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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356327/functions-of-autophagy-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-cancer-metastasis
#1
REVIEW
Erin E Mowers, Marina N Sharifi, Kay F MacLeod
Macro-autophagy is an ancient and highly-conserved self-degradative process that plays a homeostatic role in normal cells by eliminating organelles, pathogens and protein aggregates. Autophagy, as it is routinely referred to, also allows cells to maintain metabolic sufficiency and survive under conditions of nutrient stress by recycling the by-products of autophagic degradation, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides. Tumor cells are more reliant than normal cells on autophagy for survival in part due to their rapid growth rate, altered metabolism and nutrient deprived growth environment...
January 21, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356167/targeting-of-mir-31-96-182-to-the-numb-gene-during-head-and-neck-oncogenesis
#2
Chung-Hsien Chou, Hsi-Feng Tu, Shou-Yen Kao, Chun-Yu Fan Chiang, Chung-Ji Liu, Kuo-Wei Chang, Shu-Chun Lin
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study investigates whether miR-31, miR-96, and miR-182 are involved in targeting Numb during HNSCC. METHODS: The expression of miR-31/96/182 in tumor tissues was analyzed. Reporter assay, knockdown, expression, and oncogenic analysis were carried out in cell lines. RESULTS: Upregulation of miR-31/96/182 was detected in tumor tissues. In addition, advanced tumors showed higher expression levels of these miRNAs...
January 22, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356071/the-anti-inflammatory-ifitm-genes-ameliorate-colitis-and-partially-protect-from-tumorigenesis-by-changing-immunity-and-microbiota
#3
Zoya Alteber, Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Dan Blat, Lior Roitman, Esther Tzehoval, Eran Elinav, Lea Eisenbach
Inflammation plays pivotal roles in different stages of tumor development. Screening for predisposing genetic abnormalities and understanding the roles these genes play in the crosstalk between immune and cancer cells will provide new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. The interferon inducible transmembrane (IFITM) genes are involved in pathogenesis of the gastro-intestinal tract. We aimed at delineating the role of IFITM3 in colonic epithelial homeostasis, inflammation and colitis-associated tumorigenesis using IFITM3-deficient mice...
December 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356040/basolateral-cd147-induces-hepatocyte-polarity-loss-by-e-cadherin-ubiquitination-and-degradation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progress
#4
Meng Lu, Jiao Wu, Zhi-Wei Hao, Yu-Kui Shang, Jing Xu, Gang Nan, Xia Li, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
Hepatocytes are epithelial cells with highly specialized polarity. The disorder and loss of hepatocyte polarity lead to the weakness of cell adhesion and connection, the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and eventually the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CD147, a tumor-related glycoprotein, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasion of HCC. However, the function of CD147 in hepatocyte depolarization is unknown. Here we identified that CD147 was basolaterally polarized in hepatocyte membrane of liver tissues and HepG2 cells...
January 21, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356020/matrine-inhibits-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer-by-promoting-expression-of-gadd45b
#5
Hai Huang, Qiong Wang, Tao Du, Chunhao Lin, Yiming Lai, Dingjun Zhu, Wanhua Wu, Xiaoming Ma, Soumin Bai, Zean Li, Leyuan Liu, Qi Li
BACKGROUND: Matrine is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora flavescens. It has been demonstrated to exhibit antiproliferative properties, promote apoptosis, and inhibit cell invasion in a number of cancer cell lines by modulating the NF-κB pathway to downregulate the expression of MMP2 and MM9. It has also been shown to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy when it is combined with other chemotherapy drugs. However, the therapeutic potential of matrine for prostate cancer needs to be further studied...
