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sensory modulation

Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yekta Ansari, Anthony Remaud, François Tremblay
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of thermal stimulation on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants consisted of healthy young adults (n = 20) and seniors (n = 15). Each experimental session consisted of a baseline (BL) assessment, followed by a warming and a cooling protocol. At BL, recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and skin temperature were performed with the index finger covered with a 'neutral' gel pack (24 °C)...
April 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Carlos Valdes, Gonzalo Bustos, Jose L Martinez, Claudio Laurido
Pain is a sensory experience of a complex physiological nature in which is not only involved the nervous system. Among its many features is the development of chronic pain that is more complicated to treat because of the central somatization processes involved, becoming inefficient treatments used in other forms of pain. Among them is the role of glial cells, whose participation is such that some authors have proposed to chronic pain as a gliopathy. Because of this, the drug target of possible treatments focuses on modulating nociceptive response affecting transduction into the central nervous system through affecting synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
2018: PloS One
Kalina Makowiecki, Andrew Garrett, Alan R Harvey, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) is an increasingly popular method to non-invasively modulate cortical excitability in research and clinical settings. During rTMS, low-intensity magnetic fields reach areas perifocal to the target brain region, however, effects of these low-intensity (LI-) fields and how they interact with ongoing neural activity remains poorly defined. We evaluated whether coordinated neural activity during electromagnetic stimulation alters LI-rTMS effects on cortical excitability by comparing visually evoked potentials (VEP) and densities of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic interneurons in adult mouse visual cortex after LI-rTMS under different conditions: LI-rTMS applied during visually evoked (strong, coordinated) activity or in darkness (weak, spontaneous activity)...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge Ruben Cabrera, Audra J Charron, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency in neurons remains poorly understood, and the heterogeneity of the sensory nervous system complicates mechanistic studies. In this study, we used primary culture of adult trigeminal ganglion (TG) mouse neurons in microfluidic devices, and an in vivo model, to examine the subtypes of sensory neurons involved in HSV latency. HSV-infected neurofilament heavy-positive neurons (NefH+ ) were more likely to express Latency-Associated Transcripts (LATs) relative to infected neurofilament heavy-negative neurons (NefH- )...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Judith Goris, Senne Braem, Annabel D Nijhof, Davide Rigoni, Eliane Deschrijver, Sander Van de Cruys, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
BACKGROUND: Recent predictive coding accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that a key deficit in ASD concerns the inflexibility in modulating local prediction errors as a function of global top-down expectations. As a direct test of this central hypothesis, we used electroencephalography to investigate whether local prediction error processing was less modulated by global context (i.e., global stimulus frequency) in ASD. METHODS: A group of 18 adults with ASD was compared with a group of 24 typically developed adults on a well-validated hierarchical auditory oddball task in which participants listened to short sequences of either five identical sounds (local standard) or four identical sounds and a fifth deviant sound (local deviant)...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Swantje Notzon, Christian Steinberg, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). This stimulation is supposed to restore excitability of prefrontal cortex regions that exhibit diminished regulation of emotion-generative systems in MDD. Based on the valence lateralization hypothesis, inhibitory rTMS of the right dlPFC has also been applied in MDD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Edmund Loh, Francesco Righetti, Hannes Eichner, Christian Twittenhoff, Franz Narberhaus
Temperature variation is one of the multiple parameters a microbial pathogen encounters when it invades a warm-blooded host. To survive and thrive at host body temperature, human pathogens have developed various strategies to sense and respond to their ambient temperature. An instantaneous response is mounted by RNA thermometers (RNATs), which are integral sensory structures in mRNAs that modulate translation efficiency. At low temperatures outside the host, the folded RNA blocks access of the ribosome to the translation initiation region...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Vasileios Englezos, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Francesco Cravero, Fabrizio Torchio, Matteo Pollon, Daniela Fracassetti, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Vincenzo Gerbi, Luca Rolle, Luca Cocolin
Mixed fermentations with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae affect the chemical composition of wines, by modulating various metabolites of oenological interest. The current study was carried out to elucidate the effect of sequential inoculation of the above mentioned species on the production of white wines, especially on the chemical and aromatic characteristics of Chardonnay, Muscat, Riesling and Sauvignon blanc wines. Titratable acidity and glycerol content exhibited evident differences among the wines after fermentation...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Carmen Barba, Noelle Beno, Elisabeth Guichard, Thierry Thomas-Danguin
Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Patrick Chen, Weizhe Hong
We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
Peter L Freddolino, Jamie Yang, Amir Momen-Roknabadi, Saeed Tavazoie
Cells adapt to familiar changes in their environment by activating predefined regulatory programs that establish adaptive gene expression states. These hard-wired pathways, however, may be inadequate for adaptation to environments never encountered before. Here, we reveal evidence for an alternative mode of gene regulation that enables adaptation to adverse conditions without relying on external sensory information or genetically predetermined cis -regulation. Instead, individual genes achieve optimal expression levels through a stochastic search for improved fitness...
