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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#1
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908164/bilateral-cortical-representation-of-tactile-roughness
#2
C Genna, C Oddo, C Fanciullacci, C Chisari, S Micera, F Artoni
Roughness is the most important feature for texture discrimination. Here we investigate how the bilateral cortical representation of touch is modulated by tactile roughness by analyzing the neural responses elicited by stimuli with various coarseness levels ranging from fine to medium. A prolonged stimulation was delivered to 10 healthy subjects by passively sliding a tactile stimuli under the fingertip while recording the EEG to study the modulation of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) as well as activity in the theta and alpha bands...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907830/substance-p-modulates-bone-remodeling-properties-of-murine-osteoblasts-and-osteoclasts
#3
Tanja Niedermair, Stephan Schirner, Raphael Seebröker, Rainer H Straub, Susanne Grässel
Clinical observations suggest neuronal control of bone remodeling. Sensory nerve fibers innervating bone, bone marrow and periosteum signal via neurotransmitters including substance P (SP). In previous studies we observed impaired biomechanical and structural bone parameters in tachykinin (Tac) 1-deficient mice lacking SP. Here, we aim to specify effects of SP on metabolic parameters of bone marrow macrophage (BMM)/osteoclast cultures and osteoblasts isolated from Tac1-deficient and wildtype (WT) mice. We demonstrated endogenous SP production and secretion in WT bone cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905117/melanopsin-expression-in-the-cornea
#4
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904791/weighted-integration-of-short-term-memory-and-sensory-signals-in-the-oculomotor-system
#5
Nicolas Deravet, Gunnar Blohm, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Philippe Lefèvre
Oculomotor behaviors integrate sensory and prior information to overcome sensory-motor delays and noise. After much debate about this process, reliability-based integration has recently been proposed and several models of smooth pursuit now include recurrent Bayesian integration or Kalman filtering. However, there is a lack of behavioral evidence in humans supporting these theoretical predictions. Here, we independently manipulated the reliability of visual and prior information in a smooth pursuit task. Our results show that both smooth pursuit eye velocity and catch-up saccade amplitude were modulated by visual and prior information reliability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902227/modeling-human-early-otic-sensory-cell-development-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Hanae Lahlou, Alejandra Lopez-Juarez, Arnaud Fontbonne, Emmanuel Nivet, Azel Zine
The inner ear represents a promising system to develop cell-based therapies from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In the developing ear, Notch signaling plays multiple roles in otic region specification and for cell fate determination. Optimizing hiPSC induction for the generation of appropriate numbers of otic progenitors and derivatives, such as hair cells, may provide an unlimited supply of cells for research and cell-based therapy. In this study, we used monolayer cultures, otic-inducing agents, Notch modulation, and marker expression to track early and otic sensory lineages during hiPSC differentiation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899398/touch-induced-face-conditioning-is-mediated-by-genetic-variation-in-opioid-but-not-oxytocin-receptors
#7
Yu Fu, Emre Selcuk, Sarah R Moore, Richard A Depue
Soft touch possesses strong prosocial effects that facilitate social bonding and group cohesion in animals. Touch activates opioids (OP) and oxytocin (OXT), two neuromodulators involved in affiliative behaviors and social bonding. We examined whether touch serves as an unconditioned reward in affective conditioning of human faces, a basic process in social bonding, and whether this process is mediated by variation in mu-OP (OPRM1) and OXT (rs53576) receptor genes. Participants viewed affectively-neutral human faces, half of which were paired with a brief soft brushing on the forearm as an unconditioned stimulus (US)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899027/single-trial-phase-entrainment-of-theta-oscillations-in-sensory-regions-predicts-human-associative-memory-performance
#8
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897865/the-modulation-of-locomotor-speed-is-maintained-following-partial-denervation-of-ankle-extensors-in-spinal-cats
#9
Jonathan Harnie, Celia Côté-Sarrazin, Marie-France Hurteau, Etienne Desrochers, Adam Doelman, Nawal Amhis, Alain Frigon
