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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046424/passive-sensorimotor-stimulation-triggers-long-lasting-alpha-band-fluctuations-in-visual-perception
#1
Alice Tomassini, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Movement planning and execution rely on the anticipation and online control of the incoming sensory input. Evidence suggests that sensorimotor processes may synchronize visual rhythmic activity in preparation of action performance. Indeed, we recently reported periodic fluctuations of visual contrast sensitivity which are time-locked to the onset of an intended movement of the arm. However, the origin of the observed visual modulations has so far remained unclear due to the endogenous (and thus temporally undetermined) activation of the sensorimotor system that is associated with voluntary movement initiation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045835/a-role-for-dystonia-associated-genes-in-spinal-gabaergic-interneuron-circuitry
#2
Juliet Zhang, Jarret A P Weinrich, Jeffrey B Russ, John D Comer, Praveen K Bommareddy, Richard J DiCasoli, Christopher V E Wright, Yuqing Li, Peter J van Roessel, Julia A Kaltschmidt
Spinal interneurons are critical modulators of motor circuit function. In the dorsal spinal cord, a set of interneurons called GABApre presynaptically inhibits proprioceptive sensory afferent terminals, thus negatively regulating sensory-motor signaling. Although deficits in presynaptic inhibition have been inferred in human motor diseases, including dystonia, it remains unclear whether GABApre circuit components are altered in these conditions. Here, we use developmental timing to show that GABApre neurons are a late Ptf1a-expressing subclass and localize to the intermediate spinal cord...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045599/a-modulatory-effect-of-brief-passive-exposure-to-non-linguistic-sounds-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-relevance-to-cognitive-performance
#3
Maki S Koyama, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Cynthia P Roesler, Michael P Milham, April A Benasich
A growing literature on resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has explored the impact of preceding sensory experience on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). However, it remains largely unknown how passive exposure to irrelevant auditory stimuli, which is a constant in everyday life, reconfigures iFC. Here, we directly compared pre- and post-exposure R-fMRI scans to examine: 1) modulatory effects of brief passive exposure to repeating non-linguistic sounds on subsequent iFC, and 2) associations between iFC modulations and cognitive abilities...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044171/pharmacological-sensitivity-of-reflexive-and-nonreflexive-outcomes-as-a-correlate-of-the-sensory-and-affective-responses-to-visceral-pain-in-mice
#4
Beatriz de la Puente, Daniel Zamanillo, Luz Romero, José M Vela, Manuel Merlos, Enrique Portillo-Salido
Pain encompasses both sensory and affective dimensions which can be differentially modulated by drugs. Here, we compare the pharmacological sensitivity of the sensory and affective responses using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings (sensory-reflexive outcome) and acetic acid-induced depression of reward seeking behaviour (RSB, affective-nonreflexive outcome) to a highly palatable food in mice. We found that the expression of RSB critically depends on factors such as sex and previous knowledge and type of the food stimulus...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044155/enterococci-mediate-the-oviposition-preference-of-drosophila-melanogaster-through-sucrose-catabolism
#5
Wei Liu, Ke Zhang, Yujuan Li, Wanzhen Su, Kunkun Hu, Shan Jin
Sucrose, one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants, functions as a universal biomarker for nutritional content and maturity of different fruits across diverse ecological niches. Drosophila melanogaster congregates to lay eggs in rotting fruits, yet the factors that influence these decisions remains uncovered. Here, we report that lactic acid bacteria Enterococci are critical modulators to attract Drosophila to lay eggs on decaying food. Drosophila-associated Enterococci predominantly catabolize sucrose for growing their population in fly food, and thus generate a unique ecological niche with depleted sucrose, but enriched bacteria...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043978/a-unified-internal-model-theory-to-resolve-the-paradox-of-active-versus-passive-self-motion-sensation
#6
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Brainstem and cerebellar neurons implement an internal model to accurately estimate self-motion during externally-generated ('passive') movements. However, these neurons show reduced responses during self-generated ('active') movements, indicating that predicted sensory consequences of motor commands cancel sensory signals. Remarkably, the computational processes underlying sensory prediction during active motion and their relationship to internal model computations during passive movements remain unknown. We construct a Kalman filter that incorporates motor commands into a previously-established model of optimal passive self-motion estimation...
