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secretory immunoglobulin a

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879521/fcrla-a-resident-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-that-associates-with-multiple-immunoglobulin-isotypes-in-b-lineage-cells
#1
Tessa E Blackburn, Teresa Santiago, Peter D Burrows
FCRLA is homologous to receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcγR) and is located in the same region of human chromosome one, but has several unusual and unique features. It is a soluble resident ER protein retained in this organelle by unknown mechanisms involving the N-terminal domain, a disordered domain with three Cys residues in close proximity in the human protein. Unlike the FcγRs, FCRLA is not glycosylated and has no transmembrane region. FCRLA is included in this CTMI volume on IgM-binding proteins because it binds IgM in the ER, but quite surprisingly, given the isotype-restricted ligand specificity of the other FcRs, it also binds all other Ig isotypes so far tested, IgG and IgA...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866292/the-road-to-a-more-effective-influenza-vaccine-up-to-date-studies-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Kaori Sano, Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Hideki Hasegawa
Influenza virus causes an acute respiratory infection in humans. Frequent point mutations in the influenza genome and occasional exchange of genetic segments between virus strains help the virus evade the pre-existing immunity, resulting in epidemics and pandemics. Although vaccination is the most effective intervention, mismatches between circulating viruses and vaccine strains reduce vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, current injectable vaccines induce IgG antibodies in serum (which limit progression of influenza symptoms) but not secretory IgA antibodies in the respiratory mucosa (which prevent virus infection efficiently)...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858222/diurnal-changes-in-distribution-characteristics-of-salivary-cortisol-and-immunoglobulin-a-concentrations
#3
Hiromitsu Kobayashi, Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Bum-Jin Park, Takahide Kagawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
Salivary cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) are important biomarkers for environmental and public health research. The present study investigated the diurnal variations of these salivary biomarkers, with a focus on the change of distribution characteristics (i.e., skewness and kurtosis) of the concentrations. The participants in this study were 113 healthy young males. Salivary samples were collected in the morning (6:30-7:30 a.m.) and afternoon (1:00-4:00 p.m.). The skewness and kurtosis of salivary cortisol concentrations in afternoon samples (skewness = 1...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855300/an-alzheimer-associated-trem2-variant-occurs-at-the-adam-cleavage-site-and-affects-shedding-and-phagocytic-function
#4
Kai Schlepckow, Gernot Kleinberger, Akio Fukumori, Regina Feederle, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Harald Steiner, Christian Haass
Sequence variations occurring in the gene encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) support an essential function of microglia and innate immunity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. TREM2 matures within the secretory pathway, and its ectodomain is shed on the plasma membrane. Missense mutations in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain such as p.T66M and p.Y38C retain TREM2 within the endoplasmic reticulum and reduce shedding as well as TREM2-dependent phagocytosis...
August 30, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843478/chronic-alcohol-consumption-regulates-the-expression-of-poly-immunoglobulin-receptor-pigr-and-secretory-iga-in-the-gut
#5
María C López
The effect of ethanol (EtOH) on the gut immune system was analyzed using an experimental model previously described, where EtOH was provided ad libitum in the drinking water in a 20% w/v concentration for up to 12weeks. Dendritic cells, T cells and macrophages were analyzed in Peyer's patches and the small intestines using flow cytometry. Cytokine and immunoglobulin levels were analyzed in sera, feces, and homogenates from small and large intestines and lungs. Decreases in the proportion of T cells and alterations in dendritic cells and macrophages were observed after EtOH treatment...
August 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835984/relapsing-remitting-type-1-diabetes
#6
Kayleigh M van Megen, Matthew P Spindler, Fleur M Keij, Ineke Bosch, Fleur Sprangers, Annet van Royen-Kerkhof, Tatjana Nikolic, Bart O Roep
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes is believed to be an autoimmune disease associated with irreversible loss of insulin secretory function that follows a chronic progressive course. However, it has been speculated that relapsing/remitting disease progression may occur in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We report the case of an 18-year-old girl with Graves' disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multiple islet autoantibodies, presenting with relapsing/remitting hyperglycaemia...
