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Inflammatory heart diseases

Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Holger Lörchner, Christian Widera, Yunlong Hou, Albrecht Elsässer, Henning Warnecke, Evangelos Giannitsis, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Thomas Braun, Kai C Wollert, Jochen Pöling
BACKGROUND: Regenerating islet-derived protein 3 beta (Reg3β) is a cardiomyocyte-derived chemokine for macrophages that is upregulated after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Here, we hypothesized that monitoring Reg3β expression might provide specific information on the degree of cardiac inflammation, which is a key determinant in disease progression and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of Reg3β and other inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by immunoblotting at serial time points in the hearts and serum of mice with acute MI...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Julie E Finnell, Brandon L Muniz, Akhila R Padi, Calliandra M Lombard, Casey M Moffitt, Christopher S Wood, L Britt Wilson, Lawrence P Reagan, Marlene A Wilson, Susan K Wood
BACKGROUND: Women are at greater risk than men of developing depression and comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease. This enhanced risk begins at puberty and ends following menopause, suggesting a role for ovarian hormones in this sensitivity. Here we used a model of psychosocial witness stress in female rats to determine the stress-induced neurobiological adaptations that underlie stress susceptibility in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner. METHODS: Intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were exposed to five daily 15-minute witness-stress exposures...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Christoph Niemietz, Christoph Röcken, Matthias Schilling, Jörg Stypman, Constantin E Uhlig, Hartmut H-J Schmidt
Transthyretin-related Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (ATTR Amyloidosis, former FAP, here called TTR-FAP) is a rare, progressive autosomal dominant inherited amyloid disease ending fatal within 5 - 15 years after final diagnosis. TTR-FAP is caused by mutations of transthyretin (TTR), which forms amyloid fibrils affecting peripheral and autonomic nerves, the heart and other organs. Due to the phenotypic heterogeneity and partly not specific enough clinical symptoms, diagnosis of TTR-FAP can be complicated...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Hannah L Mayr, Audrey C Tierney, Colleen J Thomas, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jessica Radcliffe, Catherine Itsiopoulos
The health benefits of a Mediterranean diet are thought to be mediated via its anti-inflammatory effects; however, the anti-inflammatory effect of this diet is unclear in patients who have already developed coronary heart disease (CHD). This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effect of Mediterranean-type diets on cytokines and adipokines in patients with CHD. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to October 2016 using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Eleven of the 435 articles identified met eligibility criteria...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Peter Moritz Becher, Svenja Hinrichs, Nina Fluschnik, Jan K Hennigs, Karin Klingel, Stefan Blankenberg, Dirk Westermann, Diana Lindner
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Although optimal medical care and treatment is widely available, the prognosis of patients with HF is still poor. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important compartments of the innate immunity. Current studies have identified TLRs as critical mediators in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of TLRs and interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) in different experimental HF models including viral myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac hypertrophy...
2018: PloS One
Giacomo Veronese, Enrico Ammirati, Manlio Cipriani, Maria Frigerio
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure. The course of patients with myocarditis is heterogeneous, varying from partial or full clinical recovery in few days to advanced low cardiac output syndrome requiring mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation. Fulminant myocarditis (FM) is a peculiar clinical condition and is an acute form of myocarditis, whose main characteristic is a rapidly progressive clinical course with the need for hemodynamic support...
March 13, 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Rakesh Quinn, Marie Mansfield, Alexandra Brown, David Rangiah
Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common, self-limiting complication following non-cardiac surgery. It is associated with other complications such as pneumonia and sepsis, increased hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. The aim of the study is to identify risk factors, morbidity and mortality associated with POAF. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 571 consecutive patients who presented for colorectal surgery at The Canberra Hospital. Seventy-four patients were excluded due to history of atrial fibrillation and a further 124 patients were lost to follow-up at 1 year...
