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Fetal alcohol syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094891/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
LeeAnne Denny, Sarah Coles, Robin Blitz
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from intrauterine exposure to alcohol and are the most common nonheritable causes of intellectual disability. The percentage of women who drink or binge drink during pregnancy has increased since 2012. FAS is commonly missed or misdiagnosed, preventing affected children from receiving needed services in a timely fashion. Diagnosis is based on the presence of the following clinical features, all of which must be present: prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphology, central nervous system dysfunction, and neurobehavioral disabilities...
October 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069552/-i-xenopus-i-embryos-to-study-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-model-for-environmental-teratogenesis
#2
Abraham Fainsod, Hadas Kot-Leibovich
Vertebrate model systems are central to characterize the outcomes of ethanol exposure and the etiology of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), taking advantage of their genetic and morphological closeness and similarity to humans. We discuss the contribution of amphibian embryos to FASD research, focusing on <i>Xenopus</i> embryos. The <i>Xenopus</i> experimental system is characterized by external development and accessibility throughout embryogenesis, large clutch sizes, gene and protein activity manipulation, transgenesis and genome editing, convenient chemical treatment, explants and conjugates and many other experimental approaches...
October 25, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023818/commentary-on-montag-et%C3%A2-al-2017-the-importance-of-cbpr-in-fasd-prevention-with-american-indian-communities
#3
Jessica D Hanson, Tess L Weber
Prenatal alcohol consumption is a public health concern due to potential lifelong physical and cognitive effects in offspring, often presenting in the form of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol and includes a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is diagnosed through facial abnormalities, growth retardation, and delayed brain growth (Hoyme et al., 2016), as well as secondary disabilities such as conduct disorders, mental illness, and psychosocial functioning...
October 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982012/competition-between-ethanol-clearance-and-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-induction-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#4
Yehuda Shabtai, Abraham Fainsod
Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#5
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947208/maternal-ethanol-consumption-reduces-se-antioxidant-function-in-placenta-and-liver-of-embryos-and-breastfeeding-pups
#6
Fátima Nogales, M Luisa Ojeda, Karick Jotty, M Luisa Murillo, Olimpia Carreras
AIM: The fetal alcohol exposition during pregnancy leads to different disorders in offspring, related to the oxidative stress generated by alcohol. It is well-documented that there is an impairment of the antioxidant selenoprotein Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in ethanol offspring during the embryo period, although no-one has described Selenium (Se) status. The aim is to analyze for the first time Se deposits in vivo and Se's biological implication in embryos and placenta after alcohol exposure and in offspring whose mothers continued to drink ethanol during lactation...
December 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942551/androgen-excess-and-metabolic-disorders-in-women-with-pcos-beyond-the-body-mass-index
#7
REVIEW
R A Condorelli, A E Calogero, M Di Mauro, L M Mongioi', R Cannarella, G Rosta, S La Vignera
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941590/method-performance-and-clinical-workflow-outcomes-associated-with-meconium-and-umbilical-cord-toxicology-testing
#8
Ruth M Labardee, Jaime R Swartzwelder, Karen E Gebhardt, Justine A Pardi, Anna C Dawsey, R Brent Dixon, Steven W Cotten
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a rising concern with unknown long-term effects. It is apparent that higher cost of care, impact on the community and reduced quality of life are associated with similar etiologies (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome). Detection of drug exposure in utero allows for earlier intervention to potentially reduce undesired outcomes. Umbilical cord tissue (UCT) has been documented as a readily accessible specimen for detection of drug exposure and has emerged as an alternative specimen to meconium...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919490/alcohol-exposure-induces-chick-craniofacial-bone-defects-by-negatively-affecting-cranial-neural-crest-development
#9
Ping Zhang, Guang Wang, Zhuangling Lin, Yushi Wu, Jing Zhang, Meng Liu, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Manli Chuai, Xuesong Yang
Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#10
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets, and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE, but effects on heart development are unknown...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882694/embryonic-alcohol-exposure-leading-to-social-avoidance-and-altered-anxiety-responses-in-adult-zebrafish
#11
Suelen Baggio, Ben Hur Mussulini, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Robert Gerlai, Eduardo Pacheco Rico
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a syndrome characterized by neurological and behavioral impairments. A recently discovered hallmark of FASD is impaired social behavior. Avoidance of social interaction typical of FASD may be the result of increased anxiety. Previously, the zebrafish was successfully used to model embryonic alcohol induced social abnormalities. Here, we analyzed both anxiety and social responses using a zebrafish FASD model, in adult fish. We exposed zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of ethanol (0...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868323/fetal-alcohol-exposure-the-common-toll
#12
Marie R Nakhoul, Karl E Seif, Natasha Haddad, Georges E Haddad
Alcohol has always been present in human life, and currently it is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age consume alcohol. It has become increasingly clear over the last years that alcohol exposure during fetal development can have detrimental effects on various organ systems, and these effects are exerted by alcohol through multiple means, including effects on free radical formation, cellular apoptosis, as well as gene expression. Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a spectrum of short term as well as long-term problems, with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome being on the more severe end of that spectrum...
