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bile acid and gut microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628333/coupling-targeted-and-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolome-microbiome-wide-association-studies-of-human-fecal-samples
#2
Alexey V Melnik, Ricardo R da Silva, Embriette R Hyde, Alexander A Aksenov, Fernando Vargas, Amina Bouslimani, Ivan Protsyuk, Alan K Jarmusch, Anupriya Tripathi, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Increasing appreciation of the gut microbiome's role in health motivates understanding the molecular composition of human feces. To analyze such complex samples, we developed a platform coupling targeted and untargeted metabolomics. The approach is facilitated through split flow from one UPLC, joint timing triggered by contact closure relays, and a script to retrieve the data. It is designed to detect specific metabolites of interest with high sensitivity, allows for correction of targeted information, enables better quantitation thus providing an advanced analytical tool for exploratory studies...
July 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#3
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
July 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602676/interactions-between-gut-bacteria-and-bile-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Sarah L Long, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significantly to bile acid metabolism through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions to generate unconjugated bile acids and secondary bile acids...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599622/alteration-of-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-cholesterol-gallstone-formation-in-mice
#5
Qihan Wang, Long Jiao, Chuanqi He, Haidong Sun, Qu Cai, Tianquan Han, Hai Hu
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome exerts extensive roles in metabolism of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, organic chemicals. Little has been known for the role of gut microbiota in regulating cholesterol and bile acids in association with gallstone formation. This study investigated the changes in the composition of gut microbiota in mice fed with lithogenic diet (LD). METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with either lithogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid) or chow diet as control for 56 days...
June 9, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587159/effects-of-low-dose-non-caloric-sweetener-consumption-on-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#6
Takashi Uebanso, Ai Ohnishi, Reiko Kitayama, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs) provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels, 15 mg/kg body weight) on the gut microbiome in mice...
June 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552621/intestinal-epithelial-sirtuin-1-regulates-intestinal-inflammation-during-aging-in-mice-by-altering-the-intestinal-microbiota
#7
Alicia S Wellman, Mallikarjuna R Metukuri, Nevzat Kazgan, Xiaojiang Xu, Qing Xu, Natalie S X Ren, Agnieszka Czopik, Michael T Shanahan, Ashley Kang, Willa Chen, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Ajay S Gulati, David C Fargo, Leonard Guarente, Xiaoling Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with disruption of Sirt1 specifically in the intestinal epithelium (SIRT1 iKO, villin-Cre+, Sirt1(flox/flox) mice) and control mice (villin-Cre-, Sirt1(flox/flox)) on a C57BL/6 background...
May 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548658/distinctive-microbiomes-and-metabolites-linked-with-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass-but-not-gastric-banding
#8
Zehra Esra Ilhan, John K DiBaise, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Andrew K Marcus, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael D Crowell, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526488/-targeting-the-gut-liver-axis-in-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jashmohan Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446062/metabolite-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-facilitators-of-diet-related-immune-regulation
#10
Jian K Tan, Craig McKenzie, Eliana Mariño, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Nutrition and the gut microbiome regulate many systems, including the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems. We propose that the host responds to deficiency (or sufficiency) of dietary and bacterial metabolites in a dynamic way, to optimize responses and survival. A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed the metabolite-sensing GPCRs bind to various metabolites and transmit signals that are important for proper immune and metabolic functions. Members of this family include GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, GPR40, GPR84, GPR35, and GPR91...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436439/discovery-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-biotransformation-enzymes-from-the-gut-microbiome-of-black-bears-using-metagenomics
#11
Can Song, Bochu Wang, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Deshuai Lou
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been used to treat many diseases effectively. 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) are two key enzymes that drive the efficient biosynthesis of TUDCA from taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in vitro. In this study, a metagenomic approach was used to isolate 7α- and 7β-HSDHs from fecal samples of black bears. Five new 7α-HSDHs and one new 7β-HSDH enzyme were discovered and identified from the gut microbiota of black bears, and four of them presented good enzymatic properties...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386898/estrogen-receptor-beta-mediates-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-mouse
#12
Cheng Xu, Zhao-Yan Jiang, Qian Liu, Hui Liu, Aihua Gu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an artificial fluorosurfactant and global contaminant, is used widely in various consumer products. In this study, we investigated the function of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in PFOS-induced bile acid and cholesterol metabolism disorders and gut microbiome using ERβ knockout mice that were exposed to PFOS by gavage. Our results showed that a daily dose of 5 mg PFOS/kg significantly induced hydropic degeneration and vacuolation in hepatic cells, reduced bile acid, and cholesterol levels in liver tissue, and influenced the abundance and composition of gut microbiota...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348415/potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-in-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#14
Xiaolong Ge, Wei Zhao, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Lizhi Xu, Hongkan Wang, Ling Ni, Jun Jiang, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Minsheng Zhu, Ning Li
The gut microbiota is involved in various physiological functions, and disturbances in the host-microbiome have been proven to contribute to the dysfunction of gut; however, whether microbiota participates in the pathogenesis of constipation remains unclear. In this study, we extracted and analyzed microbiota in feces from constipated donors who had undergone effective therapy with fecal microbiota transplantation, transplanted microbiota into pseudo-germ-free mice, and measured gut motility. These mice presented with lower pellet frequency and water percentage, smaller pellet size, delayed gastrointestinal transit time, and weaker spontaneous contractions of colonic smooth muscle...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#15
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291252/influence-of-ad-libitum-feeding-of-piglets-with-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-liquid-feed-on-gut-flora-luminal-contents-and-health
#16
Yuyong He, Chunxia Mao, Hong Wen, Zhiyu Chen, Tao Lai, Lingyu Li, Wei Lu, Huadong Wu
Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240162/effects-of-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrates-on-composition-and-function-of-gut-microbiome-in-monogastrics-a-review
#17
Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Xiangjie Kong, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk
Non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) have a crucial function on the gut health of monogastrics. This paper aims to review the relevant published materials on the influence of NFC's on the gut's microbial population and composition in monogastrics, and points out the areas of the required research. Total bacteria count and Lactobacillus sp. were decreased with an increase in composition of dietary NFC intake, as well as accompanied by a decrease in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Consequently, some metabolites were affected by the accumulation of the bile acids, including molecules which control different gene expression levels, as regulators involved in glucose (FXR and TGR5) and fat metabolism (cholesterol)...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199845/host-genotype-and-gut-microbiome-modulate-insulin-secretion-and-diet-induced-metabolic-phenotypes
#18
Julia H Kreznar, Mark P Keller, Lindsay L Traeger, Mary E Rabaglia, Kathryn L Schueler, Donald S Stapleton, Wen Zhao, Eugenio I Vivas, Brian S Yandell, Aimee Teo Broman, Bruno Hagenbuch, Alan D Attie, Federico E Rey
Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186768/impact-of-gut-microbiota-mediated-bile-acid-metabolism-on-the-solubilization-capacity-of-bile-salt-micelles-and-drug-solubility
#19
Elaine F Enright, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan, Brendan T Griffin
In recent years, the gut microbiome has gained increasing appreciation as a determinant of the health status of the human host. Bile salts that are secreted into the intestine may be biotransformed by enzymes produced by the gut bacteria. To date, bile acid research at the host-microbe interface has primarily been directed toward effects on host metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of changes in gut microbial bile acid metabolism on the solubilization capacity of bile salt micelles and consequently intraluminal drug solubility...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167213/metagenomics-approach-to-the-study-of-the-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-fed-with-gluten-formulated-diet
#20
Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A Hakim, Mickie L Powell, Ranjit Kumar, Peter G Eipers, Casey D Morrow, Michael Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using a metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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