Speed modulation requires spatiotemporal adjustments and altered neural drive to different muscles. The loss of certain muscles produces changes in the locomotor pattern and functional compensation. However, how the loss of specific muscles affects speed modulation has not been specifically investigated. Here, we denervated the lateral-gastrocnemius and soleus muscles unilaterally in seven cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion following complete spinal transection (spinal cats). Hindlimb locomotion was tested at ten speeds, from 0...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897292/human-olfactory-receptors-novel-cellular-functions-outside-of-the-nose
#10
Désirée Maßberg, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are not exclusively expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons; they are also observed outside of the olfactory system in all other human tissues tested to date, including the testis, lung, intestine, skin, heart, and blood. Within these tissues, certain ORs have been determined to be exclusively expressed in only one tissue, whereas other ORs are more widely distributed in many different tissues throughout the human body. For most of the ectopically expressed ORs, limited data are available for their functional roles...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897284/nka-enhances-bladder-afferent-mechanosensitivity-via-urothelial-and-detrusor-activation
#11
Luke Grundy, Russ Chess-Williams, Stuart M Brierley, Kylie Mills, Kate Hilda Moore, Kylie Mansfield, Roselyn Rose'Meyer, Donna Jayne Sellers, David Grundy
Tachykinins are expressed within bladder innervating sensory afferents and have been shown to generate detrusor contraction and trigger micturition. The release of tachykinins from these sensory afferents may also activate tachykinin receptors on the urothelium, or sensory afferents directly. Here we investigated the direct and indirect influence of tachykinins on mechanosensation by recording sensory signalling from the bladder during distension, urothelial transmitter release ex-vivo, and direct responses to NKA on isolated mouse urothelial cells and bladder-innervating DRG neurons...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896653/cgrp-in-human-models-of-migraine
#12
Håkan Ashina, Henrik Winther Schytz, Messoud Ashina
Over the past three decades, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has emerged as a key molecule. Provocation experiments have demonstrated that intravenous CGRP infusion induces migraine-like attacks in migraine with and without aura patients. In addition, these studies have revealed a heterogeneous CGRP response, i.e., some migraine patients develop migraine-like attacks after CGRP infusion, while others do not. The role of CGRP in human migraine models has pointed to three potential sites of CGRP-induced migraine: (1) vasodilation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and possibly cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP); (2) activation of trigeminal sensory afferents, and (3) modulation of deep brain structures...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894316/high-throughput-screening-in-larval-zebrafish-identifies-novel-potent-sedative-hypnotics
#13
Xiaoxuan Yang, Youssef Jounaidi, Jennifer B Dai, Francisco Marte-Oquendo, Elizabeth S Halpin, Lauren E Brown, Richard Trilles, Wenqing Xu, Renee Daigle, Buwei Yu, Scott E Schaus, John A Porco, Stuart A Forman
BACKGROUND: Many general anesthetics were discovered empirically, but primary screens to find new sedative-hypnotics in drug libraries have not used animals, limiting the types of drugs discovered. The authors hypothesized that a sedative-hypnotic screening approach using zebrafish larvae responses to sensory stimuli would perform comparably to standard assays, and efficiently identify new active compounds. METHODS: The authors developed a binary outcome photomotor response assay for zebrafish larvae using a computerized system that tracked individual motions of up to 96 animals simultaneously...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892057/top-down-feedback-controls-spatial-summation-and-response-amplitude-in-primate-visual-cortex
#14
Lauri Nurminen, Sam Merlin, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci
Sensory information travels along feedforward connections through a hierarchy of cortical areas, which, in turn, send feedback connections to lower-order areas. Feedback has been implicated in attention, expectation, and sensory context, but the mechanisms underlying these diverse feedback functions are unknown. Using specific optogenetic inactivation of feedback connections from the secondary visual area (V2), we show how feedback affects neural responses in the primate primary visual cortex (V1). Reducing feedback activity increases V1 cells' receptive field (RF) size, decreases their responses to stimuli confined to the RF, and increases their responses to stimuli extending into the proximal surround, therefore reducing surround suppression...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891949/postsynaptic-rim1-modulates-synaptic-function-by-facilitating-membrane-delivery-of-recycling-nmdars-in-hippocampal-neurons
#15
