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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244639/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-response-conflict-elicited-by-color-and-motion-direction-an-individual-differences-approach
#1
Marlies E Vissers, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Michael X Cohen, Heleen A Slagter
Goal-directed behavior requires control over automatic behavior, for example, when goal-irrelevant information from the environment captures an inappropriate response and conflicts with the correct, goal-relevant action. Neural oscillations in the theta band (∼6 Hz) measured at midfrontal electrodes are thought to form an important substrate of the detection and subsequent resolution of response conflict. Here, we examined the extent to which response conflict and associated theta-band activity depend on the visual stimulus feature dimension that triggers the conflict...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243134/sensory-uncertainty-impacts-avoidance-during-spatial-decisions
#2
Kevin Jarbo, Rory Flemming, Timothy D Verstynen
When making risky spatial decisions, humans incorporate estimates of sensorimotor variability and costs on outcomes to bias their spatial selections away from regions that incur feedback penalties. Since selection variability depends on the reliability of sensory signals, increasing the spatial variance of targets during visually guided actions should increase the degree of this avoidance. Healthy adult participants (N = 20) used a computer mouse to indicate their selection of the mean of a target, represented as a 2D Gaussian distribution of dots presented on a computer display...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243121/neural-processing-of-food-and-monetary-rewards-is-modulated-by-metabolic-state
#3
Mushfa Yousuf, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Thomas F Münte, Nuria Doñamayor
In humans, food is considered a powerful primary reinforcer, whereas money is a secondary reinforcer, as it gains a value through learning experience. Here, we aimed to identify the neural regions supporting the processing of food-related reinforcers, relate it to the neural underpinnings of monetary reinforcers, and explore their modulation by metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). Twenty healthy male participants were tested in two experimental sessions, once hungry and once satiated, using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241538/an-elongin-cullin-socs-box-complex-regulates-stress-induced-serotonergic-neuromodulation
#4
Xicotencatl Gracida, Michael F Dion, Gareth Harris, Yun Zhang, John A Calarco
Neuromodulatory cells transduce environmental information into long-lasting behavioral responses. However, the mechanisms governing how neuronal cells influence behavioral plasticity are difficult to characterize. Here, we adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) approach in C. elegans to profile ribosome-associated mRNAs from three major tissues and the neuromodulatory dopaminergic and serotonergic cells. We identified elc-2, an Elongin C ortholog, specifically expressed in stress-sensing amphid neuron dual ciliated sensory ending (ADF) serotonergic sensory neurons, and we found that it plays a role in mediating a long-lasting change in serotonin-dependent feeding behavior induced by heat stress...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238295/audio-visual-integration-in-a-redundant-target-paradigm-a-comparison-between-rhesus-macaque-and-man
#5
Peter Bremen, Rooholla Massoudi, Marc M Van Wanrooij, A J Van Opstal
The mechanisms underlying multi-sensory interactions are still poorly understood despite considerable progress made since the first neurophysiological recordings of multi-sensory neurons. While the majority of single-cell neurophysiology has been performed in anesthetized or passive-awake laboratory animals, the vast majority of behavioral data stems from studies with human subjects. Interpretation of neurophysiological data implicitly assumes that laboratory animals exhibit perceptual phenomena comparable or identical to those observed in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#6
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236648/a-putative-electrophysiological-biomarker-of-auditory-sensory-memory-encoding-is-sensitive-to-pharmacological-alterations-of-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-in-male-macaque-monkeys
#7
William B Holliday, Kate Gurnsey, Robert A Sweet, Tobias Teichert
BACKGROUND: The amplitude of the auditory evoked N1 component that can be derived from noninvasive electroencephalographic recordings increases as a function of time between subsequent tones. N1 amplitudes in individuals with schizophrenia saturate at a lower asymptote, thus giving rise to a reduced dynamic range. Reduced N1 dynamic range is a putative electrophysiological biomarker of altered sensory memory function in individuals with the disease. To date, it is not clear what determines N1 dynamic range and what causes reduced N1 dynamic range in individuals with schizophrenia...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235479/dynamic-cortical-representations-of-perceptual-filling-in-for-missing-acoustic-rhythm
#8
Francisco Cervantes Constantino, Jonathan Z Simon
In the phenomenon of perceptual filling-in, missing sensory information can be reconstructed via interpolation or extrapolation from adjacent contextual cues by what is necessarily an endogenous, not yet well understood, neural process. In this investigation, sound stimuli were chosen to allow observation of fixed cortical oscillations driven by contextual (but missing) sensory input, thus entirely reflecting endogenous neural activity. The stimulus employed was a 5 Hz frequency-modulated tone, with brief masker probes (noise bursts) occasionally added...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#9
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232917/lactobacillus-plantarum-with-broad-antifungal-activity-as-a-protective-starter-culture-for-bread-production
#10
Pasquale Russo, Clara Fares, Angela Longo, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the potential occurrence of mycotoxins. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum UFG 121, a strain with characterized broad antifungal activity, was analyzed as a potential protective culture for bread production. Six different molds belonging to Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp...