October 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042811/optical-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulate-descending-pain-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain-created-via-chronic-constriction-injury-of-the-infraorbital-nerve
#7
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Won Ik Heo, Yon Ji Kim, Daae Lee, So Yoon Won, Hong Rae Kim, Seung Man Ha, Youn Joo Lee, Young Seok Park
PURPOSE: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a critical role in the initiation, development, and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Recently, the effects of optical stimulation on pain have been investigated, but the therapeutic effects of optical stimulation on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) have not been clearly shown. Here, we investigated the effects of optical inhibition of the ACC on TN lesions to determine whether the alleviation of pain affects behavior performance and thalamic neuron signaling...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042433/serotonin-decreases-the-gain-of-visual-responses-in-awake-macaque-v1
#8
Lenka Seillier, Corinna Lorenz, Katsuhisa Kawaguchi, Torben Ott, Andreas Nieder, Paria Pourriahi, Hendrikje Nienborg
Serotonin (5HT) is an important neuromodulator in the brain implicated in affective and cognitive functions but its role even for basic cortical processes is controversial. For example, in the mammalian primary visual cortex heterogenous serotonergic modulation has been observed in anesthetized animals. Here, we combined extracellular single unit recordings with iontophoresis in awake animals. We examined the role of serotonin on well-defined tuning properties (orientation, spatial frequency, contrast and size) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of two male macaque monkeys...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042309/the-binding-of-botulinum-neurotoxins-to-different-peripheral-neurons
#9
O Rossetto
Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known. The double receptor binding modality represents one of the most significant properties of botulinum neurotoxins and largely accounts for their incredible potency and lethality. Despite the high affinity and the very specific binding, botulinum neurotoxins are versatile and multi-tasking toxins. Indeed they are able to act both at the somatic and at the autonomic nervous system. In spite of the preference for cholinergic nerve terminals botulinum neurotoxins have been shown to inhibit to some extent also the noradrenergic postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals and the afferent nerve terminals of the sensory neurons inhibiting the release of neuropeptides and glutamate, which are responsible of nociception...
October 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040472/optogenetic-modulation-of-a-minor-fraction-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-specifically-affects-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activity-in-mouse-somatosensory-cortex-in-vivo
#10
Jenq-Wei Yang, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Maik C Stüttgen, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons exert strong effects on the neocortical excitatory network, but it remains unclear how they impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex. Here, we characterized the effects of optogenetic inhibition and activation of PV interneurons on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse barrel cortex in vivo. Inhibiting PV interneurons led to a broad-spectrum power increase both in spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity. Whisker-evoked responses were significantly increased within 20 ms after stimulus onset during inhibition of PV interneurons, demonstrating high temporal precision of PV-shaped inhibition...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040015/distinct-representations-of-magnitude-and-spatial-position-within-parietal-cortex-during-number-space-mapping
#11
Frank J Kanayet, Andrew Mattarella-Micke, Peter J Kohler, Anthony M Norcia, Bruce D McCandliss, James L McClelland
Mapping numbers onto space is foundational to mathematical cognition. These cognitive operations are often conceptualized in the context of a "mental number line" and involve multiple brain regions in or near the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that have been implicated both in numeral and spatial cognition. Here we examine possible differentiation of function within these brain areas in relating numbers to spatial positions. By isolating the planning phase of a number line task and introducing spatiotopic mapping tools from fMRI into the mental number line task research, we are able to focus our analysis on the neural activity of areas in anterior IPS (aIPS) previously associated with number processing and on spatiotopically organized areas in and around posterior IPS (pIPS), while participants prepare to place a number on a number line...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038847/touching-lips-and-hearing-fingers-effector-specific-congruency-between-tactile-and-auditory-stimulation-modulates-n1-amplitude-and-alpha-desynchronization
#12
Guannan Shen, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Understanding the interactions between audition and sensorimotor processes is of theoretical importance, particularly in relation to speech processing. Although one current focus in this area is on interactions between auditory perception and the motor system, there has been less research on connections between the auditory and somatosensory modalities. The current study takes a novel approach to this omission by examining specific auditory-tactile interactions in the context of speech and non-speech sound production...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038241/sensorimotor-processing-in-the-basal-ganglia-leads-to-transient-beta-oscillations-during-behavior