March 14, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Michelle Chang, Lin He, Lei Cai
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful study design to identify genetic variants of a trait and, in particular, detect the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common human diseases such as heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes, and psychiatric disorders. The standard strategy of population-based case-control studies for GWAS is illustrated in this chapter. We provide an overview of the concepts underlying GWAS, as well as provide guidelines for statistical methods performed in GWAS...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chengtai Ma, Yanxia Jiang, Xiaohui Zhang, Xiaoxue Chen, Zhenfang Liu, Xintao Tian
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the effects of isoquercetin on myocardial infarction in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Isoquercetin ameliorated myocardial infarct size, creatine kinase (CK), CK‑MB and lactic dehydrogenase activity and inhibited inflammation, oxidative stress and heart cell apoptosis in a rat with AMI. Isoquercetin increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase levels and suppressed the Toll-like receptor 4‑nuclear factor (TLR4‑NF)‑κB signaling pathway in a rat with AMI...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject® ; Injectafer® ) is a colloidal solution of nanoparticles which consist of a polynuclear iron (III)-(oxyhydr)oxide core stabilized by carboxymaltose and may be given as a single high-dose, 15-min infusion. This article reviews the clinical use of ferric carboxymaltose in various patient populations with iron deficiency (ID) [± anaemia] and briefly summarizes its pharmacological properties. Based on extensive experience in the clinical trial and real-world settings, ferric carboxymaltose is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for rapidly replenishing iron stores and correcting anaemia in patients with ID (± anaemia) of various aetiologies, including patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease or perioperative anaemia, and women with ID during pregnancy, postpartum or associated with heavy uterine bleeding...
March 2018: Drugs
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
V Hoerr, M Franz, M W Pletz, M Diab, S Niemann, C Faber, T Doenst, P C Schulze, S Deinhardt-Emmer, B Löffler
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease, caused by septic vegetations and inflammatory foci on the surface of the endothelium and the valves. Due to its complex and often indecisive presentation the mortality rate is still about 30%. Most frequently bacterial microorganisms entering the bloodstream are the underlying origin of the intracardiac infection. While the disease was primarily restricted to younger patients suffering from rheumatic heart streptococci infections, new at risk categories for Staphylococcus (S...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nadav Willner, Yair Goldberg, Elad Schiff, Zahava Vadasz
AIMS: Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is expressed on platelets and T-cells and known to be involved in inflammation. The aims of this study include comparing Sema4D and N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum levels in heart failure (HF) patients to a control group, evaluating the correlation between Sema4D and NT-proBNP levels, and assessing Sema4D serum levels in HF patients during acute exacerbation and remission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients diagnosed with HF (based on echocardiographic findings, positive NT-proBNP levels, and normal C-reactive protein) and 11 healthy controls (declaring no chronic diseases or medications) comprised the study population...
March 10, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Robert M Carney, Kenneth E Freedland, Brian C Steinmeyer, Eugene H Rubin, Michael W Rich
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The risk may be reduced in patients who remit with adequate treatment, but few patients achieve complete remission. The purpose of this study was to identify the symptoms that persist despite aggressive treatment for depression in patients with CHD. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five patients with stable CHD who met the DSM-IV criteria for a moderate-to-severe major depressive episode completed treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), either alone or combined with an antidepressant, for up to 16 weeks...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Naveen L Pereira, Martha Grogan, G William Dec
Restrictive cardiomyopathies are the least common form of heart muscle disease. They are characterized as infiltrative and noninfiltrative, storage diseases, and endomyocardial disorders. Genetic diseases commonly present during childhood or adolescence. However, a growing percentage of elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are being recognized as having forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy, particularly cardiac amyloidosis. Noninvasive evaluation has replaced endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of most suspected etiologies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Naveen L Pereira, Martha Grogan, G William Dec
Restrictive cardiomyopathies are the least common form of heart muscle disease. They are characterized as infiltrative and noninfiltrative, storage diseases, and endomyocardial disorders. Genetic diseases commonly present during childhood or adolescence. However, a growing percentage of elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are being recognized as having forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy, particularly cardiac amyloidosis. Noninvasive evaluation has replaced endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of most suspected etiologies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Sarah Twigg, Elena Nikiphorou, Jackie L Nam, Laura Hunt, Kulveer Mankia, Peta Elizabeth Pentony, Jane E Freeston, Ai Lyn Tan, Paul Emery
Objectives: To compare comorbidities in a cohort of cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody positive patients without or prior to onset of inflammatory arthritis (IA) to those in patients with early IA. Methods: Baseline data from two established cohorts were used. The first recruited people at risk of IA: CCP antibody positive cases without IA (CCP Cohort, n  = 296). The second cohort [the Inflammatory Arthritis CONtinuum study (IACON)] recruited patients with early IA ( n  = 725)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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