February 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838601/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-what-pediatric-providers-need-to-know
#13
Angela Nash, Leah Davies
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the prevalence of which is similar to that of other developmental disabilities like Down syndrome and autism. Children, adolescents, and adults who live with the disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure face extraordinary challenges throughout their lives. Pediatric providers need to be able to identify patients with FASD because early recognition and intervention is known to improve life outcomes for affected individuals...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834683/global-prevalence-of-alcohol-use-and-binge-drinking-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
Alcohol use during pregnancy is an established cause of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), with heavy drinking during pregnancy being explicitly linked to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The current paper presents recent estimates of the prevalence of: i) any amount of alcohol use during pregnancy, ii) one or more binge drinking episode(s) (four or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, iii) FAS, and iv) FASD among the general population globally and by World Health Organization region...
August 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833838/syndrome-specific-modules-to-enhance-the-stepping-stones-triple-p-public-health-intervention
#15
L A Bezzina, L J Rice, P Howlin, B J Tonge, S L Einfeld
BACKGROUND: Service responses to behaviour phenotypes include care by expert clinicians, syndrome-specific clinics, disability-specific mental health services and generic mental health services. While these services contribute to care, they are often of limited accessibility. METHODS: We describe a population-wide public health intervention aimed at increasing the accessibility of services to the target population. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a public health intervention of known efficacy in reducing behaviour problems when delivered to parents of children aged 0-12 with mixed developmental disabilities...
September 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833556/over-expression-of-p53-explains-isotretinoin-s-teratogenicity
#16
Bodo C Melnik
The precise molecular basis of retinoid embryopathy is yet unknown. This hypothesis predicts that isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid), the prodrug of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), exaggerates neural crest cell (NCC) apoptosis via upregulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53, the guardian of the genome. Increased p53 signaling is associated with Treacher Collins-, CHARGE-, and fetal alcohol syndrome, which exhibit dysmorphic craniofacial features resembling retinoid embryopathy. In addition, developmental studies of NCC homeostasis in the zebrafish support the pivotal role of p53...
August 20, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820871/genetic-predisposition-to-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-association-with-congenital-disorders-of-n-glycosylation
#17
María E de la Morena-Barrio, María J Ballesta-Martínez, Raquel López-Gálvez, Ana I Antón, Vanessa López-González, Laia Martínez-Ribot, José Padilla, Antonia Miñano, Oscar García-Algar, Miguel Del Campo, Javier Corral, Encarna Guillén-Navarro, Vicente Vicente
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, although additional factors must be involved, as development and severity are not directly related to alcohol intake. The abnormal glycosylation caused by alcohol might play a role in FAS according to the clinical similarities shared with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Thus, mutations underlying CDG, affecting genes involved in glycosylation, could also be involved in FAS...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792446/the-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-and-its-impact-on-a-child-s-classroom-performance-a-case-study-of-a-rural-south-african-school
#18
Melissa Lubbe, Corné van Walbeek, Nicole Vellios
Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child's education. The aim of this study is to provide a prevalence estimate of FAS in a rural school and to examine the effects of FAS on learners' educational outcomes. The study was conducted at a farm school near Clanwilliam in the Western Cape of South Africa...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775124/low-alcohol-consumption-and-pregnancy-and-childhood-outcomes-time-to-change-guidelines-indicating-apparently-safe-levels-of-alcohol-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#19
Loubaba Mamluk, Hannah B Edwards, Jelena Savović, Verity Leach, Timothy Jones, Theresa H M Moore, Sharea Ijaz, Sarah J Lewis, Jenny L Donovan, Debbie Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Abigail Fraser, Luisa Zuccolo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of low-to-moderate levels of maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Psychinfo from inception to 11 July 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective observational studies, negative control and quasiexperimental studies of pregnant women estimating effects of light drinking in pregnancy (≤32 g/week) versus abstaining...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#20
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
October 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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