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transgenerational epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807754/transgenerational-effects-of-early-environmental-insults-on-aging-and-disease-incidence
#1
REVIEW
Mirela Ambeskovic, Tessa J Roseboom, Gerlinde A S Metz
Adverse early life experiences are major influences on developmental trajectories with potentially life-long consequences. Prenatal or early postnatal exposure to stress, undernutrition or environmental toxicants may reprogram brain development and increase risk of behavioural and neurological disorders later in life. Not only experience within a single lifetime, but also ancestral experience affects health trajectories and chances of successful aging. The central mechanism in transgenerational programming of a disease may the formation of epigenetic memory...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779964/the-c-elegans-set-2-set1-histone-h3-lys4-h3k4-methyltransferase-preserves-genome-stability-in-the-germline
#2
M Herbette, M G Mercier, F Michal, D Cluet, C Burny, G Yvert, V J Robert, F Palladino
Maintaining the integrity of genetic information across generations is essential for both cell survival and reproduction, and requires the timely repair of DNA damage. Histone-modifying enzymes play a central role in the DNA repair process through the deposition and removal of post-translational modifications on the histone tails. Specific histone modification act in the DNA repair process through the recruitment of proteins and complexes with specific enzymatic activities, or by altering the chromatin state at the site of DNA lesions...
July 29, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761010/the-placental-gateway-of-maternal-transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance
#3
S Purnima Sailasree, Surabhi Srivastava, Rakesh K Mishra
While much of our understanding of genetic inheritance is based on the genome of the organism, it is becoming clear that there is an ample amount of epigenetic inheritance, which though reversible, escapes erasing process during gametogenesis and goes on to the next generation. Several examples of transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic features with potential impact on embryonic development and subsequent adult life have come to light. In placental mammals, the placenta is an additional route for epigenetic information flow...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761008/epigenetic-inheritance-prions-and-evolution
#4
Johannes Manjrekar
The field of epigenetics has grown explosively in the past two decades or so. As currently defined, epigenetics deals with heritable, metastable and usually reversible changes that do not involve alterations in DNA sequence, but alter the way that information encoded inDNAis utilized.The bulk of current research in epigenetics concerns itself with mitotically inherited epigenetic processes underlying development or responses to environmental cues (as well as the role of mis-regulation or dys-regulation of such processes in disease and ageing), i...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750703/translational-perspective-on-epigenetics-in%C3%A2-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pim van der Harst, Leon J de Windt, John C Chambers
A plethora of environmental and behavioral factors interact, resulting in changes in gene expression and providing a basis for the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity in gene expression responses among cells and individuals involves epigenetic mechanisms. Advancing technology allowing genome-scale interrogation of epigenetic marks provides a rapidly expanding view of the complexity and diversity of the epigenome. In this review, the authors discuss the expanding landscape of epigenetic modifications and highlight their importance for future understanding of disease...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750655/non-genomic-transmission-of-longevity-between-generations-potential-mechanisms-and%C3%A2-evidence-across-species
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Randy L Jirtle
Accumulating animal and human data indicate that environmental exposures experienced during sensitive developmental periods may strongly influence risk of adult disease. Moreover, the effects triggered by developmental environmental cues can be transgenerationally transmitted, potentially affecting offspring health outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests a central role of epigenetic mechanisms (heritable alterations in gene expression occurring without changes in underlying DNA sequence) in mediating these effects...
July 27, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747973/effect-of-ionizing-radiation-at-low-dose-on-transgenerational-carcinogenesis-by-epigenetic-regulation
#7
Lan Li, Jong-Hyun Kim, Hee-Tae Park, Jae-Hoon Lee, Min-Koo Park, Ji-Won Lee, Jeong-Chan Lee, Min-Jae Lee
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure of parents on carcinogenesis of the next generation focusing on the epigenetic perspective to clarify the relationship between radiation dose and carcinogenesis in F1 generation SD rats. F1 generations from pregnant rats (F0) who were exposed to gamma rays were divided into three groups according to the dose of radiation: 10 rad, 30 rad, and untreated. They were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745897/incorporating-transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-into-ecological-risk-assessment-frameworks
#8
Jennifer L A Shaw, Jonathan D Judy, Anupama Kumar, Paul Bertsch, Ming-Bo Wang, Jason K Kirby
Chronic exposure to environmental contaminants can induce heritable 'transgenerational' modifications to organisms, potentially affecting future ecosystem health and functionality. Incorporating transgenerational epigenetic heritability into risk assessment procedures has been previously suggested. However, a critical review of existing literature yielded numerous studies claiming transgenerational impacts, with little compelling evidence. Therefore, contaminant-induced epigenetic inheritance may be less common than is reported in the literature...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727826/germline-and-reproductive-tract-effects-intensify-in-male-mice-with-successive-generations-of-estrogenic-exposure
#9
Tegan S Horan, Alyssa Marre, Terry Hassold, Crystal Lawson, Patricia A Hunt
The hypothesis that developmental estrogenic exposure induces a constellation of male reproductive tract abnormalities is supported by experimental and human evidence. Experimental data also suggest that some induced effects persist in descendants of exposed males. These multi- and transgenerational effects are assumed to result from epigenetic changes to the germline, but few studies have directly analyzed germ cells. Typically, studies of transgenerational effects have involved exposing one generation and monitoring effects in subsequent unexposed generations...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719883/sublethal-insecticide-exposure-affects-reproduction-chemical-phenotype-as-well-as-offspring-development-and-antennae-symmetry-of-a-leaf-beetle
