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Ping Zhong, Xiaolei Gu, Ru Cheng, Chao Deng, Fenghua Meng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Antibody-mertansine (DM1) conjugates (AMCs) are among the very few active targeting therapeutics that are approved or clinically investigated for treating various cancers including metastatic breast cancer. However, none of the AMCs are effective for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Here, we show that cRGD-decorated, redox-activatable micellar mertansine prodrug (cRGD-MMP) can effectively target and deliver DM1 to αvβ3 integrin overexpressing MDA-MB-231 TNBC xenografts in nude mice, resulting in potent tumor growth inhibition...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Kasper R Jensen, Carsten Brink, Olfred Hansen, Uffe Bernchou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ventilation measured on 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using deformable image registration (DIR) may predict specific radiation sensitivity, but the measurement is affected by the current image quality. With 4D computed tomography (CT) measured ventilation acting as a gold standard the current study investigates if image improvements increase the accuracy of 4D-CBCT measured ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study consists of 4D-CBCT and 4D-CT scans of 20 non-small-cell lung cancer patients...
November 6, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Chenxi Hu, Steffen Huber, Syed R Latif, Guido Santacana-Laffitte, Hamid R Mojibian, Lauren A Baldassarre, Dana C Peters
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dark-blood turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging is sensitive to through-plane motion, resulting in myocardial signal reduction. PURPOSE: To propose and validate reverse double inversion-recovery (RDIR)-a dark-blood preparation with improved motion robustness for the cardiac dark-blood TSE sequence. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Healthy volunteers (n = 10) and patients (n = 20). FIELD STRENGTH: 1...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Michael G Nix, Robin J D Prestwich, Richard Speight
BACKGROUND: Head and neck MR-CT deformable image registration (DIR) for radiotherapy planning is hindered by the lack of both ground-truth and per-patient accuracy assessment methods. This study assesses novel post-registration reference-free error assessment algorithms, based on local rigid re-registration of native and pseudomodality images. METHODS: Head and neck MR obtained in and out of the treatment position underwent DIR to planning CT. Block-wise mutual information (b-MI) and pseudomodality mutual information (b-pmMI) algorithms were validated against applied rotations and translations...
October 31, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Geoffrey G Zhang, Kujtim Latifi, Vladimir Feygelman, Kuei-Ting Chou, Tzung-Chi Huang, Thomas J Dilling, Bradford A Perez, Eduardo G Moros
The major problem with ventilation distribution calculations using DIR and 4DCT is the motion artifacts in 4DCT. Quite often not all phases would exhibit mushroom motion artifacts. If the ventilation series similarity is sufficiently robust, the ventilation distribution can be calculated using only the artifact-free phases. This study investigated the ventilation similarity among the data derived from different respiration phases. Fifteen lung cancer cases were analyzed. In each case, DIR was performed between the end-expiration phase and all other phases...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Christian Macks, So-Jung Gwak, Michael Lynn, Jeoung Soo Lee
Among the complex pathophysiological events following spinal cord injury, one of the most important molecular level consequences is a dramatic reduction in neuronal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Many studies shown that rolipram (Rm), a phosphodiesterase IV (PDE4) inhibitor, can protect against secondary cell death, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels and immune cell infiltration, and increase white matter sparing and functional improvement. Previously, we developed a polymeric micelle nanoparticle, (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs for SCI repair...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Marek Malicki, Maro Iliopoulou, Christian Hammann
Transposable elements, identified in all eukaryotes, are mobile genetic units that can change their genomic position. Transposons usually employ an excision and reintegration mechanism, by which they change position, but not copy number. In contrast, retrotransposons amplify via RNA intermediates, increasing their genomic copy number. Hence, they represent a particular threat to the structural and informational integrity of the invaded genome. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, model organism of the evolutionary Amoebozoa supergroup, features a haploid, gene-dense genome that offers limited space for damage-free transposition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marco Fusella, Francesca R Giglioli, Christian Fiandra, Riccardo Ragona
Deformable image registration (DIR) is an important tool for mapping both dose and contours of a new set of planning images when recurrent, that is, adaptive radiotherapy, or further treatment, that is, re-treatment, is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for plan recalculation in deformed anatomies and to develop a reliable workflow for validating the DIR algorithm to be applied to dose warping such as dose accumulation (DA) for adaptive radiation therapy, and dose summation (DS) in the case of re-treatment...
