keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

bile acid and gut microbiome

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199845/host-genotype-and-gut-microbiome-modulate-insulin-secretion-and-diet-induced-metabolic-phenotypes
#1
Julia H Kreznar, Mark P Keller, Lindsay L Traeger, Mary E Rabaglia, Kathryn L Schueler, Donald S Stapleton, Wen Zhao, Eugenio I Vivas, Brian S Yandell, Aimee Teo Broman, Bruno Hagenbuch, Alan D Attie, Federico E Rey
Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186768/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-mediated-bile-acid-metabolism-on-the-solubilization-capacity-of-bile-salt-micelles-and-drug-solubility
#2
Elaine F Enright, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan, Brendan T Griffin
In recent years, the gut microbiome has gained increasing appreciation as a determinant of the health status of the human host. Bile salts that are secreted into the intestine may be biotransformed by enzymes produced by the gut bacteria. To date, bile acid research at the host-microbe interface has primarily been directed toward effects on host metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of changes in gut microbial bile acid metabolism on the solubilization capacity of bile salt micelles and consequently intraluminal drug solubility...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167213/metagenomics-approach-to-the-study-of-the-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-fed-with-gluten-formulated-diet
#3
Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A Hakim, Mickie L Powell, Ranjit Kumar, Peter G Eipers, Casey D Morrow, Michael Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166818/resistant-starch-can-improve-insulin-sensitivity-independently-of-the-gut-microbiota
#4
Laure B Bindels, Rafael R Segura Munoz, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Valentin Mutemberezi, Inés Martínez, Nuria Salazar, Elizabeth A Cody, Maria I Quintero-Villegas, Hatem Kittana, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Robert J Schmaltz, Giulio G Muccioli, Jens Walter, Amanda E Ramer-Tait
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS...
February 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#5
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#6
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074537/neuroblastoma-causes-alterations-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-gut-hormones-inflammatory-cytokines-and-bile-acid-composition
#7
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Margarita Kaiser, Thomas Kaiser, Jianfeng Huang, Daniela Sperl, Karl Kashofer, Guenter Fauler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Höfler, Holger Till
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neuroblastoma (NB) on the intestinal microbiome, metabolism, and inflammatory parameters in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic Hsd:Fox1nu mice received subperitoneal implantation of human NB cells (MHH-NB11) (tumor group, TG) or culture medium (sham group). Following 10 weeks of tumor growth, all animals were sacrificed to collect total white adipose tissue (WAT). Luminex assays were performed for gut hormone and inflammation marker analysis...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997972/changes-in-the-microbiome-in-cirrhosis-and-relationship-to-complications-hepatic-encephalopathy-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-sepsis
#8
Jatinder Lachar, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Chronic liver disease with progression to decompensated cirrhosis and its associated complications, including hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and sepsis, is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiology of decompensated cirrhosis, which is being intensively studied, leads to the development of gut microbiome changes causing dysbiosis. This is likely related to altered bile acid composition, with a subsequent increase in the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria that contributes to hepatic encephalopathy and leads to their translocation and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966366/metabolic-phenotype-of-obesity-in-a-saudi-population
#9
Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Munirah Alsaleh, Torben Kimhofer, Sultan Ahmad, Wisam Jamal, Siraj Omar Wali, Jeremy Kirk Nicholson, Zoheir Abdullah Damanhouri, Elaine Holmes
Metabolic phenotyping of obese populations can shed light on understanding environmental interactions underpinning obesogenesis. Obesity and its comorbidities are a major health and socioeconomic concern globally and are highly prevalent in the Middle East. We employed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the metabolic signature of urine and blood plasma for a cohort of obese (n = 50) compared to non-obese (n = 48) Saudi participants. The urinary metabolic phenotype of obesity was characterized by higher concentrations of N-acetyl glycoprotein fragments, bile acids, lysine, and methylamines and lower concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, glycine, and gut microbial metabolites...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#10
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885053/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-deficiency-alters-the-gut-microbiome-response-to-western-diet
#11
Jethro S Johnson, Monica N Opiyo, Marian Thomson, Karim Gharbi, Jonathan R Seckl, Andreas Heger, Karen E Chapman
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832649/bile-acids-and-the-potential-role-in-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#12
Hang Yang, Zhijun Duan
BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) play a potential role in regulating the whole-body metabolic homeostasis via the interaction with gut microbiome and the signal transduction as messengers, which establish a link between the primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and gut microbiome in many aspects, particularly with regard to the immune system of the body. PBC, as a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by the destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, causes fibrosis and potential cirrhosis without efficient therapies...
