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bile acid and gut microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875318/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
REVIEW
Fabiana de Faria Ghetti, Daiane Gonçalves Oliveira, Juliano Machado de Oliveira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871782/antibiotic-treatment-preventing-necrotising-enterocolitis-alters-urinary-and-plasma-metabolomes-in-preterm-pigs
#2
Pingping Jiang, Alessia Trimigno, Jan Stanstrup, Bekzod Khakimov, Nanna Viereck, Søren Balling Engelsen, Per Torp Sangild, Lars Ove Dragsted
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gut inflammatory condition in premature neonates, onset and development of which depend on the gut microbiome. Attenuation of the gut microbiome by antibiotics can reduce NEC incidence and severity. However, how the antibiotics-suppressed gut microbiome affects the whole-body metabolism in NEC-sensitive premature neonates is unknown. In formula-fed preterm pigs, used as a model for preterm infants, plasma and urinary metabolomes were investigated by LC-MS and (1)H NMR, with and without antibiotic treatment immediately after birth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774887/suppressed-hepatic-bile-acid-signalling-despite-elevated-production-of-primary-and-secondary-bile-acids-in-nafld
#3
Na Jiao, Susan S Baker, Adrian Chapa-Rodriguez, Wensheng Liu, Colleen A Nugent, Maria Tsompana, Lucy Mastrandrea, Michael J Buck, Robert D Baker, Robert J Genco, Ruixin Zhu, Lixin Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD...
August 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765282/the-drug-transporter-oat3-slc22a8-regulates-endogenous-metabolite-flow-through-the-gut-liver-kidney-axis
#4
Kevin T Bush, Wei Wu, Christina Lun, Sanjay K Nigam
The organic anion transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) have similar substrate specificity for drugs, but it is far from clear whether this holds for endogenous substrates. By analysis of more than 600 metabolites in the Oat3KO by LCMS, we demonstrate OAT3 involvement in the movement of gut microbiome-derived products, key metabolites and signaling molecules, including those flowing through the gut-liver-kidney axis. Major pathways affected included those involved in metabolism of bile acids, flavonoids, nutrients, amino acids (including tryptophan-derivatives that are uremic solutes) and lipids...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740260/richer-gut-microbiota-with-distinct-metabolic-profile-in-hiv-infected-elite-controllers
#5
Jan Vesterbacka, Javier Rivera, Kajsa Noyan, Mariona Parera, Ujjwal Neogi, Malu Calle, Roger Paredes, Anders Sönnerborg, Marc Noguera-Julian, Piotr Nowak
Gut microbiota dysbiosis features progressive HIV infection and is a potential target for intervention. Herein, we explored the microbiome of 16 elite controllers (EC), 32 antiretroviral therapy naive progressors and 16 HIV negative controls. We found that the number of observed genera and richness indices in fecal microbiota were significantly higher in EC versus naive. Genera Succinivibrio, Sutterella, Rhizobium, Delftia, Anaerofilum and Oscillospira were more abundant in EC, whereas Blautia and Anaerostipes were depleted...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628333/coupling-targeted-and-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolome-microbiome-wide-association-studies-of-human-fecal-samples
#7
Alexey V Melnik, Ricardo R da Silva, Embriette R Hyde, Alexander A Aksenov, Fernando Vargas, Amina Bouslimani, Ivan Protsyuk, Alan K Jarmusch, Anupriya Tripathi, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Increasing appreciation of the gut microbiome's role in health motivates understanding the molecular composition of human feces. To analyze such complex samples, we developed a platform coupling targeted and untargeted metabolomics. The approach is facilitated through split flow from one UPLC, joint timing triggered by contact closure relays, and a script to retrieve the data. It is designed to detect specific metabolites of interest with high sensitivity, allows for correction of targeted information, enables better quantitation thus providing an advanced analytical tool for exploratory studies...
July 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#8
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
July 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602676/interactions-between-gut-bacteria-and-bile-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Sarah L Long, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significantly to bile acid metabolism through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions to generate unconjugated bile acids and secondary bile acids...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599622/alteration-of-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-cholesterol-gallstone-formation-in-mice
#10
Qihan Wang, Long Jiao, Chuanqi He, Haidong Sun, Qu Cai, Tianquan Han, Hai Hu
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome exerts extensive roles in metabolism of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, organic chemicals. Little has been known for the role of gut microbiota in regulating cholesterol and bile acids in association with gallstone formation. This study investigated the changes in the composition of gut microbiota in mice fed with lithogenic diet (LD). METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with either lithogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid) or chow diet as control for 56 days...