Jiejie Wang, Xinyou Lv, Yu Wu, Tao Xu, Mingfei Jiao, Risheng Yang, Xia Li, Ming Chen, Yinggang Yan, Changwan Chen, Weifan Dong, Wei Yang, Min Zhuo, Tao Chen, Jianhong Luo, Shuang Qiu
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are crucial for excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. The number and subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs are tightly controlled by neuronal activity and sensory experience, but the molecular mechanism mediating NMDAR trafficking remains poorly understood. Here, we report that RIM1, with a well-established role in presynaptic vesicle release, also localizes postsynaptically in the mouse hippocampus. Postsynaptic RIM1 in hippocampal CA1 region is required for basal NMDAR-, but not AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-, mediated synaptic responses, and contributes to synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888757/tolerance-to-morphine-induced-inhibition-of-ttx-r-sodium-channels-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons-is-modulated-by-gut-derived-mediators
#16
Ryan A Mischel, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
In the clinical setting, analgesic tolerance is a primary driver of diminished pain control and opioid dose escalations. Integral to this process are primary afferent sensory neurons, the first-order components of nociceptive sensation. Here, we characterize the factors modulating morphine action and tolerance in mouse small diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that acute morphine inactivates tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ channels in these cells. Chronic exposure resulted in tolerance to this effect, which was prevented by treatment with oral vancomycin...
April 27, 2018: iScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887796/-in-vivo-visualization-of-active-polysynaptic-circuits-with-longitudinal-manganese-enhanced-mri-memri
#17
Suellen Almeida-Corrêa, Michael Czisch, Carsten T Wotjak
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a powerful tool for in vivo non-invasive whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity. Mn2+ enters active neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels and increases local contrast in T1 -weighted images. Given the property of Mn2+ of axonal transport, this technique can also be used for tract tracing after local administration of the contrast agent. However, MEMRI is still not widely employed in basic research due to the lack of a complete description of the Mn2+ dynamics in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887513/-sensory-modulation-disorders-and-impairments-in-adaptative-skills-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
P Giacardy, M Viellard, C Chatel, E Jourdan, E Avenel, S Elissalde, P Grandgeorge, V Murdymootoo, J Guivarch, L Boyer, F Poinso
INTRODUCTION: People suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) provide atypical responses to sensorial stimulations, indicating specific sensory processing. These responses vary from one another and within the same individual with ASD, resulting in maladaptive functional capacities in everyday life. Factors explaining those specificities are poorly defined and need to be better identified. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between sensory modulation symptoms (SMSs) and maladaptive behaviors in a group of children with ASD...
June 7, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884937/calcium-imaging-of-individual-olfactory-sensory-neurons-from-intact-olfactory-turbinates
#19
Chunbo Zhang
The olfactory epithelium is an extremely functionally diversified organ. Scattered distribution of over 1000 different types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and concha structures of mouse olfactory turbinates have greatly increased technical difficulties in research and limited applicability of certain methods. We have developed a method to monitor intracellular calcium transients of individual OSNs from intact olfactory turbinates. With this method, it becomes feasible to locate OSNs of the same specificity from preparation to preparation based on anatomical landmarks of olfactory turbinates, zonal distribution patterns of OSNs, and neuronal response characteristics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883732/visuocortical-changes-during-a-freezing-like-state-in-humans
#20
Maria Lojowska, Sam Ling, Karin Roelofs, Erno Hermans
An adaptive response to threat requires optimized detection of critical sensory cues. This optimization is thought to be aided by freezing - an evolutionarily preserved defensive state of immobility characterized by parasympathetically mediated fear bradycardia and regulated by the amygdala-periaqueductal grey (PAG) circuit. Behavioral observations in humans and animals have suggested that freezing is also a state of enhanced visual sensitivity, particularly for coarse visual information, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
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