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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453259/common-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-additives-alter-the-structure-and-function-of-anaerobic-microbial-communities
#1
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449374/-time-resolved-analysis-of-amino-acid-stress-identifies-eif2-phosphorylation-as-necessary-to-inhibit-mtorc1-activity-in-liver
#2
Inna A Nikonorova, Emily T Mirek, Christina C Signore, Michael P Goudie, Ronald C Wek, Tracy G Anthony
Amino acid availability is sensed by general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), but how these two sensors coordinate their respective signal transduction events remains mysterious. In this study we utilized mouse genetic models to investigate the role of GCN2 in hepatic mTORC1 regulation upon amino acid stress induced by a single injection of asparaginase. We found that deletion of Gcn2 prevented hepatic phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2) to asparaginase and instead unleashed mTORC1 activity...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#3
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417582/activating-biochar-by-manipulating-the-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiome-through-pre-conditioning
#4
Amit K Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn, Ellen R Graber, Omer Frenkel
Biochar can enhance plant growth and reduce diseases, but frequently the optimal doses for these two benefits do not coincide. An approach is needed that will extend the range of biochar doses resulting in a concurrence of maximum benefits for both plant productivity and disease suppression. A biochar-amended growth medium was pre-conditioned by pre-planting fertigation in order to enhance the indigenous microbial community structure and activity. Cucumber plant performance and resistance against damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum were monitored...
February 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407798/environmentally-realistic-concentration-of-cadmium-combined-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-enriched-diets-modulated-non-specific-immunity-in-rainbow-trout
#5
Valérie Cornet, Abderrahim Ouaach, S N M Mandiki, Enora Flamion, Aline Ferain, Mélusine Van Larebeke, Benjamin Lemaire, Felipe E Reyes López, Lluis Tort, Yvan Larondelle, Patrick Kestemont
Nutrition is crucial to grow healthy fish particularly in a context of pollution, overcrowding and pathogen risks. Nowadays, the search for food components able to improve fish health is increasingly developing. Here, the influence of four dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) on the sensitivity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles to environmentally realistic cadmium (Cd, 0...
February 1, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402485/multidirectional-estimation-of-arterial-stiffness-using-vascular-guided-wave-imaging-with-geometry-correction
#6
Yuexin Guo, Yahua Wang, Enoch Jing-Han Chang, Wei-Ning Lee
We previously found that vascular guided wave imaging (VGWI) could non-invasively quantify transmural wall stiffness in both the longitudinal (r-z plane, 0°) and circumferential (r-θ plane, 90°) directions of soft hollow cylinders. Arterial stiffness estimation in multiple directions warrants further comprehensive characterization of arterial health, especially in the presence of asymmetric plaques, but is currently lacking. This study therefore investigated the multidirectional estimation of the arterial Young's modulus in a finite-element model, in vitro artery-mimicking phantoms and an excised porcine aorta...
February 2, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372528/hydration-of-dicalcium-silicate-and-diffusion-through-neo-formed-calcium-silicate-hydrates-at-weathered-surfaces-control-the-long-term-leaching-behaviour-of-basic-oxygen-furnace-bof-steelmaking-slag
#7
Douglas I Stewart, Andrew W Bray, Gideon Udoma, Andrew J Hobson, William M Mayes, Mike Rogerson, Ian T Burke
Alkalinity generation and toxic trace metal (such as vanadium) leaching from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag particles must be properly understood and managed by pre-conditioning if beneficial reuse of slag is to be maximised. Water leaching under aerated conditions was investigated using fresh BOF slag at three different particle sizes (0.5-1.0, 2-5 and 10 × 10 × 20 mm blocks) and a 6-month pre-weathered block. There were several distinct leaching stages observed over time associated with different phases controlling the solution chemistry: (1) free-lime (CaO) dissolution (days 0-2); (2) dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) dissolution (days 2-14) and (3) Ca-Si-H and CaCO3 formation and subsequent dissolution (days 14-73)...
