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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447609/spatial-working-memory-alters-the-efficacy-of-input-to-visual-cortex
#1
Yaser Merrikhi, Kelsey Clark, Eddy Albarran, Mohammadbagher Parsa, Marc Zirnsak, Tirin Moore, Behrad Noudoost
Prefrontal cortex modulates sensory signals in extrastriate visual cortex, in part via its direct projections from the frontal eye field (FEF), an area involved in selective attention. We find that working memory-related activity is a dominant signal within FEF input to visual cortex. Although this signal alone does not evoke spiking responses in areas V4 and MT during memory, the gain of visual responses in these areas increases, and neuronal receptive fields expand and shift towards the remembered location, improving the stimulus representation by neuronal populations...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447086/ultrasound-neuro-modulation-chip-activation-of-sensory-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-surface-acoustic-waves
#2
Wei Zhou, Jingjing Wang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Huang, Lili Niu, Fei Li, Feiyan Cai, Yan Chen, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hankui Cheng, Lijun Kang, Long Meng, Hairong Zheng
Ultrasound neuro-modulation has gained increasing attention as a non-invasive method. In this paper, we present an ultrasound neuro-modulation chip, capable of initiating reversal behaviour and activating neurons of C. elegans under the stimulation of a single-shot, short-pulsed ultrasound. About 85.29% ± 6.17% of worms respond to the ultrasound stimulation exhibiting reversal behaviour. Furthermore, the worms can adapt to the ultrasound stimulation with a lower acoustic pulse duration of stimulation. In vivo calcium imaging shows that the activity of ASH, a polymodal sensory neuron in C...
April 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#3
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446588/hierarchical-differences-in-population-coding-within-auditory-cortex
#4
Joshua David Downer, Mamiko Niwa, Mitchell L Sutter
Most models of auditory cortical (AC) population coding have focused on primary auditory cortex (A1). Thus, our understanding of how neural coding for sounds progresses along the cortical hierarchy remains obscure. To illuminate this, we recorded from AC fields, A1 and middle-lateral belt (ML) of rhesus macaques. We presented amplitude-modulated (AM) noise during both passive listening and while the animals performed an AM detection task ("Active" condition). In both fields, neurons exhibit monotonic AM-depth tuning, with A1 neurons mostly exhibiting increasing rate-depth functions and ML neurons ~evenly distributed between increasing and decreasing functions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446581/cl-channel-is-required-for-cxcl10-induced-neuronal-activation-and-itch-response-in-a-murine-model-of-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#5
Lintao Qu, Kai Fu, Steven G Shimada, Robert H LaMotte
Persistent itch often accompanies allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We previously demonstrated that CXCL10/ CXCR3 signaling activated a subpopulation of cutaneous primary sensory neurons and mediated itch response after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. The purpose of this study was to determine the ionic mechanisms underlying CXCL10-induced neuronal activation and allergic itch. In whole-cell recordings, CXCL10 triggered a current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the area of CHS...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446579/modulation-of-long-latency-afferent-inhibition-by-the-amplitude-of-sensory-afferent-volley
#6
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Hunter J Fassett, Robert Chen, Aimee Jennifer Nelson
Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibres relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms prior to a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#7
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#8
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444832/real-time-activation-of-central-cholinergic-circuits-during-recognition-memory
#9
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol that consists in the inhibition of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) by afferent sensory impulses. SAI is thought to be mediated by cholinergic projections over M1 and can be considered a putative marker of central cholinergic activity. It's known that memory processes are regulated by acetylcholine. Nonetheless the influence of memory tasks on SAI has not been investigated. Here we tested changes in SAI circuits in healthy subjects performing a computerized non-verbal recognition memory task (RMT) requiring to recognize previously encoded faces...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443629/differences-in-peripheral-sensory-input-to-the-olfactory-bulb-between-male-and-female-mice
#10
Marley D Kass, Lindsey A Czarnecki, Andrew H Moberly, John P McGann
Female mammals generally have a superior sense of smell than males, but the biological basis of this difference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate sexually dimorphic neural coding of odorants by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), primary sensory neurons that physically contact odor molecules in the nose and provide the initial sensory input to the brain's olfactory bulb. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odorant-evoked OSN synaptic output into olfactory bub glomeruli in unmanipulated (gonad-intact) adult mice from both sexes, and found that in females odorant presentation evoked more rapid OSN signaling over a broader range of OSNs than in males...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443009/behavioral-and-brain-measures-of-phasic-alerting-effects-on-visual-attention
#11
Iris Wiegand, Anders Petersen, Kathrin Finke, Claus Bundesen, Jon Lansner, Thomas Habekost
In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in a partial report task, in which half of the displays were preceded by an auditory warning cue. Based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we estimated parameters of spatial and non-spatial aspects of visual attention and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) over visual processing areas. We found that the TVA parameter sensory effectiveness a, which is thought to reflect visual processing capacity, significantly increased with phasic alerting...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442402/chromatic-clocks-color-opponency-in-non-image-forming-visual-function-review
#12
REVIEW
Manuel Spitschan, Robert J Lucas, Timothy M Brown
During dusk and dawn, the ambient illumination undergoes drastic changes in irradiance (or intensity) and spectrum (or color). While the former is a well-studied factor in synchronizing behavior and physiology to the earth's 24-hour rotation, color sensitivity in the regulation of circadian rhythms has not been systematically studied. Drawing on the concept of color opponency, a well-known property of image-forming vision in many vertebrates (including humans), we consider how the spectral shifts during twilight are encoded by a color-opponent sensory system for non-image-forming (NIF) visual functions including phase shifting and melatonin suppression...