January 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356019/time-resolved-fluorescence-trf-and-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-drs-for-margin-analysis-in-breast-cancer
#6
Nourhan Shalaby, Alia Al-Ebraheem, Du Le, Sylvie Cornacchi, Qiyin Fang, Thomas Farrell, Peter Lovrics, Gabriela Gohla, Susan Reid, Nicole Hodgson, Michael Farquharson
PURPOSE: One of the major problems in breast cancer surgery is defining surgical margins and establishing complete tumor excision within a single surgical procedure. The goal of this work is to establish instrumentation that can differentiate between tumor and normal breast tissue with the potential to be implemented in vivo during a surgical procedure. METHODS: A time-resolved fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy (tr-FRS) system is used to measure fluorescence intensity and lifetime as well as collect diffuse reflectance (DR) of breast tissue, which can subsequently be used to extract optical properties (absorption and reduced scatter coefficient) of the tissue...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355917/radiotherapy-regimens-in-patients-with-nonmelanoma-head-and-neck-skin-cancers
#7
Yusuf Dundar, Richard B Cannon, Jason P Hunt, Marcus Monroe, Gita Suneja, Ying J Hitchcock
BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness and outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy regimens for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) of the head and neck, particularly for elderly patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with head and neck NMSC was conducted. Radiotherapy dose per fraction regimens included ≤200, 240-250, 300-400, and 500-600 cGy. Demographics, tumor characteristics, local control (LC), regional control (RC), and survival outcomes were analyzed...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355797/cyberknife-radiosurgery-in-the-multimodal-management-of-patients-with-cushing-s-disease
#8
Justin M Moore, Elisa Sala, Alvaro Amorin, Hector Martinez, Aprotim C Bhowmik, Steven D Chang, Scott G Soltys, Griffith R Harsh, Laurence Katznelson
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is the primary treatment for Cushing's disease (CD). However, when surgery is not successful at normalizing hypercortisolism, adjuvant radiation, such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), may be useful to improving biochemical control. METHODS: We completed a retrospectively cohort study of consecutively treated patients with CyberKnife (CK) radiosurgery for active CD at Stanford Hospital and Clinics. RESULTS: As first line treatment, all patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery with histological demonstration of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing pituitary adenoma...
January 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355719/procancerogenic-activity-of-senescent-cells-a-case-of-the-peritoneal-mesothelium
#9
REVIEW
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Łukasz Stryczyński, Paweł Uruski, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
Human peritoneal mesothelial cells belong to a narrow group of somatic cells in which both the triggers and the mechanisms of senescence have already been well defined. Importantly, senescent mesothelial cells have been found in the peritoneal cavity in vivo. From a clinical point of view, peritoneal mesothelial cells have been recognized as playing a critical role in the intraperitoneal development of tumor metastases. The pro-cancerogenic behavior of mesothelial cells is even more pronounced when the cells exhaust their proliferative capacity and become senescent...
January 17, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355669/clinical-applications-of-the-cellsearch-platform-in-cancer-patients
#10
Sabine Riethdorf, Linda O'Flaherty, Claudia Hille, Klaus Pantel
The CellSearch® system (CS) enables standardized enrichment and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that are repeatedly assessable via non-invasive "liquid biopsy". While the association of CTCs with poor clinical outcome for cancer patients has clearly been demonstrated in numerous clinical studies, utilizing CTCs for the identification of therapeutic targets, stratification of patients for targeted therapies and uncovering mechanisms of resistance is still under investigation. Here, we comprehensively review the current benefits and drawbacks of clinical CTC analyses for patients with metastatic and non-metastatic tumors...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355657/fbw7-loss-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-the-stabilization-of-snail-protein
#11
Yong Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Mingxiang Ye, Pengyu Jing, Jie Xiong, Zhiping Han, Jing Kong, Mengyang Li, Xiaofeng Lai, Ning Chang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang
The E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBW7α) functions as a putative tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its regulation of a set of oncogenic proteins associated with cell proliferation and mitosis. Increasing efforts have been focused on the understanding of FBW7 in determining cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction, however, the correlation between FBW7 and tumor metastasis is not fully understood. In this study, we reported a potential anti-metastatic effect of FBW7 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355494/adamts-1-disrupts-hgf-c-met-signaling-and-hgf-stimulated-cellular-processes-in-fibrosarcoma
#12
Heydi Noriega Guerra, Mário Costa Cruz, Priscilla Ramos Lara Ribeiro, Jan Strnadel, Huawei Wang, Richard L Klemke, Ruy Gastaldoni Jaeger, Vanessa Morais Freitas
Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a reservoir for biologically active factors, such as growth factors and proteases that influence the tumor cell behavior. ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a secreted protease that has the ability to modify the ECM during physiological and pathological processes. Here, we analyzed the role played by ADAMTS-1 regulating HGF and TGF-β1 activities in the high-grade fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080). We generated HT1080 and HEK293T cells overexpressing ADAMTS-1...
January 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355462/immunotherapy-approach-with-recombinant-survivin-adjuvanted-with-alum-and-mip-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-murine-model-of-breast-cancer
#13
Himani Garg, Jagdish C Gupta, G P Talwar, Shweta Dubey
Survivin has received attention as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy because of its crucial role in oncogenesis. We undertook this study to evaluate the immunotherapeutic potential of combination of recombinant Survivin along with adjuvant alum and immune modulator Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP). In vivo efficacy of the combination was studied in an invasive murine breast cancer model. Recombinant Survivin protein was purified from E. coli based expression system and characterized by western blotting...