September 25, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
David Sarrut, Thomas Baudier, Myriam Ayadi, Ronan Tanguy, Simon Rit
Radiation therapy (RT) of the lung requires deformation analysis. Deformable image registration (DIR) is the fundamental method to quantify deformations for various applications: motion compensation, contour propagation, dose accumulation, etc. DIR is therefore unavoidable in lung RT. DIR algorithms have been studied for decades and are now available both within commercial and academic packages. However, they are complex and have limitations that every user must be aware of before clinical implementation. In this paper, the main applications of DIR for lung RT with their associated uncertainties and their limitations are reviewed...
September 22, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
Allyson L Dir, Arthur R Andrews, Sarah M Wilson, Tatiana M Davidson, Amanda K Gilmore
Alcohol-involved sexual experiences, including incapacitated sexual assault and alcohol-involved sex, are major public health concerns among college women. Further, racial/ethnic diversity among college students is increasing, particularly with regard to increases in college students of Asian/Pacific Islander (API) race/ethnicity. Of relevance, evidence suggests differences in sexual assault rates across ethnicities and cultures; however, no known study to date has examined differences by ethnicity and first language in expectancies and experiences specifically surrounding alcohol and sex...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
Yang Li, Jinyan Lin, Jinyuan Ma, Liang Song, Huirong Lin, Bowen Tang, Dengyue Chen, Guanghao Su, Shefang Ye, Xuan Zhu, Fanghong Luo, Zhenqing Hou
"All-in-one" carrier-free-based nano-multi-drug self-delivery system could combine triple advantages of small molecules, nanoscale characteristics, and synergistic combination therapy together. Researches have showed that dual-acting small-molecular methotrexate (MTX) could target and kill the folate-receptor-overexpressing cancer cells. Inspired by this mechanism, a novel collaborative early-phase tumor-selective targeting and late-phase synergistic anticancer approach was developed for the self-assembly of chemotherapeutic drug-drug conjugate, which showed various advantages of more simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility over the conventional approach based only on single or combination cancer chemotherapy...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ya-Jun Ma, Yanchun Zhu, Xing Lu, Michael Carl, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
PURPOSE: To investigate high contrast imaging of short T2 tissues with a three-dimensional double adiabatic inversion recovery prepared ultrashort echo time Cones (3D DIR-UTE-Cones) sequence. METHODS: The sequence used two sequential adiabatic inversion pulses to suppress signals from long T2 tissues, followed by multispoke UTE acquisition to detect signals from short T2 tissues. The two adiabatic inversion pulses are identical with a center frequency located at the water peak, but the spectral width is broad enough to cover both water and fat frequencies...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Eberhard D Pracht, Thorsten Feiweier, Philipp Ehses, Daniel Brenner, Alard Roebroeck, Bernd Weber, Tony Stöcker
PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to implement an ultra-high field (UHF) optimized double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence for gray matter (GM) imaging, enabling whole brain coverage in short acquisition times ( ≈5 min, image resolution 1 mm(3) ). METHODS: A 3D variable flip angle DIR turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence was optimized for UHF application. We implemented an improved, fast, and specific absorption rate (SAR) efficient TSE imaging module, utilizing improved reordering...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Shulin Dai, Yucheng Feng, Shuyi Li, Yuxiao Chen, Meiqing Liu, Chao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yihua Yin
Micelles as drug carriers are characterized by their inherent instability due to the weak physical interactions that facilitate the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers. As one of the strong physical interactions, the stereocomplexation between equal molar of enantiomeric polylactides, i.e., the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactide) (PDLA), may be harnessed to obtain micelles with enhanced stability and drug loading capacity and consequent sustained release. In this paper, stereocomplexed micelles (γ-PGA-g-PLA micelles) were fabricated from the stereocomplexation between poly(γ-glutamic acid)-graft-PLLA (γ-PGA-g-PLLA) and poly(γ-glutamic acid)-graft-PDLA (γ-PGA-g-PDLA)...
