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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043593/new-approaches-in-drug-treatment-for-tuberculosis-inhalation-using-liposomes-only-a-future-vision-or-soon-in-clinical-practice
#1
Lars-Olof Larsson
A major change of therapy in respiratory medicine has been the transition from oral or parenteral to inhalation therapy, for example, in asthma. Inhalation of anti-infectious drugs has however not a key-role in the treatment of pulmonary infections such as tuberculosis (TB). The inhalation therapy provides several benefits; the target is reached directly with evasion of first-pass metabolism, thereby resulting in reduced systemic side effects. Furthermore, the drug is delivered to an extensive surface area that is rich in lymphoid tissue...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032246/identification-and-characterization-of-diploid-and-tetraploid-in-platycodon-grandiflorum
#2
Jeoung-Hwa Shin, Yun Gyong Ahn, Ju-Hee Jung, Sun-Hee Woo, Hag-Hyun Kim, Shela Gorinstein, Hee-Ock Boo
Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), a species of herbaceous flowering perennial plant of the family Campanulaceae, has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, diabetes, hepatic fibrosis, bone disorders and many others similar diseases and as a food supplement. For the primary profiling of PG gas chromatography coupled with high resolution - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/HR-TOF MS) was used as an analytical tool. A comparison of optimal extraction of metabolites was carried out with a number of solvents [hexane, methylene chloride, methanol, ethanol, methanol: ethanol (70:30, v:v)]...
December 28, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029320/pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma
#3
Charles A Powell
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012936/results-of-daily-oral-dosing-with-up-to-60-000-international-units-iu-of-vitamin-d3-for-2-to-6-years-in-3-adult-males
#4
REVIEW
Patrick McCullough, Jeffrey Amend
In the 1930's and 1940's, vitamin D was reported to be an effective treatment for a number of diseases, including asthma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, rickets and tuberculosis. High doses were used, 60,000 to 300,000 IU a day for asthma, and 200,000 to 600,000 IU a day for rheumatoid arthritis. Toxicity from hypercalcemia occurred after prolonged oral dosing with these supraphysiologic doses. Assays for measuring vitamin D in the blood were not available, and blood levels of vitamin D associated with hypercalcemia were unknown...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998495/prevalence-pattern-of-respiratory-diseases-including-tuberculosis-in-elderly-in-ghaziabad-delhi-ncr
#5
Sonisha Gupta, Vijay Arora, O P Sharma, L Satyanarayana, Atul Kumar Gupta
Elderly population is continuously increasing all over the world including India. Old age is associated with significant prevalence of chronic illnesses. Population based study to find prevalence & pattern of respiratory diseases in elderly in India is difficult to find. Present study was done in an urban locality of Ghaziabad inhabited mainly by low socio - economic status population. Two part questionnaire was used as main tool. Through part one 1522 elderly were screened for respiratory disease. Respiratory disease was confirmed & diagnosed by part two of questionnaire, physical examination & necessary investigations...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997332/delivering-on-antimicrobial-resistance-agenda-not-possible-without-improving-fungal-diagnostic-capabilities
#6
David W Denning, David S Perlin, Eavan G Muldoon, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Malcolm D Richardson, Tania C Sorrell
Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922232/changing-epidemiology-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#7
Semiha Bahçeci, Sait Karaman, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroğlu, Selçuk Yazıcı, Saniye Girit, Şule Ünsal-Karkıner, Demet Can
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis again becomes a major health problem due to inappropriate antibiotic use and increasing frequency of protracted bacterial bronchitis. The aim was to determine the changes in etiology of bronchiectasis. Patients who admitted to Behçet Uz Children Hospital between 2005 and 2015 (n=110) were retrospectively examined. The etiology of bronchiectasis was detected as; primary ciliary dyskinesia 26.4%, protracted bacterial bronchitis 22.8%, primary immune deficiency 11.8%, bronchiolitis obliterans 8...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871281/physical-multimorbidity-and-psychosis-comprehensive-cross-sectional-analysis-including-242-952-people-across-48-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Brendon Stubbs, Ai Koyanagi, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Marco Solmi, Fiona Gaughran, André F Carvalho, John Lally, Alex J Mitchell, James Mugisha, Christoph U Correll
BACKGROUND: In people with psychosis, physical comorbidities, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, are highly prevalent and leading contributors to the premature mortality encountered. However, little is known about physical health multimorbidity in this population or in people with subclinical psychosis and in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study explores physical health multimorbidity patterns among people with psychosis or subclinical psychosis. METHODS: Overall, data from 242,952 individuals from 48 LMICs, recruited via the World Health Survey, were included in this cross-sectional study...