January 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355087/fast-and-label-free-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-from-blood-from-a-research-microfluidic-platform-to-an-automated-fluidic-instrument-vtx-1-liquid-biopsy-system
#14
Clementine A Lemaire, Sean Z Liu, Charles L Wilkerson, Vishnu C Ramani, Nasim A Barzanian, Kuo-Wei Huang, James Che, Michael W Chiu, Meghah Vuppalapaty, Adam M Dimmick, Dino Di Carlo, Michael L Kochersperger, Steve C Crouse, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Robert F Englert, Stephan Hengstler, Corinne Renier, Elodie Sollier-Christen
Tumor tissue biopsies are invasive, costly, and collect a limited cell population not completely reflective of patient cancer cell diversity. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be isolated from a simple blood draw and may be representative of the diverse biology from multiple tumor sites. The VTX-1 Liquid Biopsy System was designed to automate the isolation of clinically relevant CTC populations, making the CTCs available for easy analysis. We present here the transition from a cutting-edge microfluidic innovation in the lab to a commercial, automated system for isolating CTCs directly from whole blood...
February 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354608/a-granular-cell-tumor-of-the-rectum-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Seung Yoon Yang, Byung Soh Min, Woo Ram Kim
A granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon mesenchymal lesion that rarely occurs in the colon and the rectum. We describe the case of 51-year-old man with a 2-cm-sized rectal GCT 10 cm above the anal verge that was incidentally detected after a screening colonoscopy. Preoperative radiologic studies demonstrated a suspicious submucosal rectal mass with mesorectal fat infiltration, but without circumferential resection margin threatening, extramural vessel invasion, and regional lymph-node enlargement. The tumor was resected by using a transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) without immediate postoperative complications...
December 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354512/next-generation-sequencing-in-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-step-towards-personalized-medicine-for-a-superficial-bladder-tumor
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrew Butterfield, Sumati Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354496/the-current-status-and-clinical-value-of-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-bladder-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Sabine Riethdorf, Armin Soave, Michael Rink
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is a complex disease, which is associated with highly aggressive tumor biologic behavior, especially in patients with muscle-invasive and advanced tumors. Despite multimodal therapy options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, UCB patients frequently suffer from poor clinical outcome. Indeed, the potential of diverse opportunities for modern targeted therapies is not sufficiently elucidated in UCB yet. To improve the suboptimal treatment situation in UCB, biomarkers are urgently needed that help detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), predicting therapy response and subsequently prognosis as well as enabling patient stratification for further therapies and therapy monitoring, respectively...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354492/peri-operative-chemotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-status-quo-in-2017
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin Pradère, Constance Thibault, Malte W Vetterlein, Jeffrey J Leow, Benoit Peyronnet, Morgan Rouprêt, Thomas Seisen
The role of perioperative chemotherapy associated with radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer has been analyzed in several landmark randomized controlled trials (RCTs) over the past decades. With regard to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), a meta-analysis of level 1 evidence and long-term results from the largest RCTs support its use, which is currently advocated as the standard of care by most of the clinical guidelines worldwide. However, with regard to the delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), evidence is more contentious...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354488/impact-of-the-ki-67-labeling-index-and-p53-expression-status-on-disease-free-survival-in-pt1-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#19
Malte W Vetterlein, Julia Roschinski, Philipp Gild, Phillip Marks, Armin Soave, Ousman Doh, Hendrik Isbarn, Wolfgang Höppner, Walter Wagner, Shahrokh F Shariat, Maurizio Brausi, Franziska Büscheck, Guido Sauter, Margit Fisch, Michael Rink
Background: The identification of protein biomarkers to guide treatment decisions regarding adjuvant therapies for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has been of increasing interest. Evidence of the impact of tumor suppressor gene product p53 and cell proliferation marker Ki-67 on oncologic outcomes in bladder cancer patients at highest risk of recurrence and progression is partially contradictory. We sought to mirror contemporary expression patterns of p53 and Ki-67 in a select cohort of patients with pT1 bladder cancer...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354207/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-prostate-cancer-a-review-of-current-methods-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Yousef Mazaheri, Oguz Akin, Hedvig Hricak
In many areas of oncology, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has proven to be a clinically useful, non-invasive functional imaging technique to quantify tumor vasculature and tumor perfusion characteristics. Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Malignant lesions demonstrate rapid extravasation of contrast from the intravascular space to the capillary bed due to leaky capillaries associated with tumor neovascularity. DCE-MRI has the potential to provide information regarding blood flow, areas of hypoperfusion, and variations in endothelial permeability and microvessel density to aid treatment selection, enable frequent monitoring during treatment and assess response to targeted therapy following treatment...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
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