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bile acid and gut microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751077/procyanidin-b2-protects-against-d-galactose-induced-mimetic-aging-in-mice-metabolites-and-microbiome-analysis
#3
Ying Xiao, Jialin Dong, Zhiting Yin, Qiguo Wu, Yiming Zhou, Xiaoli Zhou
To elucidate the possible mechanisms for the preventive effect of procyanidin B2 on aging, a combined analysis of metabolic profile and gut microbiome was carried out in the present study. The mimetic aged mice induced by d-galactose injection (500 mg/kg, sc daily), and the preventive group was fed with the diet plus 0.2% procyanidin B2. After 7 weeks of treatment, the spatial memory was assayed using the Morris water maze test. Procyanidin B2 significantly ameliorated the impaired memory and antioxidant abilities induced by d-galactose...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712667/restructuring-of-the-gut-microbiome-by-intermittent-fasting-prevents-retinopathy-and-prolongs-survival-in-db-db-mice
#4
Eleni Beli, Yuanqing Yan, Leni Moldovan, Cristiano P Vieira, Ruli Gao, Yaqian Duan, Ram Prasad, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Fletcher A White, Steven Townsend, Luisa Chan, Caitlin N Ryan, Daniel Morton, Emil G Moldovan, Fang-I Chu, Gavin Y Oudit, Hartmut Derendorf, Luciano Adorini, Xiaoxin X Wang, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Michael E Boulton, Mervin C Yoder, Qiuhong Li, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Intermittent fasting (IF) protects against the development of metabolic diseases and cancer, but whether it can prevent diabetic microvascular complications is not known. In db/db mice, we examined the impact of long-term IF on diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite no change in glycated hemoglobin, db/db mice on the IF regimen displayed significantly longer survival and a reduction in DR endpoints, including acellular capillaries and leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesized that IF mediated changes in the gut microbiota would produce beneficial metabolites and prevent the development of DR...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704662/functional-microbiomics-evaluation-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acid-metabolism-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#5
Benjamin H Mullish, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Grace F Barker, Mark R Thursz, Julian R Marchesi, Julie A K McDonald
There is an ever-increasing recognition that bile acids are not purely simple surfactant molecules that aid in lipid digestion, but are a family of molecules contributing to a diverse range of key systemic functions in the host. It is now also understood that the specific composition of the bile acid milieu within the host is related to the expression and activity of bacterially-derived enzymes within the gastrointestinal tract, as such creating a direct link between the physiology of the host and the gut microbiota...
April 25, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701656/enteral-nutrition-in-the-management-of-pediatric-and-adult-crohn-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Tawnya Hansen, Donald R Duerksen
Genetic and environmental factors are thought to profoundly influence the pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Changes in dietary and hygiene patterns affect the interactions between the immune system and environment. The gut microbiome is responsible for mediating host immune response with significant dysbiosis observed in individuals with CD. Diet therapy using exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been studied as primary therapy for the management of CD. EEN may cultivate the presence of beneficial microbiota, improve bile acid metabolism, and decrease the number of dietary microparticles possibly influencing disease and immune activity...
April 26, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697548/bile-acids-and-the-gut-microbiome-as-potential-targets-for-nafld-treatment
#7
Lixin Zhu, Robert D Baker, Ruixin Zhu, Susan S Baker
Semi-synthetic bile acid (BA) obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, exhibited beneficial effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, OCA did not cause a resolution of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we discuss several prominent knowledge gaps in BA/FXR biology. Firstly, although many groups reported elevated serum BA levels, there are reports of decreased or normal serum BA levels in NAFLD, underlining the complexity of BA regulation by environmental and genetic factors...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688473/detection-of-gut-dysbiosis-due-to-reduced-clostridium-subcluster-xiva-using-the-fecal-or-serum-bile-acid-profile
#8
Masashi Murakami, Junichi Iwamoto, Akira Honda, Takeshi Tsuji, Makoto Tamamushi, Hajime Ueda, Tadakuni Monma, Naoki Konishi, Shoichiro Yara, Takeshi Hirayama, Teruo Miyazaki, Yoshifumi Saito, Tadashi Ikegami, Yasushi Matsuzaki
Background: Dysbiosis, especially a reduced Clostridium subcluster XIVa (XIVa), has been reported in several gastrointestinal diseases. Since XIVa is thought to be the main bacterial cluster that metabolizes bile acids (BAs) in the human intestine, we hypothesized that the BA profile in feces, and possibly in serum, could be a convenient biomarker for intestinal XIVa activity. Methods: First, blood and feces were collected from 26 healthy controls and 20 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and the relationships among fecal microbiomes and fecal and serum BA compositions were studied...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683480/metabolism-of-hydrogen-gases-and-bile-acids-in-the-gut-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Phillip B Hylemon, Spencer C Harris, Jason M Ridlon