April 5, 2018: ELife
Iris Grothe, David Rotermund, Simon David Neitzel, Sunita Mandon, Udo Alexander Ernst, Andreas K Kreiter, Klaus Richard Pawelzik
Selective attention allows focusing on only part of the incoming sensory information. Neurons in the extrastriate visual cortex reflect such selective processing when different stimuli are simultaneously present in their large receptive fields. Their spiking response then resembles the response to the attended stimulus when presented in isolation. Unclear is where in the neuronal pathway attention intervenes to achieve such selective signal routing and processing. To investigate this question, we tagged two equivalent visual stimuli by independent broadband luminance noise and used the spectral coherence of these behaviorally irrelevant signals with the field potential of a local neuronal population in male macaque monkeys' area V4 as a measure for their respective causal influences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christian Beste, Nico Adelhöfer, Krutika Gohil, Susanne Passow, Veit Roessner, Shu-Chen Li
Background: Perceptual decision making is the process through which available sensory information is gathered and processed to guide our choices. However, the neuropsychopharmacological basis of this important cognitive function is largely elusive. Yet, theoretical considerations suggest that the dopaminergic system may play an important role. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study design, we examined the effect of methylphenidate in 2 dosages (0...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Julie M Hall, James M Shine, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Moran Gilat, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Courtney C Walton, Ahmed A Moustafa, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common symptom in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite current advances, the neural mechanisms underpinning this disturbance remain poorly understood. To this end, we investigated the structural organisation of the white matter connectome in PD freezers and PD non-freezers. We hypothesized that freezers would show an altered network architecture, which could hinder the effective information processing that characterizes the disorder. Twenty-six freezers and twenty-four well-matched non-freezers were included in this study...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, Lena Tittel, Wolfgang Driever
Dopaminergic neurons of the descending diencephalospinal system are located in the posterior tuberculum (PT) in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), and correspond in mammals to the A11 group in hypothalamus and thalamus. In the larval zebrafish, they are likely the only source of central dopaminergic projections to the periphery. Here, we characterized posterior tubercular dopaminergic fibers projecting to peripheral sense organs, with a focus on the lateral line neuromasts. We labeled and identified catecholaminergic neurons and their projections by combining two immunofluorescence techniques, (i) using an antibody against Tyrosine hydroxylase, and (ii) using an antibody against GFP in transgenic zebrafish expressing in catecholaminergic neurons either membrane-anchored GFP to track fibers, or a Synaptophysin-GFP fusion to visualize putative synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti, Gaetano Valenza, Riccardo Barbieri, Maria Guerrisi, Nicola Toschi
While a large body of research has focused on the study of functional brain "connectivity", few investigators have focused on directionality of brain-brain interactions which, in spite of the mostly bidirectional anatomical substrates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical. We employ a multivariate Granger Causality-based approach to estimating directed in-network interactions and quantify its advantages using extensive realistic synthetic BOLD data simulations to match Human Connectome Project (HCP) data specification...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jörg Isensee, Melanie Kaufholz, Matthias J Knape, Jan Hasenauer, Hanna Hammerich, Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, René P Zahedi, Frank Schwede, Friedrich W Herberg, Tim Hucho
Type II isoforms of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-II) contain a phosphorylatable epitope within the inhibitory domain of RII subunits (pRII) with still unclear function. In vitro, RII phosphorylation occurs in the absence of cAMP, whereas staining of cells with pRII-specific antibodies revealed a cAMP-dependent pattern. In sensory neurons, we found that increased pRII immunoreactivity reflects increased accessibility of the already phosphorylated RII epitope during cAMP-induced opening of the tetrameric RII2 :C2 holoenzyme...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
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