December 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231812/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-is-required-for-sex-discrimination-of-social-cues
#11
Shenqin Yao, Joseph Bergan, Anne Lanjuin, Catherine Dulac
The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncovered significant changes in the sensory representation of conspecific cues in the absence of oxytocin signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230329/regionally-specific-regulation-of-sensorimotor-network-connectivity-following-tactile-improvement
#12
Stefanie Heba, Melanie Lenz, Tobias Kalisch, Oliver Höffken, Lauren M Schweizer, Benjamin Glaubitz, Nicolaas A J Puts, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Correlations between inherent, task-free low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of the brain provide a potent tool to delineate its functional architecture in terms of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Still, it remains unclear how iFC is modulated during learning. We employed whole-brain resting-state magnetic resonance imaging prior to and after training-independent repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS), which is known to induce somatosensory cortical reorganization...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230190/daith-piercing-in-a-case-of-chronic-migraine-a-possible-vagal-modulation
#13
Angelo Cascio Rizzo, Matteo Paolucci, Riccardo Altavilla, Nicoletta Brunelli, Federica Assenza, Claudia Altamura, Fabrizio Vernieri
Daith piercing is an ear piercing located at the crus of the helix, bilaterally. It is getting great consent on social media as alternative treatment in chronic migraine. No data about its efficacy and action are available in scientific literature so far. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from refractory chronic migraine with medication-overuse, who substantially improved after bilateral ear daith piercing. His migraine was refractory to symptomatic as well as prophylactic therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230172/sensor-motor-maps-for-describing-linear-reflex-composition-in-hopping
#14
Christian Schumacher, André Seyfarth
In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB), velocity (VFB) and force feedback (FFB) pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229997/splics-a-split-green-fluorescent-protein-based-contact-site-sensor-for-narrow-and-wide-heterotypic-organelle-juxtaposition
#15
Domenico Cieri, Mattia Vicario, Marta Giacomello, Francesca Vallese, Riccardo Filadi, Tina Wagner, Tullio Pozzan, Paola Pizzo, Luca Scorrano, Marisa Brini, Tito Calì
Contact sites are discrete areas of organelle proximity that coordinate essential physiological processes across membranes, including Ca2+ signaling, lipid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and autophagy. However, tools to easily image inter-organelle proximity over a range of distances in living cells and in vivo are lacking. Here we report a split-GFP-based contact site sensor (SPLICS) engineered to fluoresce when organelles are in proximity. Two SPLICS versions efficiently measured narrow (8-10 nm) and wide (40-50 nm) juxtapositions between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, documenting the existence of at least two types of contact sites in human cells...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229967/electrical-synapses-convey-orientation-selectivity-in-the-mouse-retina
#16
Amurta Nath, Gregory W Schwartz
Sensory neurons downstream of primary receptors are selective for specific stimulus features, and they derive their selectivity both from excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from other neurons and from their own intrinsic properties. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions, modulate sensory circuits. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are diverse feature detectors carrying visual information to the brain, and receive excitatory input from bipolar cells and inhibitory input from amacrine cells (ACs). Here we describe a RGC that relies on gap junctions, rather than chemical synapses, to convey its selectivity for the orientation of a visual stimulus...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229820/beta-oscillations-reflect-supramodal-information-during-perceptual-judgment
#17
Saskia Haegens, José Vergara, Román Rossi-Pool, Luis Lemus, Ranulfo Romo
Previous work on perceptual decision making in the sensorimotor system has shown population dynamics in the beta band, corresponding to the encoding of stimulus properties and the final decision outcome. Here, we asked how oscillatory dynamics in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) contribute to supramodal perceptual decision making. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes in two monkeys trained to perform a tactile-acoustic frequency discrimination task, including both unimodal and crossmodal conditions...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229704/a-unifying-motif-for-spatial-and-directional-surround-suppression
#18
Liu D Liu, Kenneth D Miller, Christopher C Pack
In the visual system, the response to a stimulus in a neuron's receptive field can be modulated by stimulus context, and the strength of these contextual influences vary with stimulus intensity. Recent work has shown how a theoretical model, the stabilized supralinear network (SSN), can account for such modulatory influences, using a small set of computational mechanisms. While the predictions of the SSN have been confirmed in primary visual cortex (V1), its computational principles apply with equal validity to any cortical structure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229703/orai1-plays-a-crucial-role-in-central-sensitization-by-modulating-neuronal-excitability
#19
Yannong Dou, Jingsheng Xia, Ruby Gao, Xinghua Gao, Frances M Munoz, Dongyu Wei, Yuzhen Tian, James E Barrett, Seena Ajit, Olimpia Meucci, James W Putney, Yue Dai, Huijuan Hu
Pathological pain is a common and debilitating condition that is often poorly managed. Central sensitization is an important mechanism underlying pathological pain. However, candidate molecules involved in central sensitization remain unclear. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) mediate important calcium signals in non-excitable and excitable cells. SOCs have been implicated in a wide variety of human pathophysiological conditions including immunodeficiency, occlusive vascular diseases and cancer. However, the role of SOCs in central nervous system (CNS) disorders has been relatively unexplored...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229554/the-effect-of-complex-acoustic-environment-during-early-development-on-the-responses-of-auditory-cortex-neurons-in-rats
#20
Kateryna Pysanenko, Zbyněk Bureš, Jiří Lindovský, Josef Syka
Acoustical environment plays an important role during the maturation of the auditory system. It has been shown that the sensory inputs to the developing centres influence the development of the structure of projections, neuronal responsiveness, excitatory-inhibitory balance, or tonotopical arrangement, throughout the auditory pathway. Our previous study (Bures et al., 2014) showed that rats reared in a complex acoustic environment (spectrally and temporally modulated sound reinforced by an active behavioural paradigm with a positive feedback) exhibit permanently improved response characteristics of the inferior colliculus (IC) neurons...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
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