The human gut microbiome refers to a highly diverse microbial ecosystem, which has a symbiotic relationship with the host. Molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are generated by fermentative metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems. H2 generation and oxidation coupled to CO2 reduction to methane or acetate help maintain the structure of the gut microbiome. Bile acids are synthesized by hepatocytes from cholesterol in the liver and are important regulators of host metabolism. In this Review, we discuss how gut bacteria metabolize hydrogen gases and bile acids in the intestinal tract and the consequences on host physiology...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660405/microbiome-mediated-bile-acid-modification-role-in-intestinal-drug-absorption-and-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Elaine F Enright, Brendan T Griffin, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Once regarded obscure and underappreciated, the gut microbiota (the microbial communities colonizing the gastrointestinal tract) is gaining recognition as an influencer of many aspects of human health. Also increasingly apparent is the breadth of interindividual variation in these co-evolved microbial-gut associations, presenting novel quests to explore implications for disease and therapeutic response. In this respect, the unearthing of the drug-metabolizing capacity of the microbiota has provided impetus for the integration of microbiological and pharmacological research...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655782/lithocholic-acid-a-bacterial-metabolite-reduces-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-aggressiveness
#12
Edit Mikó, András Vida, Tünde Kovács, Gyula Ujlaki, György Trencsényi, Judit Márton, Zsanett Sári, Patrik Kovács, Anita Boratkó, Zoltán Hujber, Tamás Csonka, Péter Antal-Szalmás, Mitsuhiro Watanabe, Imre Gombos, Balazs Csoka, Borbála Kiss, László Vígh, Judit Szabó, Gábor Méhes, Anna Sebestyén, James J Goedert, Péter Bai
Our study aimed at finding a mechanistic relationship between the gut microbiome and breast cancer. Breast cancer cells are not in direct contact with these microbes, but disease could be influenced by bacterial metabolites including secondary bile acids that are exclusively synthesized by the microbiome and known to enter the human circulation. In murine and bench experiments, a secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA), reduced cancer cell proliferation (by 10-20%) and VEGF production (by 37%), aggressiveness and metastatic potential of primary tumors through inducing mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, increased antitumor immune response, OXPHOS and the TCA cycle...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566909/nafld-helicobacter-species-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is well-accepted that gut dysbiosis is associated with NAFLD, however, there is some conflicting evidence regarding the nature of these alterations. Infection with Helicobacter species, mainly H. pylori, has also been associated with increased NAFLD risk, however, some studies have failed to reproduce this finding. Further studies including large study samples and standardised procedures for microbiota analyses, H...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556852/genomic-and-physiological-analyses-of-an-indigenous-strain-enterococcus-faecium-17om39
#14
Vikas C Ghattargi, Yogesh S Nimonkar, Shaunak A Burse, Dimple Davray, Shreyas V Kumbhare, Sudarshan A Shetty, Meghana A Gaikwad, Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Swapnil P Doijad, Bhimashankar Utage, Om Prakash Sharma, Yogesh S Shouche, Bharati S Meti, Shrikant P Pawar
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity...
March 19, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549099/metabolism-of-oxo-bile-acids-and-characterization-of-recombinant-12%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-from-bile-acid-7%C3%AE-dehydroxylating-human-gut-bacteria
#15
Heidi Doden, Lina A Sallam, Saravanan Devendran, Lindsey Ly, Greta Doden, Steven L Daniel, João M P Alves, Jason M Ridlon
Bile acids are important cholesterol-derived nutrient signaling hormones, synthesized in the liver, that act as detergents to solubilize dietary lipids. Bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria generate the toxic bile acids deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from host bile acids. The ability of these bacteria to remove the 7-hydroxyl group is partially dependent on 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) activity, which reduces 7-oxo-bile acids generated by other gut bacteria. 3α-HSDH has an important enzymatic activity in the bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation pathway...
May 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529084/experimental-chagas-disease-induced-perturbations-of-the-fecal-microbiome-and-metabolome
#16
Laura-Isobel McCall, Anupriya Tripathi, Fernando Vargas, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515537/intra-species-genomic-and-physiological-variability-impact-stress-resistance-in-strains-of-probiotic-potential
#17
Jason W Arnold, Joshua B Simpson, Jeffrey Roach, Jakub Kwintkiewicz, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486523/intestine-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-and-the-gut-microbiota-activate-g-protein-bile-acid-receptor-1-signaling-to-improve-metabolism
#18
Preeti Pathak, Xie Cen, Robert G Nichols, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling...
February 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483538/morphine-induces-changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-a-morphine-dependence-model
#19
Fuyuan Wang, Jingjing Meng, Li Zhang, Timothy Johnson, Chi Chen, Sabita Roy
Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed in the United States and worldwide. However, serious comorbidities, such as dependence, tolerance, immunosuppression and gastrointestinal disorders limit their long-term use. In the current study, a morphine-murine model was used to investigate the role of the gut microbiome and metabolome as a potential mechanism contributing to the negative consequences associated with opioid use. Results reveal a significant shift in the gut microbiome and metabolome within one day following morphine treatment compared to that observed after placebo...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482963/gut-microbiome-composition-in-lean-patients-with-nash-is-associated-with-liver-damage-independent-of-caloric-intake-a-prospective-pilot-study
#20
S M B Duarte, J T Stefano, L Miele, F R Ponziani, M Souza-Basqueira, L S R R Okada, F G de Barros Costa, K Toda, D F C Mazo, E C Sabino, F J Carrilho, A Gasbarrini, C P Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiomes from obese and lean patients with or without NASH to outline phenotypic differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional pilot study comprising biopsy-proven NASH patients grouped according to BMI. Microbiome DNA was extracted from stool samples, and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion PGM Torrent platform, and data were analyzed using QIIME software...
April 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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