have been proposed to involve alterations in the epigenome. Is there enough evidence to suggest a similar contribution from the part of the father? Animal models provide proof of a transgenerational epigenetic effect through the paternal germ line, but can this be translated to humans? To date, literature on fathers is scarce...
November 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147574/generational-comparisons-f1-versus-f3-of-vinclozolin-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-sperm-differential-dna-methylation-regions-epimutations-using-medip-seq
#10
Daniel Beck, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Michael K Skinner
Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation has been shown to involve DNA methylation alterations in the germline (e.g. sperm). These differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) are termed epimutations and in part transmit the transgenerational phenotypes. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin exposure of a gestating female rat has previously been shown to promote transgenerational disease and epimutations in F3 generation (great-grand-offspring) animals...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129606/transgenerational-blunting-of-morphine-induced-corticosterone-secretion-is-associated-with-dysregulated-gene-expression-in-male-offspring
#11
Fair M Vassoler, Anika M Toorie, Elizabeth M Byrnes
A number of parental experiences, even when occurring prior to conception, have been shown to induce transgenerational effects beyond the first generation. In the case of exposure to drugs of abuse, studies in rodents suggest that offspring demonstrate significant differences in how they respond to the drug to which their parent was exposed. We have previously observed significant alterations in morphine analgesia, conditioned place preference and self-administration in the offspring of females exposed to morphine during adolescent development...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119291/determination-of-histone-epigenetic-marks-in-arabidopsis-and-tomato-genes-in-the-early-response-to-botrytis-cinerea
#12
Óscar Crespo-Salvador, Mónica Escamilla-Aguilar, Jaime López-Cruz, Gerardo López-Rodas, Carmen González-Bosch
Determination of histone epigenetic marks in Arabidopsis and tomato genes in the early response to Botrytis cinerea may contribute to find biomarkers of the early detection of this devastating pathogen. Recent studies have linked epigenetic modifications with plant responses to biotic stresses. Information about specific histone marks upon necrotrophic pathogens is scarce. Here we wondered whether the altered responsiveness of specific genes in plants infected with Botrytis cinerea was associated with changes in chromatin structure...
November 8, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106518/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-and-neocortical-development-a-transgenerational-model-of-fasd
#13
Charles W Abbott, David J Rohac, Riley T Bottom, Sahil Patadia, Kelly J Huffman
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, represent a range of adverse developmental conditions caused by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) from maternal consumption of alcohol. PrEE induces neurobiological damage in the developing brain leading to cognitive-perceptual and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Alcohol-mediated alterations to epigenetic function may underlie PrEE-related brain dysfunction, with these changes potentially carried across generations to unexposed offspring. To determine the transgenerational impact of PrEE on neocortical development, we generated a mouse model of FASD and identified numerous stable phenotypes transmitted via the male germline to the unexposed third generation...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103876/intergenerational-transmission-of-gene-regulatory-information-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
REVIEW
Olga Minkina, Craig P Hunter
Epigenetic mechanisms can stably maintain gene expression states even after the initiating conditions have changed. Often epigenetic information is transmitted only to daughter cells, but evidence is emerging, in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI), the transmission of epigenetic gene regulatory information across generations. Each new description of TEI helps uncover the properties, molecular mechanisms and biological roles for TEI. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been particularly instrumental in the effort to understand TEI, as multiple environmental and genetic triggers can initiate an epigenetic signal that can alter the expression of both transgenes and endogenous loci...
November 2, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080023/bidirectional-effects-of-mother-young-contact-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-brains
#15
Gabriela González-Mariscal, Angel I Melo
Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032426/transgenerational-stress-adaption-an-opportunity-for-ecological-epigenetics
#16
Arne Weinhold
In the recent years, there has been considerable interest to investigate the adaptive transgenerational plasticity of plants and how a "stress memory" can be transmitted to the following generation. Although, increasing evidence suggests that transgenerational adaptive responses have widespread ecological relevance, the underlying epigenetic processes have rarely been elucidated. On the other hand, model plant species have been deeply investigated in their genome-wide methylation landscape without connecting this to the ecological reality of the plant...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983410/paternal-pachytene-pirnas-are-not-required-for-fertilization-embryonic-development-and-sperm-mediated-epigenetic-inheritance-in-mice
#17
Shuiqiao Yuan, Chong Tang, Andrew Schuster, Ying Zhang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
Pachytene piRNAs are MIWI-/MILI-bound small RNAs abundantly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids in adult mouse testes. Miwi knockout (KO) male mice are sterile due to spermiogenic arrest. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm-borne piRNAs appear to have an epigenetic role during fertilization and development because progeny of individuals with piRNA-deficient gametes display a progressive loss of fertility after several generations. In mice, it remains unknown whether pachytene piRNA-deficient round spermatids can produce offspring, and whether the progeny of Miwi mutants also exhibits transgenerational, progressive fertility loss...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982377/environmental-epigenetics-in-zebrafish
#18
REVIEW
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Giovanni Spinelli
It is widely accepted that the epigenome can act as the link between environmental cues, both external and internal, to the organism and phenotype by converting the environmental stimuli to phenotypic responses through changes in gene transcription outcomes. Environmental stress endured by individual organisms can also enforce epigenetic variations in offspring that had never experienced it directly, which is termed transgenerational inheritance. To date, research in the environmental epigenetics discipline has used a wide range of both model and non-model organisms to elucidate the various epigenetic mechanisms underlying the adaptive response to environmental stimuli...
October 5, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950428/cigarette-smoking-significantly-alters-sperm-dna-methylation-patterns
#19
T G Jenkins, E R James, D F Alonso, J R Hoidal, P J Murphy, J M Hotaling, B R Cairns, D T Carrell, K I Aston
Numerous health consequences of tobacco smoke exposure have been characterized, and the effects of smoking on traditional measures of male fertility are well described. However, a growing body of data indicates that pre-conception paternal smoking also confers increased risk for a number of morbidities on offspring. The mechanism for this increased risk has not been elucidated, but it is likely mediated, at least in part, through epigenetic modifications transmitted through spermatozoa. In this study, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke exposure on sperm DNA methylation patterns in 78 men who smoke and 78 never-smokers using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 beadchip...
November 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945943/the-role-of-epigenomics-in-aquatic-toxicology
#20
Susanne M Brander, Adam D Biales, Richard E Connon
Over the past decade, the field of molecular biology has rapidly incorporated epigenetic studies to evaluate organism-environment interactions that can result in chronic effects. Such responses arise from early life stage stress, the utilization of genetic information over an individual's life time, and transgenerational inheritance. Knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms provides the potential for a comprehensive evaluation of multigenerational and heritable effects from environmental stressors, such as contaminants...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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