January 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372003/pretreatment-of-low-dose-and-super-low-dose-lps-on-the-production-of-in-vitro-lps-induced-inflammatory-mediators
#8
Byeong Suk Chae
Pretreatment of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a hyporesponsive state to subsequent secondary challenge with high-dose LPS in innate immune cells, whereas super-low-dose LPS results in augmented expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, little is known about the difference between super-low-dose and low-dose LPS pretreatments on immune cell-mediated inflammatory and hepatic acute-phase responses to secondary LPS. In the present study, RAW 264.7 cells, EL4 cells, and Hepa-1c1c7 cells were pretreated with super-low-dose LPS (SL-LPS: 50 pg/mL) or low-dose LPS (L-LPS: 50 ng/mL) in fresh complete medium once a day for 2~3 days and then cultured in fresh complete medium for 24 hr or 48 hr in the presence or absence of LPS (1~10 μg/mL) or concanavalin A (Con A)...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360513/electroolfactogram-responses-before-and-after-aversive-olfactory-conditioning-in-humans
#9
Annachiara Cavazzana, Sophia C Poletti, Cagdas Guducu, Maria Larsson, Thomas Hummel
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repetitive aversive odor conditioning induced changes at the level of the peripheral olfactory system in humans. A total of 51 volunteers participated. A pair of indistinguishable odor enantiomers [(+)-rose oxide and (-)-rose oxide] were used as stimuli. During the pre-conditioning, participants' ability to discriminate between the two odors was assessed using a three-alternative, forced-choice discrimination test. In addition, electro-olfactograms (EOG) from the olfactory epithelium were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349948/case-report-of-kidney-paired-donation-kpd-with-desensitization-the-strategy-and-experience-of-3-way-kpd-in-samsung-medical-center
#10
Dongkyu Oh, Eun Suk Kang, Shinae Yu, Kyoungsuk Chun, Wooseong Huh, Hye Ryoun Jang, Chan Woo Cho, Nuri Lee, Kyo Won Lee, Hyojun Park, Jae Berm Park, Sung Joo Kim
As the need for the organ donation increases, strategies to increase kidney transplantation (KT) through expanded living donation have become essential. These include kidney paired donation (KPD) programs and desensitization in incompatible transplantations. KPD enables kidney transplant candidates with incompatible living donors to join a registry with other incompatible pairs in order to find potentially compatible living donor. Positive cross match and ABO incompatible transplantation has been successfully accomplished in selective cases with several pre-conditionings...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345532/ischemic-pre-conditioning-does-not-influence-maximal-sprint-acceleration-performance
#11
Kyle M A Thompson, Alanna K Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L Spriet, Jamie F Burr
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) was initially developed to protect the myocardium from ischemia through altered cardiocyte metabolism. Due to the observed effects on metabolism and oxygen kinetics, IPC gained interest as a potential ergogenic aid in sport. Limited research evaluating the effects of IPC on maximal short-duration activities has been performed and of the existing literature, mixed outcomes resulting from intra-subject variation may have clouded the efficacy of this technique for enhancing sprint performance...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341316/deferoxamine-promotes-mesenchymal-stem-cell-homing-in-noise-induced-injured-cochlea-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#12
A A Peyvandi, H-A Abbaszadeh, N Ahmady Roozbahany, A Pourbakht, S Khoshsirat, H Haddadzade Niri, H Peyvandi, S Niknazar
OBJECTIVE: Over 5% of the world's population suffers from disabling hearing loss. Stem cell homing in target tissue is an important aspect of cell-based therapy, which its augmentation increases cell therapy efficiency. Deferoxamine (DFO) can induce the Akt activation, and phosphorylation status of AKT (p-AKT) upregulates CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression. We examined whether DFO can enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) homing in noise-induced damaged cochlea by PI3K/AKT dependent mechanism...