#10
Thorben Müller, Alexander Prosche, Caroline Müller
The area of agriculturally used land and following to that the use of pesticides are steadily increasing. Insecticides do not only reduce pest organisms on crops but can also affect non-target organisms when present in sublethal concentrations in the environment. We investigated the effects of an exposure to sublethal pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) concentrations, at doses 20 and 60 times lower than the LC50, respectively, on reproductive traits and adult cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of a leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae Fabricius)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#11
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702320/parental-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-changes-in-the-f2-generation-in-drosophila
#12
Rebecca A S Palu, Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
OBJECTIVE: A significant portion of the heritable risk for complex metabolic disorders cannot be attributed to classic Mendelian genetic factors. At least some of this missing heritability is thought to be due to the epigenetic influence of parental and grandparental metabolic state on offspring health. Previous work suggests that this transgenerational phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. These studies, however, have all depended on dietary paradigms to alter parental metabolic state, which can have inconsistent heritable effects on the metabolism of offspring...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694462/transgenerational-inheritance-of-susceptibility-to-diabetes-induced-male-subfertility
#13
Gabriela Pavlinkova, Hasmik Margaryan, Eva Zatecka, Eliska Valaskova, Fatima Elzeinova, Alena Kubatova, Romana Bohuslavova, Jana Peknicova
Male infertility is a worldwide problem associated with genetic background, environmental factors, and diseases. One of the suspected contributing factors to male infertility is diabetes mellitus. We investigated the molecular and morphological changes in sperms and testicular tissue of diabetic males. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model. Diabetes decreased sperm concentration and viability and increased sperm apoptosis. Changes in protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio indicated reduced sperm quality...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689743/insights-into-transgenerational-epigenetics-from-studies-of-ciliates
#14
REVIEW
Olivia A Pilling, Anna J Rogers, Bethaney Gulla-Devaney, Laura A Katz
Epigenetics, a term with many meanings, can be broadly defined as the study of dynamic states of the genome. Ciliates, a clade of unicellular eukaryotes, can teach us about the intersection of epigenetics and evolution due to the advantages of working with cultivable ciliate lineages, plus their tendency to express extreme phenotypes such as heritable doublet morphology. Moreover, ciliates provide a powerful model for studying epigenetics given the presence of dimorphic nuclei - a somatic macronucleus and germline micronucleus - within each cell...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683715/plant-rrbs-a-bisulfite-and-next-generation-sequencing-based-methylome-profiling-method-enriching-for-coverage-of-cytosine-positions
#15
Martin Schmidt, Michiel Van Bel, Magdalena Woloszynska, Bram Slabbinck, Cindy Martens, Marc De Block, Frederik Coppens, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation in plant genomes is important for the regulation of gene transcription and transposon activity. Genome-wide methylomes are studied upon mutation of the DNA methyltransferases, adaptation to environmental stresses or during development. However, from basic biology to breeding programs, there is a need to monitor multiple samples to determine transgenerational methylation inheritance or differential cytosine methylation. Methylome data obtained by sodium hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)-conversion and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide genome-wide information on cytosine methylation...
July 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659598/differential-effects-of-developmental-thermal-plasticity-across-three-generations-of-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-canalization-and-anticipatory-matching
#16
Amélie Le Roy, Isabella Loughland, Frank Seebacher
Developmental plasticity can match offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions experienced by parents. Such epigenetic modifications are advantageous when parental conditions anticipate offspring environments. Here we show firstly, that developmental plasticity manifests differently in males and females. Secondly, that under stable conditions, phenotypic responses (metabolism and locomotion) accumulate across several generations. Metabolic scope in males was greater at warmer test temperatures (26-36 °C) in offspring bred at warm temperatures (29-30 °C) compared to those bred at cooler temperatures (22-23 °C), lending support to the predictive adaptive hypothesis...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655328/epigenetic-and-chromatin-based-mechanisms-in-environmental-stress-adaptation-and-stress-memory-in-plants
#17
REVIEW
Jörn Lämke, Isabel Bäurle
Plants frequently have to weather both biotic and abiotic stressors, and have evolved sophisticated adaptation and defense mechanisms. In recent years, chromatin modifications, nucleosome positioning, and DNA methylation have been recognized as important components in these adaptations. Given their potential epigenetic nature, such modifications may provide a mechanistic basis for a stress memory, enabling plants to respond more efficiently to recurring stress or even to prepare their offspring for potential future assaults...
June 27, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#18
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#19
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583304/transgenerational-inheritance-of-neurobehavioral-and-physiological-deficits-from-developmental-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-in-zebrafish
#20
Andrea L Knecht, Lisa Truong, Skylar W Marvel, David M Reif, Abraham Garcia, Catherine Lu, Michael T Simonich, Justin G Teeguarden, Robert L Tanguay
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0)...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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