November 22, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814579/the-emergence-of-aspergillus-species-in-chronic-respiratory-disease
#9
Anthony Ca Yii, Mariko S Koh, Therese S Lapperre, Gan L Tan, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Chronic lung disease is recognized as an important risk factor for developing pulmonary aspergillosis. The development of specific aspergillus-associated syndromes depends on host immunity and underlying lung disease. In the setting of asthma, hypersensitivity to Aspergillus can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). Chronic use of systemic or inhaled corticosteroids coupled with recurrent antibiotic use for exacerbations prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predisposes to chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806533/epidemiologic-correlates-of-chronic-respiratory-infections-in-adults-an-urban-slum-of-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#10
Sonali Kar, Ipsa Mohapatra, Amrita Konar
INTRODUCTION: Urbanization is marked by emergence of slum areas, wherein migrants from the nearby villages stay in temporary establishments for seeking avenues of employment. These dwellings lack most of the essential living conditions like safe water, healthy living conditions and access to health services. This population is also vulnerable to social evils like alcohol and tobacco addiction. KIMS, a medical college in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India has an Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC) that caters to a slum population of nearly 12,000 population for their primary health needs...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789254/estimating-the-burden-of-invasive-and-serious-fungal-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#11
Matthew Pegorie, David W Denning, William Welfare
BACKGROUND: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease. METHODS: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden...
January 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787715/bifunctional-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#12
Clive Page, Mario Cazzola
Over the last decade, there has been a steady increase in the use of fixed dose combinations for the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. It is now evident that patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can also benefit from the use of fixed dose combinations, including combinations of a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) and an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and combinations of LABAs and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs)...
October 28, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773800/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antimycobacterial-hepatoprotective-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-euclea-natalensis-and-its-mode-of-action
#13
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761428/effects-of-flavonoids-from-martynia-annua-and-tephrosia-purpurea-on-cutaneous-wound-healing
#14
Santram Lodhi, Avijeet Jain, Alok Pal Jain, Rajesh Singh Pawar, Abhay Kumar Singhai
OBJECTIVE: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725053/primary-care-physicians-ability-to-diagnose-the-most-prevalent-respiratory-diseases
#15
B P de São José, P A M Camargos, E D Bateman, C M A Botelho, J G F de Seixas Maciel, E V Mancuzo, R de Amorim Corrêa
BACKGROUND: There are few reports on the ability of primary care physicians (PCPs) to diagnose acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We assessed the agreement between PCPs and pulmonologists in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and acute respiratory infections (ARI). SETTING: Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: PCPs filled out a symptom-based questionnaire for adult patients presenting with respiratory symptoms...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720448/risk-factors-associated-with-hospitalisation-for-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-in-south-africa-a-case-population-study
#16
Tochukwu Raphael Abadom, Adrian D Smith, Stefano Tempia, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen, Adam L Cohen
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a common cause of severe respiratory illness, but risk factors for hospitalisation in low income settings with a high HIV prevalence are not well described. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalisation in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a case-population study using data on risk conditions in patients hospitalised with SARI and the national prevalence of these conditions...
October 6, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631224/prognostic-effect-of-tuberculosis-on-patients-with-occupational-lung-diseases-a-13-year-observational-study-in-a-nationwide-cohort
#17
Chung-Lin Hung, Po-Lan Su, Chih-Ying Ou
Occupational lung diseases are well recognized risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). However, little research investigated the effect of TB on the clinical course and outcome of occupational lung diseases.We conducted a 13-year observational study of a nationwide cohort to evaluate the risk and prognosis of TB among patients with occupational lung diseases in Taiwan.By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, occupational lung diseases cohort was identified according to diagnosis codes from 1998 to 2008 and prospectively monitored until the end of 2010, loss to follow-up, or death...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609056/the-double-burden-of-disease-among-mining-workers-in-papua-indonesia-at-the-crossroads-between-old-and-new-health-paradigms
#18
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nawi Ng, Dwidjo Susilo, John Prawira, Michael J Bangs, Rachel M Amiya
BACKGROUND: As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS: Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599605/plant-based-vaccines-against-respiratory-diseases-current-status-and-future-prospects
#19
Verónica A Márquez-Escobar, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Josué I Beltrán-López, Omar González-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory infections have an enormous, worldwide epidemiologic impact on humans and animals. Among the prophylactic measures, vaccination has the potential to neutralize this impact. New technologies for vaccine production and delivery are of importance in this field since they offer the potential to develop new immunization approaches overriding the current limitations that comprise high cost, safety issues, and limited efficacy. AREAS COVERED: In the present review, the state of the art in developing plant-based vaccines against respiratory diseases is presented...
September 6, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580321/estimated-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-kenya
#20
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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