January 17, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340931/vascutrainer-a-mobile-and-disposable-bioreactor-system-for-the-conditioning-of-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#13
Frederic Wolf, Diana M Rojas González, Ulrich Steinseifer, Markus Obdenbusch, Werner Herfs, Christian Brecher, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Thomas Schmitz-Rode
In vitro tissue engineering of vascular grafts requires dynamic conditioning in a bioreactor system for in vitro tissue maturation and remodeling to receive a mechanically adequate and hemocompatible implant. The goal of the current work was to develop a bioreactor system for the conditioning of vascular grafts which is (i) able to create a wide range of flow, pressure and frequency conditions, including physiological ones; (ii) compact and easy to assemble; (iii) transportable; (iv) disposable. The system is driven by a small centrifugal pump controlled via a custom-made control unit, which can also be operated on batteries to allow for autonomous transportation...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332636/implementation-of-an-electronic-routine-outcome-monitoring-at-an-inpatient-unit-for-psychosomatic-medicine
#14
Jonas Egeter, Katharina Hüfner, Monika Sztankay, Bernhard Holzner, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can be part of an electronic routine outcome monitoring (eROM). eROM can improve patient involvement, treatment outcomes and simplify scientific data assessment. Available studies on eROM focus on its evaluation only and lack a detailed description of the prior implementation procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to implement an eROM assessment at a division of Psychosomatic Medicine and provide a detailed description of the implementation procedure...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331937/quasi-static-tensile-properties-of-the-cranial-cruciate-ligament-crcl-in-adult-cattle-towards-the-design-of-a-prosthetic-crcl
#15
Lucien Diotalevi, Yvan Petit, Vladimir Brailovski, Sylvain Nichols, Emma Marchionatti, Éric Wagnac
Mechanical properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle are not well documented and protocols used in the literature focus on testing a full femur-CrCL-tibia complex rather than an isolated CrCL. The aim of this study was to assess a wider range of tensile properties of the CrCL along its anatomic axis with experimental measurements of the global elongation, displacement and strain fields, in order to provide guidelines for the design of CrCL prosthetic surrogates. Fourteen bovine CrCL were harvested from seven mature cows (5...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#16
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299665/effects-of-skin-surface-cooling-before-exercise-on-lactate-accumulation-in-cool-environment
#17
Daiki Imai, Ryosuke Takeda, Akina Suzuki, Nooshin Naghavi, Yoshihiro Yamashina, Akemi Ota, Shinya Matsumura, Hisayo Yokoyama, Toshiaki Miyagawa, Kazunobu Okazaki
PURPOSE: We assessed whether plasma lactate accumulation increased and the lactate threshold (LT) declined when the skin temperature was lowered by whole body skin surface cooling before exercise in cool, but not temperate, conditions, and whether the lowered LT was associated with sympathetic activation or lowered plasma volume (PV) by cold-induced diuresis. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects performed a graded maximal cycling exercise after pre-conditioning under three different conditions for 60 min...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288431/thymus-colonization-who-how-how-many
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Krueger
De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state...
December 29, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236177/effect-of-er-yag-laser-enamel-conditioning-and-moisture-on-the-microleakage-of-a-hydrophilic-sealant
#19
Zeynep Aslı Güçlü, Andrew Paul Hurt, Nazmiye Dönmez, Nichola Jayne Coleman
For a given sealant, successful pit and fissure sealing is principally governed by the enamel conditioning technique and the presence of moisture contamination. A new generation of hydrophilic resin sealants is reported to tolerate moisture. This study investigates the impact of Er:YAG laser pre-conditioning and moisture contamination on the microleakage of a recent hydrophilic sealant. Occlusal surfaces of extracted human molars were either acid etched (n = 30), or successively lased and acid etched (n = 30)...
December 13, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220400/social-structure-opportunistic-punishment-and-the-evolution-of-honest-signaling
#20
Robin Clark, Steven O Kimbrough
Honest signaling is generally taken to be a necessary pre-condition for a stable signaling system, because deceptive signaling at a high enough rate should cause receivers to ignore the signal, which in turn undermines the utility of sending signals. Deception is normally thought to occur because of benefits it has to the deceiver. This raises the question of why signaling systems should exist and persist over time, especially in cases in which the interests of the senders and receivers are not well aligned...
2017: PloS One
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