2016: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818587/improved-glucose-metabolism-following-bariatric-surgery-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-bile-acid-concentrations-and-remodeling-of-the-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Lukasz Kaska, Tomasz Sledzinski, Agnieszka Chomiczewska, Agnieszka Dettlaff-Pokora, Julian Swierczynski
Clinical studies have indicated that circulating bile acid (BA) concentrations increase following bariatric surgery, especially following malabsorptive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (RYGB). Moreover, total circulating BA concentrations in patients following RYGB are positively correlated with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations and inversely correlated with postprandial glucose concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that the increased circulating BA concentrations following bariatric surgery - independently of calorie restriction and body-weight loss - could contribute, at least in part, to improvements in insulin sensitivity, incretin hormone secretion, and postprandial glycemia, leading to the remission of type-2 diabetes (T2DM)...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739136/bariatric-surgery-and-type-2-diabetes-are-there-weight-loss-independent-therapeutic-effects-of-upper-gastrointestinal-bypass
#14
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676197/human-microbiome-as-therapeutic-intervention-target-to-reduce-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#15
Annefleur M Koopen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiota influences the host via different metabolic pathways as inducer of endotoxemia, formation of trimethylamine-N-oxide, production of short chain fatty acids, and is a regulator in intestinal bile acid metabolism...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646933/current-and-upcoming-pharmacotherapy-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yaron Rotman, Arun J Sanyal
Given the high prevalence and rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the absence of approved therapies is striking. Although the mainstay of treatment of NAFLD is weight loss, it is hard to maintain, prompting the need for pharmacotherapy as well. A greater understanding of disease pathogenesis in recent years was followed by development of new classes of medications, as well as potential repurposing of currently available agents. NAFLD therapies target four main pathways. The dominant approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation and the resultant metabolic stress...
January 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633134/gut-microbiota-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Cristina Diaz-Perdigones, Francisco J Tinahones
In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin...
December 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617201/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-and-the-gut-microbiota
#18
Stavros Bashiardes, Hagit Shapiro, Shachar Rozin, Oren Shibolet, Eran Elinav
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, up to 25% of NAFLD patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and its progression into NASH...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592213/liver-steatosis-induced-by-small-bowel-resection-is-prevented-by-oral-vancomycin
#19
Lauren K Barron, Christopher P Gayer, Anne Roberts, Jamie M Golden, Bola G Aladegbami, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease causes significant mortality in patients with short bowel syndrome. Steatosis, a major component of intestinal failure-associated liver disease has been shown to persist even after weaning from parenteral nutrition. We sought to determine whether steatosis occurs in our murine model of short bowel syndrome and whether steatosis was affected by manipulation of the intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Male C57BL6 mice underwent 50% small bowel resection and orogastric gavage with vancomycin or vehicle for 10 weeks...
December 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568472/effects-of-various-gastrointestinal-procedures-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Steven K Malin, Sangeeta R Kashyap
Bariatric surgery is a gastrointestinal procedure that has emerged as the most effective treatment for weight loss. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the main procedures currently performed. However, the benefits of bariatric surgery extend beyond weight loss. In fact, improvements in β-cell function occur before clinically meaningful weight loss and contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remission. Herein, we discuss evidence supporting the efficacy of bariatric surgery for weight loss and improved insulin secretion in patients with and without T2D...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
keyword
keyword
80097
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"