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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#1
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790976/factors-affecting-measurement-of-salivary-cortisol-and-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-in-field-studies-of-athletes
#2
Barry Thomas Pritchard, Warren Stanton, Roger Lord, Peter Petocz, Gert-Jan Pepping
AIMS: Biological and lifestyle factors, such as daily rhythm, caffeine ingestion, recent infection, and antibiotic intake, have been shown to influence measurements of salivary cortisol (SC) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Current methodology in unsynchronized, field-based biomarker studies does not take these effects into account. Moreover, very little is known about the combined effects of biological and lifestyle factors on SC and sIgA. This study supports development of a protocol for measuring biomarkers from saliva collected in field studies by examining the individual and combined effects of these factors on SC and sIgA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783693/primary-immunodeficiencies-suggest-redundancy-within-the-human-immune-system
#3
REVIEW
Alain Fischer, Antonio Rausell
Pathogen-driven evolution has shaped the complexity of the human immune system. Our genome contains at least 1854 gene products involved in immune responses. However, the redundancy and robustness of the immune system need further characterization. One way to examine this redundancy is through the study of monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) associated with infections. Causal mutations affecting innate immunity genes are, in relative terms, close to seven times less frequent than those affecting adaptive immunity genes in PIDs...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780981/functional-and-structural-characteristics-of-secretory-iga-antibodies-elicited-by-mucosal-vaccines-against-influenza-virus
#4
REVIEW
Tadaki Suzuki, Akira Ainai, Hideki Hasegawa
Mucosal tissues are major targets for pathogens. The secretions covering mucosal surfaces contain several types of molecules that protect the host from infection. Among these, mucosal immunoglobulins, including secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies, are the major contributor to pathogen-specific immune responses. IgA is the primary antibody class found in many external secretions and has unique structural and functional features not observed in other antibody classes. Recently, extensive efforts have been made to develop novel vaccines that induce immunity via the mucosal route...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769758/the-role-of-bip-retrieval-by-the-kdel-receptor-in-the-early-secretory-pathway-and-its-effect-on-protein-quality-control-and-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Hisayo Jin, Mari Komita, Tomohiko Aoe
Protein quality control in the early secretory pathway is a ubiquitous eukaryotic mechanism for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An ER molecular chaperone, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), is one of the essential components in this process. BiP interacts with nascent proteins to facilitate their folding. BiP also plays an important role in preventing aggregation of misfolded proteins and regulating the ER stress response when cells suffer various injuries. BiP is a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family of molecular chaperones that resides in the ER...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#6
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
August 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745325/the-regulation-of-gut-mucosal-iga-b-cell-responses-recent-developments
#7
REVIEW
N Y Lycke, M Bemark
The majority of activated B cells differentiate into IgA plasma cells, with the gut being the largest producer of immunoglobulin in the body. Secretory IgA antibodies have numerous critical functions of which protection against infections and the role for establishing a healthy microbiota appear most important. Expanding our knowledge of the regulation of IgA B-cell responses and how effective mucosal vaccines can be designed are of critical importance. Here we discuss recent developments in the field that shed light on the uniqueness and complexity of mucosal IgA responses and the control of protective IgA responses in the gut, specifically...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717322/th1-th2-balance-and-humoral-immune-response-to-potential-antigens-as-early-diagnostic-method-of-equine-strongylus-nematode-infection
#8
Faten A M Abo-Aziza, Seham H M Hendawy, Amira H El Namaky, Heba M Ashry
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylusvulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709802/human-secretory-igm-emerges-from-plasma-cells-clonally-related-to-gut-memory-b-cells-and-targets-highly-diverse-commensals
#9
Giuliana Magri, Laura Comerma, Marc Pybus, Jordi Sintes, David Lligé, Daniel Segura-Garzón, Sabrina Bascones, Ada Yeste, Emilie K Grasset, Cindy Gutzeit, Mathieu Uzzan, Meera Ramanujam, Menno C van Zelm, Raquel Albero-González, Ivonne Vazquez, Mar Iglesias, Sergi Serrano, Lucía Márquez, Elena Mercade, Saurabh Mehandru, Andrea Cerutti
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) enhances host-microbiota symbiosis, whereas SIgM remains poorly understood. We found that gut IgM(+) plasma cells (PCs) were more abundant in humans than mice and clonally related to a large repertoire of memory IgM(+) B cells disseminated throughout the intestine but rare in systemic lymphoid organs. In addition to sharing a gut-specific gene signature with memory IgA(+) B cells, memory IgM(+) B cells were related to some IgA(+) clonotypes and switched to IgA in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent signals...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686733/the-short-mrna-isoform-of-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-member-1-gene-encodes-an-intracellular-glycoprotein
