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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906230/stability-of-a-frequency-comb-based-transfer-lock-using-a-passive-fabry-perot-resonator
#1
Sambit B Pal, Mark M Lam, K Dieckmann
We report on a transfer-lock laser frequency stabilization that utilizes a frequency comb (FC) and a radio frequency counter referenced to a GPS frequency standard to compensate for the frequency drifts of two lasers, which are locked to a single passive Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR). The method requires only one optical phase lock with the FC and allows transfer locking of lasers at wavelengths beyond the usable range of the FC. To attain a large frequency tuning range for the lasers, we implement optical serrodyning...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905578/2-r-fluorinated-mc-hmc-fc-and-cac-triphosphates-are-substrates-for-dna-polymerases-and-tet-enzymes
#2
A S Schröder, E Parsa, K Iwan, F R Traube, M Wallner, S Serdjukow, T Carell
A deeper investigation of the chemistry that occurs on the newly discovered epigenetic DNA bases 5-hydroxymethyl-(hmdC), 5-formyl-(fdC), and 5-carboxy-deoxycytidine (cadC) requires chemical tool compounds, which are able to dissect the different potential reaction pathways in cells. Here we report that the 2'-(R)-fluorinated derivatives F-hmdC, F-fdC, and F-cadC, which are resistant to removal by base excision repair, are good substrates for DNA polymerases and TET enzymes. This result shows that the fluorinated compounds are ideal tool substances to investigate potential C-C-bond cleaving reactions in the context of active demethylation...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905034/artifacts-arising-from-using-leukocytic-fc-receptor-blocking-buffer
#3
S V Zubova, D S Kabanov, D A Serov, S V Grachev, I R Prokhorenko
We studied the effects of Human TruStain FcX buffer (Fcγ receptor blocking solution) in experiments on evaluation of TLR4 level with labeled monoclonal antibodies, intracellular immunofluorescent staining of NF-κB p50, and TNF-α synthesis on human isolated monocytes and whole blood cells. The influence of the blocking buffer on the measured parameters should be taken into account and appropriateness of its use in experiments on isolated cells and whole blood should be considered.
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904878/de-novo-pyrimidine-biosynthesis-connects-cell-integrity-to-amphotericin-b-susceptibility-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#4
Dithi Banerjee, Timothy C Umland, John C Panepinto
The use of amphotericin B (AmB) in conjunction with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is known to be the optimal therapy for treating cryptococcosis, but the mechanism by which 5-FC synergizes with AmB is unknown. In this study, we generated a Cryptococcus neoformans ura1Δ mutant lacking dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), which demonstrated temperature-sensitive growth due to a defect in cell integrity and sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents. In addition, sensitivity to AmB was greatly increased. Inclusion of uracil or uridine in the medium did not suppress the cell wall or AmB phenotype, whereas complementation with the wild-type URA1 gene complemented the mutant phenotype...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903863/internalization-of-secreted-antigen-targeted-antibodies-by-the-neonatal-fc-receptor-for-precision-imaging-of-the-androgen-receptor-axis
#5
Daniel L J Thorek, Philip A Watson, Sang-Gyu Lee, Anson T Ku, Stylianos Bournazos, Katharina Braun, Kwanghee Kim, Kjell Sjöström, Michael G Doran, Urpo Lamminmäki, Elmer Santos, Darren Veach, Mesruh Turkekul, Emily Casey, Jason S Lewis, Diane S Abou, Marise R H van Voss, Peter T Scardino, Sven-Erik Strand, Mary L Alpaugh, Howard I Scher, Hans Lilja, Steven M Larson, David Ulmert
Targeting the androgen receptor (AR) pathway prolongs survival in patients with prostate cancer, but resistance rapidly develops. Understanding this resistance is confounded by a lack of noninvasive means to assess AR activity in vivo. We report intracellular accumulation of a secreted antigen-targeted antibody (SATA) that can be used to characterize disease, guide therapy, and monitor response. AR-regulated human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (free hK2) is a prostate tissue-specific antigen produced in prostate cancer and androgen-stimulated breast cancer cells...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#6
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902916/use-of-molecular-pathogenicity-indices-to-identify-pathogenic-strains-of-pasteurella-multocida
#7
Thales Quedi Furian, Karen Apellanis Borges, Roberta Marmitt Pilatti, Camila Neves de Almeida, André Felipe Streck, Brunna Dias de Emery, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle, Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes
In addition to being the causative agent of fowl cholera (FC), Pasteurella multocida is also one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens associated with respiratory diseases in various hosts. However, understanding of the traits that distinguish the virulent isolates that cause FC is still limited. The objective of this study was to characterize P. multocida isolates of Brazil by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in order to determine if strain-type correlates with virulence or with 22 previously studied virulence genes...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902333/plant-produced-anti-dengue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies-exhibit-reduced-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-infection-activity
#8
Matthew Dent, Jonathan Hurtado, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Huafang Lai, Ming Yang, Adrian Esqueda, Fengwei Bai, Herta Steinkellner, Qiang Chen
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo and subjects treated animals more susceptible to develop more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899210/comparative-analysis-of-the-internalization-of-the-macrophage-receptor-sialoadhesin-in-human-and-mouse-primary-macrophages-and-cell-lines
#9
Marjorie De Schryver, Annelies Leemans, Isabel Pintelon, Davie Cappoen, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs...