August 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#7
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790976/factors-affecting-measurement-of-salivary-cortisol-and-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-in-field-studies-of-athletes
#8
Barry Thomas Pritchard, Warren Stanton, Roger Lord, Peter Petocz, Gert-Jan Pepping
AIMS: Biological and lifestyle factors, such as daily rhythm, caffeine ingestion, recent infection, and antibiotic intake, have been shown to influence measurements of salivary cortisol (SC) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Current methodology in unsynchronized, field-based biomarker studies does not take these effects into account. Moreover, very little is known about the combined effects of biological and lifestyle factors on SC and sIgA. This study supports development of a protocol for measuring biomarkers from saliva collected in field studies by examining the individual and combined effects of these factors on SC and sIgA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783693/primary-immunodeficiencies-suggest-redundancy-within-the-human-immune-system
#9
REVIEW
Alain Fischer, Antonio Rausell
Pathogen-driven evolution has shaped the complexity of the human immune system. Our genome contains at least 1854 gene products involved in immune responses. However, the redundancy and robustness of the immune system need further characterization. One way to examine this redundancy is through the study of monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) associated with infections. Causal mutations affecting innate immunity genes are, in relative terms, close to seven times less frequent than those affecting adaptive immunity genes in PIDs...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780981/functional-and-structural-characteristics-of-secretory-iga-antibodies-elicited-by-mucosal-vaccines-against-influenza-virus
#10
REVIEW
Tadaki Suzuki, Akira Ainai, Hideki Hasegawa
Mucosal tissues are major targets for pathogens. The secretions covering mucosal surfaces contain several types of molecules that protect the host from infection. Among these, mucosal immunoglobulins, including secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies, are the major contributor to pathogen-specific immune responses. IgA is the primary antibody class found in many external secretions and has unique structural and functional features not observed in other antibody classes. Recently, extensive efforts have been made to develop novel vaccines that induce immunity via the mucosal route...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769758/the-role-of-bip-retrieval-by-the-kdel-receptor-in-the-early-secretory-pathway-and-its-effect-on-protein-quality-control-and-neurodegeneration
#11
REVIEW
Hisayo Jin, Mari Komita, Tomohiko Aoe
Protein quality control in the early secretory pathway is a ubiquitous eukaryotic mechanism for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An ER molecular chaperone, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), is one of the essential components in this process. BiP interacts with nascent proteins to facilitate their folding. BiP also plays an important role in preventing aggregation of misfolded proteins and regulating the ER stress response when cells suffer various injuries. BiP is a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family of molecular chaperones that resides in the ER...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#12
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745325/the-regulation-of-gut-mucosal-iga-b-cell-responses-recent-developments
#13
REVIEW
N Y Lycke, M Bemark
The majority of activated B cells differentiate into IgA plasma cells, with the gut being the largest producer of immunoglobulin in the body. Secretory IgA antibodies have numerous critical functions of which protection against infections and the role for establishing a healthy microbiota appear most important. Expanding our knowledge of the regulation of IgA B-cell responses and how effective mucosal vaccines can be designed are of critical importance. Here we discuss recent developments in the field that shed light on the uniqueness and complexity of mucosal IgA responses and the control of protective IgA responses in the gut, specifically...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717322/th1-th2-balance-and-humoral-immune-response-to-potential-antigens-as-early-diagnostic-method-of-equine-strongylus-nematode-infection
#14
Faten A M Abo-Aziza, Seham H M Hendawy, Amira H El Namaky, Heba M Ashry
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylusvulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709802/human-secretory-igm-emerges-from-plasma-cells-clonally-related-to-gut-memory-b-cells-and-targets-highly-diverse-commensals
#15
Giuliana Magri, Laura Comerma, Marc Pybus, Jordi Sintes, David Lligé, Daniel Segura-Garzón, Sabrina Bascones, Ada Yeste, Emilie K Grasset, Cindy Gutzeit, Mathieu Uzzan, Meera Ramanujam, Menno C van Zelm, Raquel Albero-González, Ivonne Vazquez, Mar Iglesias, Sergi Serrano, Lucía Márquez, Elena Mercade, Saurabh Mehandru, Andrea Cerutti
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) enhances host-microbiota symbiosis, whereas SIgM remains poorly understood. We found that gut IgM(+) plasma cells (PCs) were more abundant in humans than mice and clonally related to a large repertoire of memory IgM(+) B cells disseminated throughout the intestine but rare in systemic lymphoid organs. In addition to sharing a gut-specific gene signature with memory IgA(+) B cells, memory IgM(+) B cells were related to some IgA(+) clonotypes and switched to IgA in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent signals...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686733/the-short-mrna-isoform-of-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-member-1-gene-encodes-an-intracellular-glycoprotein
#16
Ying Wang, Emilie Brûlé, Tanya Silander, Beata Bak, Sjoerd D Joustra, Daniel J Bernard
Mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 gene (IGSF1/Igsf1) cause an X-linked form of central hypothyroidism. The canonical form of IGSF1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with 12 immunoglobulin (Ig) loops. The protein is co-translationally cleaved into two sub-domains. The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD), which contains the last 7 Ig loops, is trafficked to the plasma membrane. Most pathogenic mutations in IGSF1 map to the portion of the gene encoding the CTD. IGSF1/Igsf1 encodes a variety of transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667527/isolation-of-antibodies-from-human-plasma-saliva-breast-milk-and-gastrointestinal-fluid
#17
Christoph Schneider, Marlies Illi, Marius Lötscher, Marc Wehrli, Stephan von Gunten
Different protocols are required for the collection and isolation of antibodies from various body sites. For the sample collection factors to be considered include anatomic or physiological particularities. Secretory fluids such as saliva, gastrointestinal fluid, or breast milk may contain degrading enzymes that potentially affect the integrity of isolated antibodies. While the isolation of IgG from plasma is a common and often-described procedure, here we focus on methodological approaches to isolate antibodies immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM from plasma or secretory fluids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#18
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#19
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619231/endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-tweak-the-mitochondrial-calcium-rheostat-to-control-metabolism-and-cell-death
#20
REVIEW
Tomas Gutiérrez, Thomas Simmen
The folding of secretory proteins is a well-understood mechanism, based on decades of research on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones. These chaperones interact with newly imported polypeptides close to the ER translocon. Classic examples for these proteins include the immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and the lectins calnexin and calreticulin. Although not considered chaperones per se, the ER oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family complete the folding job by catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds through cysteine oxidation...
May 31, 2017: Cell Calcium
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