#13
Amin Mirzaei, Arvind Kumar, Daniel Leventhal, Nicolas Mallet, Ad Aertsen, Joshua Berke, Robert Schmidt
Brief epochs of beta oscillations have been implicated in sensorimotor control in the basal ganglia of task-performing healthy animals. However, which neural processes underlie their generation and how they are affected by sensorimotor processing remains unclear. To determine the mechanisms underlying transient beta oscillations in the local field potential (LFP), we combined computational modeling of the subthalamo-pallidal network for the generation of beta oscillations with realistic stimulation patterns derived from single unit data...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037701/impact-of-industrial-hammer-mill-rotor-speed-on-extraction-efficiency-and-quality-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil
#14
Juan J Polari, David Garcí-Aguirre, Lucía Olmo-García, Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo, Selina C Wang
Crushing is a key step during olive oil extraction. Among commercial crushers, the hammer mill is the most widely used due to its robustness and high throughput. In the present work, the impact of hammer mill rotor speed on extraction yield and overall quality of super-high-density Arbosana olive oils were assessed in an industrial facility. Our results show that increasing the rotor speed from 2400rpm to 3600rpm led to a rise in oil yield of 1.2%, while conserving quality parameters. Sensory analysis showed more pungency with increased rotation speed, while others attributes were unaffected...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035203/developing-a-nonstationary-computational-framework-with-application-to-modeling-dynamic-modulations-in-neural-spiking-responses
#15
Amir Akbarian, Kaiser Niknam, Mohammadbagher Parsa, Kelsey Clark, Behrad Noudoost, Neda Nategh
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to develop a computational model that incorporates the functional effects of modulatory covariates (such as context, task, or behavior), which dynamically alter the relationship between the stimulus and the neural response. METHODS: We develop a general computational approach along with an efficient estimation procedure in the widely used generalized linear model (GLM) framework to characterize such nonstationary dynamics in spiking response and spatiotemporal characteristics of a neuron at the level of individual trials...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033788/zinc-as-a-neuromodulator-in-the-central-nervous-system-with-a-focus-on-the-olfactory-bulb
#16
REVIEW
Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
The olfactory bulb (OB) is central to the sense of smell, as it is the site of the first synaptic relay involved in the processing of odor information. Odor sensations are first transduced by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) before being transmitted, by way of the OB, to higher olfactory centers that mediate olfactory discrimination and perception. Zinc is a common trace element, and it is highly concentrated in the synaptic vesicles of subsets of glutamatergic neurons in some brain regions including the hippocampus and OB...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#17
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031477/acute-developmental-exposure-to-4-hydroxyandrostenedione-has-a-long-term-effect-on-visually-guided-behaviors
#18
Cassie J Gould, Jenna L Wiegand, Victoria P Connaughton
Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognized as critical modulators of neural development, including sensory system development. Using the zebrafish model, we tested the effect of transient developmental exposure to a known anti-estrogenic EDC on adult visually-guided behavior. In particular, we exposed zebrafish aged 24-hour post-fertilization (hpf), 72 hpf, or 7-days post-fertilization (dpf) to the aromatase inhibitor 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) for 24h. After this time, the fish were removed from treatment, placed into control conditions, and reared until adulthood (3-4months) when visually-guided optomotor responses (OMR) were assessed...
October 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030688/neurotrophic-function-of-phytochemicals-for-neuroprotection-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders-modulation-of-intracellular-signaling-and-gene-expression
#19
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Keiko Inaba-Hasegawa, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama
Bioactive compounds in food and beverages have been reported to promote health and prevent age-associated decline in cognitive, motor and sensory activities, and emotional function. Phytochemicals, a ubiquitous class of plant secondary metabolites, protect neuronal cells by interaction with cellular activities, in addition to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. In aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, phytochemicals protect neuronal cells by neurotrophic factor-mimic activity, in addition to suppression of apoptosis signaling in mitochondria...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030069/sex-differences-and-menstrual-cycle-effects-in-cognitive-and-sensory-resting-state-networks
#20
Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions...
October 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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