November 21, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896338/electrochemical-investigation-of-co4-%C3%AE-3-o-4-%C3%AE-oac-4-py-4-and-peroxides-by-cyclic-voltammetry
#10
Edwin B Clatworthy, Xiaobo Li, Anthony F Masters, Thomas Maschmeyer
Two oxidative redox processes of the neutral cobalt(iii) cubane, [Co4(μ3-O)4(μ-OAc)4(py)4], were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode in acetonitrile. In addition to the first quasi-reversible one-electron oxidation at E1/2 = 0.283 V vs. Fc(0/+), a second quasi-reversible one-electron oxidation was observed at E1/2 = 1.44 V vs. Fc(0/+). Oxidation at this potential does not facilitate water oxidation. In the presence of tert-butylhydroperoxide the peak current of this second oxidation increases, suggesting oxidation of the peroxide by the doubly oxidised cubane...
November 29, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895590/brain-functional-connectivity-is-different-during-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-contraction
#11
Wan X Yao, Zhiguo Jiang, Jinqi Li, Changhao Jiang, Crystal G Franlin, Jack L Lancaster, Yufei Huang, Guang H Yue
Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC) than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1) and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895507/fc-gamma-receptors-glycobiology-and-therapeutic-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Jerrard M Hayes, Mark R Wormald, Pauline M Rudd, Gavin P Davey
Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895427/irritable-bowel-syndrome-evaluation-using-computed-tomography-colonography
#13
Hideki Ohgo, Hiroyuki Imaeda, Minoru Yamaoka, Kazuaki Yoneno, Naoki Hosoe, Takeshi Mizukami, Hidetomo Nakamoto
AIM: To evaluate the morphology of the colon in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using computed tomography colonography (CTC). METHODS: Twelve patients with diarrhea type IBS (IBS-D), 13 patients with constipation type IBS (IBS-C), 12 patients with functional constipation (FC) and 14 control patients underwent colonoscopy following CTC. The lengths of the rectosigmoid colon, transverse colon and the total colon were measured. The diameters of the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, and ascending colon were measured...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895013/frequent-cross-resistance-to-dapivirine-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals-on-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#14
Kerri J Penrose, Carole L Wallis, Chanson J Brumme, Kristen A Hamanishi, Kelley C Gordon, Raquel V Viana, P Richard Harrigan, John W Mellors, Urvi M Parikh
BACKGROUND: A vaginal ring containing dapivirine (DPV) has shown moderate protective efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition, but the activity of DPV against efavirenz (EFV)- and nevirapine (NVP)-resistant viruses that could be transmitted is not well-defined. We investigated DPV cross-resistance of subtype C HIV-1 from individuals on failing NVP- or EFV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa (SA). METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from individuals with >10,000 copies/mL HIV RNA and with HIV-1 containing at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) mutation...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893815/an-accessory-protease-inhibitor-to-increase-the-yield-and-quality-of-a-tumour-targeting-mab-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#15
Philippe V Jutras, Carla Marusic, Chiara Lonoce, Carole Deflers, Marie-Claire Goulet, Eugenio Benvenuto, Dominique Michaud, Marcello Donini
The overall quality of recombinant IgG antibodies in plants is dramatically compromised by host endogenous proteases. Different approaches have been developed to reduce the impact of endogenous proteolysis on IgGs, notably involving site-directed mutagenesis to eliminate protease-susceptible sites or the in situ mitigation of host protease activities to minimize antibody processing in the cell secretory pathway. We here characterized the degradation profile of H10, a human tumour-targeting monoclonal IgG, in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana also expressing the human serine protease inhibitor α1-antichymotrypsin or the cysteine protease inhibitor tomato cystatin SlCYS8...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892575/heat-treated-carbon-supported-iron-ii-phthalocyanine-oxygen-reduction-catalysts-elucidation-of-the-structure-activity-relationship-using-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#16
