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Fetal alcohol syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919490/alcohol-exposure-induces-chick-craniofacial-bone-defects-by-negatively-affecting-cranial-neural-crest-development
#1
Ping Zhang, Guang Wang, Zhuangling Lin, Yushi Wu, Jing Zhang, Meng Liu, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Manli Chuai, Xuesong Yang
Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus...
September 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#2
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882694/embryonic-alcohol-exposure-leading-to-social-avoidance-and-altered-anxiety-responses-in-adult-zebrafish
#3
Suelen Baggio, Ben Hur Mussulini, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Robert Gerlai, Eduardo Pacheco Rico
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a syndrome characterized by neurological and behavioral impairments. A recently discovered hallmark of FASD is impaired social behavior. Avoidance of social interaction typical of FASD may be the result of increased anxiety. Previously, the zebrafish was successfully used to model embryonic alcohol induced social abnormalities. Here, we analyzed both anxiety and social responses using a zebrafish FASD model, in adult fish. We exposed zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of ethanol (0...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868323/fetal-alcohol-exposure-the-common-toll
#4
Marie R Nakhoul, Karl E Seif, Natasha Haddad, Georges E Haddad
Alcohol has always been present in human life, and currently it is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age consume alcohol. It has become increasingly clear over the last years that alcohol exposure during fetal development can have detrimental effects on various organ systems, and these effects are exerted by alcohol through multiple means, including effects on free radical formation, cellular apoptosis, as well as gene expression. Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a spectrum of short term as well as long-term problems, with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome being on the more severe end of that spectrum...
February 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838601/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-what-pediatric-providers-need-to-know
#5
Angela Nash, Leah Davies
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the prevalence of which is similar to that of other developmental disabilities like Down syndrome and autism. Children, adolescents, and adults who live with the disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure face extraordinary challenges throughout their lives. Pediatric providers need to be able to identify patients with FASD because early recognition and intervention is known to improve life outcomes for affected individuals...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834683/global-prevalence-of-alcohol-use-and-binge-drinking-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#6
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
Alcohol use during pregnancy is an established cause of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), with heavy drinking during pregnancy being explicitly linked to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The current paper presents recent estimates of the prevalence of: i) any amount of alcohol use during pregnancy, ii) one or more binge drinking episode(s) (four or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, iii) FAS, and iv) FASD among the general population globally and by World Health Organization region...
August 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833838/syndrome-specific-modules-to-enhance-the-stepping-stones-triple-p-public-health-intervention
#7
L A Bezzina, L J Rice, P Howlin, B J Tonge, S L Einfeld
BACKGROUND: Service responses to behaviour phenotypes include care by expert clinicians, syndrome-specific clinics, disability-specific mental health services and generic mental health services. While these services contribute to care, they are often of limited accessibility. METHODS: We describe a population-wide public health intervention aimed at increasing the accessibility of services to the target population. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a public health intervention of known efficacy in reducing behaviour problems when delivered to parents of children aged 0-12 with mixed developmental disabilities...
September 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833556/over-expression-of-p53-explains-isotretinoin-s-teratogenicity
#8
Bodo C Melnik
The precise molecular basis of retinoid embryopathy is yet unknown. This hypothesis predicts that isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid), the prodrug of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), exaggerates neural crest cell (NCC) apoptosis via upregulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53, the guardian of the genome. Increased p53 signaling is associated with Treacher Collins-, CHARGE-, and fetal alcohol syndrome, which exhibit dysmorphic craniofacial features resembling retinoid embryopathy. In addition, developmental studies of NCC homeostasis in the zebrafish support the pivotal role of p53...