April 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#13
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439230/from-anxious-to-reckless-a-control-systems-approach-unifies-prefrontal-limbic-regulation-across-the-spectrum-of-threat-detection
#14
REVIEW
Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi, Jiook Cha, Jonathan Gao
Here we provide an integrative review of basic control circuits, and introduce techniques by which their regulation can be quantitatively measured using human neuroimaging. We illustrate the utility of the control systems approach using four human neuroimaging threat detection studies (N = 226), to which we applied circuit-wide analyses in order to identify the key mechanism underlying individual variation. In so doing, we build upon the canonical prefrontal-limbic control system to integrate circuit-wide influence from the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438259/variation-in-olfactory-neuron-repertoires-is-genetically-controlled-and-environmentally-modulated
#15
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Thiago S Nakahara, Jingtao Lilue, Yue Jiang, Casey Trimmer, Mateus Aa Souza, Paulo Hm Netto, Kentaro Ikegami, Nicolle R Murphy, Mairi Kusma, Andrea Kirton, Luis R Saraiva, Thomas M Keane, Hiroaki Matsunami, Joel Mainland, Fabio Papes, Darren W Logan
The mouse olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) repertoire is composed of 10 million cells and each expresses one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from a pool of over 1000. Thus, the nose is sub-stratified into more than a thousand OSN subtypes. Here, we employ and validate an RNA-sequencing-based method to quantify the abundance of all OSN subtypes in parallel, and investigate the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to neuronal diversity. We find that the OSN subtype distribution is stereotyped in genetically identical mice, but varies extensively between different strains...
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437846/pain-sensitization-is-associated-with-disease-activity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Yvonne C Lee, Clifton O Bingham, Robert R Edwards, Wendy Marder, Phillips Kristine, Marcy B Bolster, Daniel J Clauw, Larry W Moreland, Bing Lu, Alyssa Wohlfahrt, Zhi Zhang, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Pain sensitization may contribute to pain severity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impacting assessment of disease activity. We examined whether pain processing mechanisms were associated with disease activity among RA patients with active disease. METHODS: This study includes 139 subjects enrolled in the Central Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort. Subjects underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), including assessment of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at multiple sites, conditioned pain modulation, and temporal summation...
April 24, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437454/age-associated-increase-of-the-active-zone-protein-bruchpilot-within-the-honeybee-mushroom-body
#17
Katrin B Gehring, Karin Heufelder, Harald Depner, Isabella Kersting, Stephan J Sigrist, Dorothea Eisenhardt
In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436982/delay-activity-of-specific-prefrontal-interneuron-subtypes-modulates-memory-guided-behavior
#18
Tsukasa Kamigaki, Yang Dan
Memory-guided behavior requires maintenance of task-relevant information without sensory input, but the underlying circuit mechanism remains unclear. Calcium imaging in mice performing a delayed Go or No-Go task revealed robust delay activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with different pyramidal neurons signaling Go and No-Go action plans. Inhibiting pyramidal neurons by optogenetically activating somatostatin- or parvalbumin-positive interneurons, even transiently during the delay, impaired task performance, primarily by increasing inappropriate Go responses...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#19
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432139/feature-selective-attention-adaptively-shifts-noise-correlations-in-primary-auditory-cortex
#20
Joshua Downer, Brittany Rapone, Jessica Verhein, Kevin N O'Connor, Mitchell L Sutter
Sensory environments often contain an overwhelming amount of information, with both relevant and irrelevant information competing for neural resources. Feature attention mediates this competition by selecting the sensory features needed to form a coherent percept. How attention affects the activity of populations of neurons to support this process is poorly understood because population coding is typically studied through simulations in which one sensory feature is encoded without competition. Therefore, to study the effects of feature attention on population-based neural coding, investigations must be extended to include stimuli with both relevant and irrelevant features...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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