Hamish A Miller, Marco Bellini, Werner Oberhauser, Xin Deng, Hengquan Chen, Qinggang He, Maurizio Passaponti, Massimo Innocenti, Ruoou Yang, Fanfei Sun, Zheng Jiang, Francesco Vizza
This paper focuses on studying the influence of the heat treatment on the structure and activity of carbon supported Fe(ii)phthalocyanine (FePc/C) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts under alkaline conditions. The FePc macrocycle was deposited onto ketjen black carbon and heated treated for 2 hours under inert atmosphere (Ar) at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C). The atomic structure of Fe in each sample has been determined by XAS and correlated to the activity and ORR mechanisms determined in electrochemical half cells and in a complete H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEM-FC)...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892504/soluble-siglec-5-associates-to-psgl-1-and-displays-anti-inflammatory-activity
#17
Marion Pepin, Soraya Mezouar, Julie Pegon, Vincent Muczynski, Frédéric Adam, Elsa P Bianchini, Amine Bazaa, Valerie Proulle, Alain Rupin, Jerome Paysant, Laurence Panicot-Dubois, Olivier D Christophe, Christophe Dubois, Peter J Lenting, Cécile V Denis
Interactions between endothelial selectins and the leukocyte counter-receptor PSGL1 mediates leukocyte recruitment to inflammation sites. PSGL1 is highly sialylated, making it a potential ligand for Siglec-5, a leukocyte-receptor that recognizes sialic acid structures. Binding assays using soluble Siglec-5 variants (sSiglec-5/C4BP and sSiglec-5/Fc) revealed a dose- and calcium-dependent binding to PSGL1. Pre-treatment of PSGL1 with sialidase reduced Siglec-5 binding by 79 ± 4%. In confocal immune-fluorescence assays, we observed that 50% of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) simultaneously express PSGL1 and Siglec-5...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891581/antigen-specificity-determines-anti-red-blood-cell-igg-fc-alloantibody-glycosylation-and-thereby-severity-of-haemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn
#18
Myrthe E Sonneveld, Joke Koelewijn, Masja de Haas, Jon Admiraal, Rosina Plomp, Carolien A M Koeleman, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Peter Ligthart, Manfred Wuhrer, C Ellen van der Schoot, Gestur Vidarsson
Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a severe disease in which fetal red blood cells (RBC) are destroyed by maternal anti-RBC IgG alloantibodies. HDFN is most often caused by anti-D but may also occur due to anti-K, -c- or -E. We recently found N-linked glycosylation of anti-D to be skewed towards low fucosylation, thereby increasing the affinity to IgG-Fc receptor IIIa and IIIb, which correlated with HDFN disease severity. Here, we analysed 230 pregnant women with anti-c, -E or -K alloantibodies from a prospective screening cohort and investigated the type of Fc-tail glycosylation of these antibodies in relation to the trigger of immunisation and pregnancy outcome...
November 28, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891180/the-effect-of-foot-orthoses-with-forefoot-cushioning-or-metatarsal-pad-on-forefoot-peak-plantar-pressure-in-running
#19
Michaela Hähni, Anja Hirschmüller, Heiner Baur
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are frequently used in sports for the treatment of overuse complaints with sufficient evidence available for certain foot-related overuse pathologies like plantar fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis and foot pain (e.g., metatarsalgia). One important aim is to reduce plantar pressure under prominent areas like metatarsal heads. For the forefoot region, mainly two common strategies exist: metatarsal pad (MP) and forefoot cushioning (FC). The aim of this study was to evaluate which of these orthosis concepts is superior in reducing plantar pressure in the forefoot during running...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#20
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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