September 11, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Qian Wang, Chan Li, Tianyang Ren, Shizhu Chen, Xiaoxia Ye, Hongbo Guo, Haibing He, Yu Zhang, Tian Yin, Xing-Jie Liang, Xing Tang
Bioadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride) (PVMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (mPEG-b-PLA) were produced by the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Paclitaxel was utilized as the model drug, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 90.2 ± 4.0%. The nanoparticles were uniform and spherical in shape and exhibited a sustained drug release compared with Taxol. m-NPs also exhibited favorable bioadhesive efficiency at the same time. Coumarin 6 or DiR-loaded nanoparticles with/without PVMMA (C6-m-NPs/DiR-m-NPs or C6-p-NPs/DiR-p-NPs) were used for cellular uptake and intestinal adhesion experiments, respectively...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Allyson L Dir, Amanda K Gilmore, Angela D Moreland, Tatiana M Davidson, April L Borkman, Alyssa A Rheingold, Carla Kmett Danielson
The link between substance use and risky sexual behavior, particularly unprotected sex, among adolescents and young adults has been well established in the literature; however, less is known regarding how different patterns and types of substance use differentially relate to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex. The current study examined perceived risks and unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults, and examined whether marijuana use, alcohol use, and dual marijuana and alcohol use were differentially linked to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex...
January 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Khurshaid Khan, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan, Naheed Ali
Despite their medical importance, natural breeding sites of sand flies have been poorly explored. Detecting such sites is imperative in vector control strategies. This study aimed to identify potential breeding and resting microhabitats of sand flies and household risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Dir districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Survey of indoor and outdoor habitats in four tehsils (subdistricts) of upper and lower Dir districts was carried out using sticky traps, flit method, and aspirator...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Daniel F Polan, Mary Feng, Theodore S Lawrence, Randall K Ten Haken, Kristy K Brock
PURPOSE: Understanding anatomic and functional changes in the liver resulting from radiation therapy is fundamental to the improvement of normal tissue complication probability models needed to advance personalized medicine. The ability to link pretreatment and posttreatment imaging is often compromised by significant dose-dependent volumetric changes within the liver that are currently not accounted for in deformable image registration (DIR) techniques. This study investigated using delivered dose, in combination with other patient factors, to biomechanically model longitudinal changes in liver anatomy for follow-up care and re-treatment planning...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Liang Tao, Zhen-Ke Zhu, Fang-Bai Li, Shan-Li Wang
Copper is a trace element essential for living creatures, but copper content in soil should be controlled, as it is toxic. The physical-chemical-biological features of Cu in soil have a significant correlation with the Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction in soil. Of significant interest to the current study is the effect of Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction conducted on goethite under anaerobic conditions stimulated by HS01 (a dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) microbial). The following four treatments were designed: HS01 with α-FeOOH and Cu(II) (T1), HS01 with α-FeOOH (T2), HS01 with Cu(II) (T3), and α-FeOOH with Cu(II) (T4)...
August 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Deshan Yang, Miao Zhang, Xiao Chang, Yabo Fu, Shi Liu, Harold H Li, Sasa Mutic, Ye Duan
PURPOSES: An image processing procedure was developed in this study to detect large quantity of landmark pairs accurately in pairs of volumetric medical images. The detected landmark pairs can be used to evaluate of deformable image registration (DIR) methods quantitatively. METHODS: Landmark detection and pair matching were implemented in a Gaussian pyramid multi-resolution scheme. A 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature detection method and a 3D Harris-Laplacian corner detection method were employed to detect feature points, i...
August 23, 2017: Medical Physics
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