June 9, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587159/effects-of-low-dose-non-caloric-sweetener-consumption-on-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#11
Takashi Uebanso, Ai Ohnishi, Reiko Kitayama, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs) provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels, 15 mg/kg body weight) on the gut microbiome in mice...
June 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552621/intestinal-epithelial-sirtuin-1-regulates-intestinal-inflammation-during-aging-in-mice-by-altering-the-intestinal-microbiota
#12
Alicia S Wellman, Mallikarjuna R Metukuri, Nevzat Kazgan, Xiaojiang Xu, Qing Xu, Natalie S X Ren, Agnieszka Czopik, Michael T Shanahan, Ashley Kang, Willa Chen, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Ajay S Gulati, David C Fargo, Leonard Guarente, Xiaoling Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with disruption of Sirt1 specifically in the intestinal epithelium (SIRT1 iKO, villin-Cre+, Sirt1(flox/flox) mice) and control mice (villin-Cre-, Sirt1(flox/flox)) on a C57BL/6 background...
September 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548658/distinctive-microbiomes-and-metabolites-linked-with-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass-but-not-gastric-banding
#13
Zehra Esra Ilhan, John K DiBaise, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Andrew K Marcus, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael D Crowell, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss...
September 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526488/-targeting-the-gut-liver-axis-in-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jashmohan Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446062/metabolite-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-facilitators-of-diet-related-immune-regulation
#15
Jian K Tan, Craig McKenzie, Eliana Mariño, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Nutrition and the gut microbiome regulate many systems, including the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems. We propose that the host responds to deficiency (or sufficiency) of dietary and bacterial metabolites in a dynamic way, to optimize responses and survival. A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed the metabolite-sensing GPCRs bind to various metabolites and transmit signals that are important for proper immune and metabolic functions. Members of this family include GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, GPR40, GPR84, GPR35, and GPR91...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436439/discovery-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-biotransformation-enzymes-from-the-gut-microbiome-of-black-bears-using-metagenomics
#16
Can Song, Bochu Wang, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Deshuai Lou
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been used to treat many diseases effectively. 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) are two key enzymes that drive the efficient biosynthesis of TUDCA from taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in vitro. In this study, a metagenomic approach was used to isolate 7α- and 7β-HSDHs from fecal samples of black bears. Five new 7α-HSDHs and one new 7β-HSDH enzyme were discovered and identified from the gut microbiota of black bears, and four of them presented good enzymatic properties...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386898/estrogen-receptor-beta-mediates-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-mouse
#17
Cheng Xu, Zhao-Yan Jiang, Qian Liu, Hui Liu, Aihua Gu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an artificial fluorosurfactant and global contaminant, is used widely in various consumer products. In this study, we investigated the function of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in PFOS-induced bile acid and cholesterol metabolism disorders and gut microbiome using ERβ knockout mice that were exposed to PFOS by gavage. Our results showed that a daily dose of 5 mg PFOS/kg significantly induced hydropic degeneration and vacuolation in hepatic cells, reduced bile acid, and cholesterol levels in liver tissue, and influenced the abundance and composition of gut microbiota...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348415/potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-in-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#19
Xiaolong Ge, Wei Zhao, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Lizhi Xu, Hongkan Wang, Ling Ni, Jun Jiang, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Minsheng Zhu, Ning Li
The gut microbiota is involved in various physiological functions, and disturbances in the host-microbiome have been proven to contribute to the dysfunction of gut; however, whether microbiota participates in the pathogenesis of constipation remains unclear. In this study, we extracted and analyzed microbiota in feces from constipated donors who had undergone effective therapy with fecal microbiota transplantation, transplanted microbiota into pseudo-germ-free mice, and measured gut motility. These mice presented with lower pellet frequency and water percentage, smaller pellet size, delayed gastrointestinal transit time, and weaker spontaneous contractions of colonic smooth muscle...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#20
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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