August 20, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820871/genetic-predisposition-to-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-association-with-congenital-disorders-of-n-glycosylation
#9
María E de la Morena-Barrio, María J Ballesta-Martínez, Raquel López-Gálvez, Ana I Antón, Vanessa López-González, Laia Martínez-Ribot, José Padilla, Antonia Miñano, Oscar García-Algar, Miguel Del Campo, Javier Corral, Encarna Guillén-Navarro, Vicente Vicente
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, although additional factors must be involved, as development and severity are not directly related to alcohol intake. The abnormal glycosylation caused by alcohol might play a role in FAS according to the clinical similarities shared with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Thus, mutations underlying CDG, affecting genes involved in glycosylation, could also be involved in FAS...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792446/the-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-and-its-impact-on-a-child-s-classroom-performance-a-case-study-of-a-rural-south-african-school
#10
Melissa Lubbe, Corné van Walbeek, Nicole Vellios
Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child's education. The aim of this study is to provide a prevalence estimate of FAS in a rural school and to examine the effects of FAS on learners' educational outcomes. The study was conducted at a farm school near Clanwilliam in the Western Cape of South Africa...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775124/low-alcohol-consumption-and-pregnancy-and-childhood-outcomes-time-to-change-guidelines-indicating-apparently-safe-levels-of-alcohol-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#11
Loubaba Mamluk, Hannah B Edwards, Jelena Savović, Verity Leach, Timothy Jones, Theresa H M Moore, Sharea Ijaz, Sarah J Lewis, Jenny L Donovan, Debbie Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Abigail Fraser, Luisa Zuccolo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of low-to-moderate levels of maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Psychinfo from inception to 11 July 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective observational studies, negative control and quasiexperimental studies of pregnant women estimating effects of light drinking in pregnancy (≤32 g/week) versus abstaining...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#12
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
October 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699765/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-disorder-diminished-responsibility-and-mitigation-of-sentence
#13
Russ Scott
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. CONCLUSION: The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690436/a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-series-of-undergraduate-laboratory-exercises-for-biopsychology-courses
#14
Ana M H Kehrberg, Jenna N Parrish, Sasha A Eby
Many undergraduate students are aware that consuming alcohol during pregnancy can result in many serious physical and behavioral deficits. Student interest in this clinical syndrome allows instructors to provide engaging laboratory exercises that relate topics covered in most biopsychology courses to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Through this series of experiments, students will use rodents to study the behavioral deficits that can be caused by developmental alcohol exposure, including impaired ultrasonic vocalizations, hyperactivity, balance, and spatial learning...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685855/alcohol-exposure-during-pregnancy-altered-childhood-developmental-trajectories-in-a-rural-south-african-community
#15
Leigh-Anne Davies, Kate Cockcroft, Lynda Olinger, Matthew Chersich, Michael Urban, Candice M Chetty Makkan, Oliver H Turnbull, Leana Olivier, Denis Viljoen
AIM: This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood development trajectories in a rural South African community between 2003 and 2008. METHODS: We assessed 121 children at 7-12 months (year one) and 5-6 years (year five) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales - Extended Revised, which measures sensorimotor, cognitive and social development, with lower scores indicating developmental delay. We also interviewed their mothers or caregivers...
July 7, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681995/differences-in-neural-crest-sensitivity-to-ethanol-account-for-the-infrequency-of-anterior-segment-defects-in-the-eye-compared-with-craniofacial-anomalies-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#16
Jessica Eason, Antionette L Williams, Bahaar Chawla, Christian Apsey, Brenda L Bohnsack
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. METHODS: Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization...
July 6, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#17
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634776/evidence-supporting-the-internal-validity-of-the-proposed-nd-pae-disorder
#18
Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles
The internal validity of the proposed Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was evaluated in children diagnosed with either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS who were 3-10 years of age and had enrolled in a math intervention study. Symptoms were coded as present or absent using assessments conducted in the study, including standardized measures of neurocognitive and behavioral functioning, parent interview, and direct observations of the child. The number of endorsed ND-PAE symptoms was not related to environmental factors but was moderately related to the child's age...
June 20, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608920/facial-curvature-detects-and-explicates-ethnic-differences-in-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#19
Michael Suttie, Leah Wetherill, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, H Eugene Hoyme, Elizabeth R Sowell, Claire Coles, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Edward P Riley, Kenneth L Jones, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. METHODS: All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies...
August 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600000/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-alcohol-exposure-on-cocaine-induced-place-preference-in-adulthood
#20
Victoria A Macht, Sandra J Kelly, Justin T Gass
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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