#10
Ying Wang, Emilie Brûlé, Tanya Silander, Beata Bak, Sjoerd D Joustra, Daniel J Bernard
Mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 gene (IGSF1/Igsf1) cause an X-linked form of central hypothyroidism. The canonical form of IGSF1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with 12 immunoglobulin (Ig) loops. The protein is co-translationally cleaved into two sub-domains. The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD), which contains the last 7 Ig loops, is trafficked to the plasma membrane. Most pathogenic mutations in IGSF1 map to the portion of the gene encoding the CTD. IGSF1/Igsf1 encodes a variety of transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667527/isolation-of-antibodies-from-human-plasma-saliva-breast-milk-and-gastrointestinal-fluid
#11
Christoph Schneider, Marlies Illi, Marius Lötscher, Marc Wehrli, Stephan von Gunten
Different protocols are required for the collection and isolation of antibodies from various body sites. For the sample collection factors to be considered include anatomic or physiological particularities. Secretory fluids such as saliva, gastrointestinal fluid, or breast milk may contain degrading enzymes that potentially affect the integrity of isolated antibodies. While the isolation of IgG from plasma is a common and often-described procedure, here we focus on methodological approaches to isolate antibodies immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM from plasma or secretory fluids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#12
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#13
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619231/endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-tweak-the-mitochondrial-calcium-rheostat-to-control-metabolism-and-cell-death
#14
REVIEW
Tomas Gutiérrez, Thomas Simmen
The folding of secretory proteins is a well-understood mechanism, based on decades of research on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones. These chaperones interact with newly imported polypeptides close to the ER translocon. Classic examples for these proteins include the immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and the lectins calnexin and calreticulin. Although not considered chaperones per se, the ER oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family complete the folding job by catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds through cysteine oxidation...
May 31, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617764/oropharyngeal-colostrum-administration-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Yuxia Zhang, Futing Ji, Xiaojing Hu, Yun Cao, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed the safety of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on immune system is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin in very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Forty-bedded neonatal ICU in a university children's hospital in the People's Republic of China...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615285/vaccination-against-salmonella-infection-the-mucosal-way
#16
REVIEW
Rémi Gayet, Gilles Bioley, Nicolas Rochereau, Stéphane Paul, Blaise Corthésy
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615123/quantification-of-equine-immunoglobulin-a-in-serum-and-secretions-by-a-fluorescent-bead-based-assay
#17
Christiane L Schnabel, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Bettina Wagner
Only few quantitative reports exist about the concentrations and induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mucosal secretions of horses. Despite this, it is widely assumed that IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin on mucosal surfaces in the horse. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against equine IgA, clones 84-1 and 161-1, were developed and characterized in detail. Both IgA mAbs specifically bound monomeric and dimeric equine IgA in different applications, such as Western blots and fluorescent bead-based assays...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614533/effect-of-fluoride-on-salivary-immunoglobulins-and-sialic-acid
#18
Kadriye Görkem Ulu Güzel, Zuhal Kirzioğlu, Ali Kudret Adiloğlu, Münciye Semra Özay Ertürk
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51) healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI) = 4] who lived in Isparta (2...
April 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599261/secretory-immunoglobulin-purification-from-whey-by-chromatographic-techniques
#19
Alexander Matlschweiger, Hannah Engelmaier, Gottfried Himmler, Rainer Hahn
Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588575/gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-a-key-tissue-inside-the-mucosal-immune-system-of-hens-immunized-with-escherichia-coli-f4
#20
Maria F Peralta, Alejandra Magnoli, Fabrisio Alustiza, Armando Nilson, Raúl Miazzo, Adriana Vivas
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is the predominant antibody found in hen's (Gallus domesticus) egg yolk. This antibody, developed against several microorganisms in hen egg yolk, has been successfully used as an alternative to immunoglobulins from mammals for use in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli) F4 is the main etiological agent associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, and it causes notable economic losses in swine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between humoral immune response and the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in laying hens intramuscularly immunized with E...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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